Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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Is oxygen spread equally on Earth's surface?

We know that oxygen comes from trees and plants (photosynthesis), so in the jungle where there are a lot of trees you would expect more oxygen than in the desert where there are no trees. Walking in ...
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Why is Ozone hole above single area of earth? Why that area?

As titled. How does the hole fell specifically on that region of the stratosphere above the Antarctic and why?
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What happens in the upper air when the altitude of the tropopause changes?

I know about the seasonal changes of the altitude of the tropopause as well as the differences by latitude. I thought the change at one location was a very slow process, but I just found upper air ...
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What would the pH of rainwater be if carbon dioxide in the atmosphere doubled?

Natural rain water is slightly acidic (pH = 5.6) since there is carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that dissolves to make carbonic acid. What would be the pH of rainwater if carbon dioxide in the ...
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Why is Venezuela so dry?

I'm trying to understand why the summer (January) precipitations in Venezuela are so low in the central and southern parts of the country as well as in eastern Colombia. The most plausible explanation ...
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How much total heat is contained in the upper layers of the atmosphere?

In particular, I'm interested in the heat contained in the stratosphere, mesophere, and thermosphere.
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How much heat do hurricanes transport from equatorial to more polar latitudes, and from ocean to atmosphere?

And how much does this heat compare with the total fraction of heat otherwise transported from equatorial to polar latitudes, and from ocean to atmosphere?
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What, if any, scientific value do global soundscapes have?

Seems like the Earth Day related crowd sourcing project to create the first global soundscape by encouraging smartphone owners around the world to download and use an app developed to record the ...
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Is global warming occuring only because of humans? [duplicate]

I learned that human activities produce gases that deplete the ozone layer, and create the greenhouse layer, which increases the world's temperature. (And seems real , now in Thailand it's 35 degree ...
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How will climate change affect the total kinetic energy in the atmosphere?

In particular, how it will affect the eddy and zonal components of kinetic energy in the atmosphere? (I'm also curious about potential energy, though that could come in another question)
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Is the Unified Theory of Climate (Nikolov & Zeller) compatible with the AGW/GHG theory in any respect?

Nikolov & Zeller have published a paper concerning what they call The Unified Theory of Climate. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/New-Insights-on-the-Physical-Nature-of-the-Atmospheric-...
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coriolis force in atmospheric/ocean modeling

The Coriolis force is not a real force, but depending on the reference system and how it does refer to an inertial system. Could this Coriolis force as widely used in atmospheric/climate modeling be ...
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Why isn't $\ce{H2O}$ evenly distributed in Earth's atmosphere?

I frequently read $\ce{CO2}$ have a spatially constant concentration sadly rising and at 415ppm at present. That concentration do not vary a lot spatially I think. You will find ~415ppm at Argentina ...
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Why did the carboniferous period have so much atmospheric oxygen?

Even if all the carbon dioxide (which makes up less than 1% of the atmosphere) in the air were sequestered by plants, would the atmosphere not remain about 21% oxygen? Why did the carboniferous period ...
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Temperature change in Earth atmosphere models?

NASA's page about Earth atmosphere models gives a weird equation about temperature change in different atmospheric layers. One of the formulas looks like this: Can someone explain to me what this ...
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Pressure of condensation of an air parcel

If a parcel of air ascends adiabatically, would condensation be reached at the lifting condensation level (LCL) or the level of free condensation (LFC)?
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Appearing of Weird Cornered Cloud in Sky?

It was about 6'o Clock in the Evening. Suddenly I noticed A wierd Cloud in the middle of the sky. Is there Natural Phenomenon responsible for creating such prefect clouds? & What it is? or ...
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How much and what kind of radiation passes through a cloud?

I've read that 80% of sunlight is passing through clouds. Now there a small clouds and big clouds so it should be some average. Is this true or is the amount of sunlight passing throug a cloud really ...
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How deep would the nitrogen and oxygen ocean be if cooled to liquid?

If the atmosphere were cooled to liquid, say the planet's average atmospheric temperature were reduced to 70K, how deep (above sea level - frozen oceans of water) would the resulting ocean be?
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Convert NO2 concentration in Sentinel-5P data from mol/m2 to μg/m3 on the ground level

Sentinel-5P satellite provides high-resolution data products on concentration levels for several atmospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, O3 , and others), which are measured in mol/m2 within the total or ...
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Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather?

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather? As an example, NASA estimated the annual loss of the Greenland ice field 2002-2013 as more than ...
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How does the tornado chaser locate the spot?

In my opinion, tornado is hard to forecast in three different aspects: The size of tornado is about 100 ~ 1000 m which can't be represented well in weather model or detected by limited weather ...
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Global warming cycles

Everyone is saying we are in a global warming, an unnatural one at that because of CO2. Has there ever been a 'global warming' in Earth's history? I know that global cooling is cyclical and 'looks' ...
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How to write 'number of …' in a unit?

Q: Which unit is attached to 'number of particles per volume' (e.g. of the atmosphere)? The questions focuses on the 'number of' and not on the 'volume'. The units [#/m3], [particles/m3] and [1/m3] ...
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Can thunderstorms be thought of as a heat engine?

Or in other words, can they be seen as sources of heat transport? If so, what can be thought of as the heat source, and what can be thought of as the heat sink?
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Technical term for percentage of CO2 remaining in the atmosphere

I have a theoretical exercise where I calculated the amount of CO2 that is released to the atmosphere per year (4.6 ppm). We assume that the relative increase of CO2 is 2 ppm, hence the percentage of ...
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Centrifugal Force in the Navier Stokes Equations

The Navier-Stokes equations are a set of nonlinear differential equations that diagnose wind speed and direction. They are (approximately) expressed as $$\frac{d\vec{u}}{dt}=-\frac{1}{\rho}\nabla P+f\...
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What would a planet's sky look like with different chemical compositions, such as low nitrogen, high methane etc?

What are the processes, chemicals and particles involved in creating colour in a planet's sky? Could you give some examples of sky colour processes different from what happens on Earth?
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How to predict when contrails are likely to form over a specific location using public data?

I saw the image below used as a click-attractor to an unrelated story about tourism, but found a larger version here. Contrails, or water condensation trails happen when planes pass through the ...
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Nitrogen cycle semantics; nitrification/nitrogen fixation

Is 'nitrification' and 'nitrogen fixation' used interchangeably to describe biological reduction of $\ce{N2}$ gas to $\ce{NH3}$? I know $\ce{NH4} \to \ce{NO3}$ is called nitrification too.
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What is the time-lagged correlation between historical $\ce{CO2}$ records from ice cores and global temperature records?

Is there a time-lagged correlation with CO2 levels preceding temperature? Does the time lag change from time to time?
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How to calculate residence time for an element in a reservoir?

The residence time for an element in a reservoir can be calculated by the reservoir size at steady state divided by the inflow or outflow rate. Given the following diagram, I need to calculate the ...
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doubt about the 'white spaces' in the maps from satellite

I have a doubt about the 'white spaces' in the maps from satellite. For example, for the atlantic areas I have plotted AOD and appear many areas where sistematically do not have any data (white spaces)...
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Why are “ground level” air quality monitors really on rooftops?

There are many papers that talk about the air quality at ground-level in cities, observed by air quality monitors. Some monitors are located above the building(not actually on the ground). For ...
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Remote Sensing System (RSS) historical atmospheric data continually updated

Does anyone know why every month there are updates to the RSS historical atmospheric data? How can data that is 10 years old need adjusting every month? For instance, here's the difference in data ...
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Why is the eastern Pacific full of stratocumulus clouds, and why do they have so much variation in net radiation?

They can be seen in the diagram below (of the CERES radiation dataset - supposedly they contribute a lot to the total variance in net radiation, which is the sum of SW and LW) - just west of Peru and ...
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How to estimate the settling time of atmospheric particulates as a function of aerodynamic size?

Understanding the behavior of particulates in the atmosphere is important for modeling climate, weather and public health. They can be nucleation sites for rain, fog and smog, they can have thermal ...
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Does PV=nRT mean that isobars are also isotherms?

Does the ideal gas law, PV=nRT, mean that isobars on a map of surface conditions are also isotherms? Is there a way to intuit isotherms from isobars, and vice versa?
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Estimating the residence time of atmospheric CO2 from bomb 14C

This (rather dodgy) graph shows a number of estimates of the residence time of atmospheric CO2: My question concerns why there is so much variation (Machta, 1974 about 3 years, Seuss and Druffe, 1983 ...
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Confirmation of historical El Niño events

As this year's boreal summer monsoon draws to a close interest automatically centers around forecasts for next summer's monsoon and the likelihood of possibly another El Niño event. This brings about ...
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What is the height above ground of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 variables?

I am confused regarding the height above ground of this data set. http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html I have to reprocess this data set and need to know this piece of ...
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Correct way to spin-up for sensitivity analysis in a Global Chemical Transport Models

In my understanding, in Global Chemical Transport Models, initial conditions are provided by spinning up the model or through previous simulation. But, can I use the same initial condition that I ...
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What controls the tendency of trace elements in different particle size fractions?

Trace element atmospheric particles are introduced from different sources, with both anthropogenic and natural origins. By analyzing the concentration levels of 18 elements in samples of $PM_{2.5}$ ...
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How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
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Are there any consequences to carbon capture and storage that also sequesters oxygen?

A big argument for carbon capture and storage is true reversal; while switching to renewable energy and eliminating CO2 emissions is a must, it will not reverse the massive movement of carbon from ...
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Does the Antarctic Ozone Hole affect the rest of the world?

Sometimes you read about skin cancer and the ozone hole in Australia. But when you look it up the ozone hole is basically just near the South Pole, and maybe a bit above the North Pole (because that’s ...
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Direct and Diffused component of shortwave radiation in ERA5 data

I am following the paper to calculate UTCI using ERA5 meteorological variables. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-020-01900-5?shared-article-renderer In the paper, the authors have ...
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What is the radiative forcing change associated with the Chinese 2020 COVID lockdown, and how does this affect the circulation?

The lockdown imposed in China and other countries in response to the COVID 19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic change in air quality. Factories and transport systems have shut or continue at ...
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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How temperature anomaly are measured

Temperature Anomaly is the measure used to show that the earth is warming. The formula for temperature anomaly involves in the subtraction of average temperature measurement over 30 years considered ...

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