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Questions tagged [atmosphere]

The gaseous envelope surrounding the *Earth*, and retained by the Earth's gravitational field. If your question is about the atmosphere on another celestial body or is more astronomy related, please ask on Astronomy.SE.

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20 views

Model impact of atmopsheric circulation changes on precipitation dD of a region

I'm looking to model the impact of broad scale atmospheric circulation changes on the hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitation for a given region. As an example, what impact does a high pressure system ...
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Can spraying sulphate particulates in the upper atmosphere to lower Earth's temperature have side effects?

According to Geoengineering treatment stratospheric aerosol injection climate change study Planes spraying tiny sulphate particulates into the lower stratosphere, around 60,000 feet up. The idea ...
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How can I convert a CERA-20C total precipitation dataset of "monthly means of daily means' (edmo) to mm/month?

I downloaded an edmo dataset of 1 ensemble of the cera-20c model. I want to convert these data, which are in [m], to mm/month. Further specifications: 0.125/0.125 grid, -29/30/-30/31 area. Example of ...
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628 views

What are the environmental effects of leaking hydrogen from large-scale energy storage mechanisms?

I recently have calculated the total cost of an energy system that is based on wind power as the primary power source and hydrogen as the energy storage mechanism. The total system costs are ...
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30 views

Clarification: Effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature

This terminology is quite confusing to me. Are effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature the same thing? Where does this occur, at the surface, or at some ...
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63 views

Can cloud seeding make a much hotter summer, at a middle latitude, at the area that receives less water than expected?

My country, Spain (40ºN), receives clouds from the Atlantic Ocean during the summer. Our most visited beaches are on the Eastern coast, which sits on the Mediterranean Sea, there is typically more dry ...
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164 views

Why is the sky blue? Due to the ozone layer or due to ''light scatterization in atmosphere''? [closed]

I've found several answers to the question of why the sky is blue. Basically the title. Elaborate however you want...
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29 views

How to analyze this data showing atomospheric CO2, CH4 and tempertures obtain from an ice sample?

Here is the chart: My questions are: Is the atmosphere in equilibrium over this record? how would I determine what the maximum and minimum values for each record is (approximation). Is there a ...
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84 views

What would happen to the Subtropical Ridge/Horse latitudes and Polar front if the Earth was rotating 5% faster?

Would they move towards the Equator/Poles? Stay in the same place? What about if the Earth was rotating 10% slower? Is there a rotation speed for Earth which will lead to 4 wind belts instead of 3 ?
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Theorist speculate about dozens of loud atmospheric booms across globe

Theorist speculate on the dozens of loud atmospheric booms across globe. Has any recognized institutions offered a plausible explanation as of now?
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Pileus / velum & altocumulus / altostratus - classification problems

I have a lot of free time and often observe and take photos of the sky. Along with that, I always try to figure out what exactly I saw. I think that I have the basic understanding of clouds and cloud ...
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34 views

Is there any method to analysis the variation of chemical species removing the meteorology condition

Here is my question. The concentration of atmospheric species is decided by three major components: The source related to natural or anthropology activities. The chemical pathway of the formation ...
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171 views

Buoyancy frequency

The buoyancy frequency, $N$ is defined as $N^2=\frac{gd\theta}{\theta dz}$, where $\theta$ is the potential temperature (I see it as a measure of the deviation from the adiabatic nature), $z$ is the ...
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1answer
76 views

Pure blue sky in Spring [closed]

I live in France. Is it true that there are more occurrences of deep blue skies during spring. If yes why ? Is it true also during autumn. Thank you for answering
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99 views

Dry deposition of the total sulfate deposition in forested region

Sulfate is one important inorganic aerosol in the atmosphere. It's subject to removal by two main mechanisms. Wet deposition which include rain/wash-out and cloud deposition. Dry deposition ...
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77 views

practice papers for IESO [duplicate]

I am from India. Please suggest where to find practice questions for earth science Olympiad? Are papers apart from the 2010,2011 entrance test available?
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1answer
61 views

Where on Earth does the atmosphere have the most $O_2$ concentration?

Is there a map that shows the average oxygen concentration in the atmosphere? Seems to me that it would be where the most plants are but I wonder if population and industry make a difference in oxygen ...
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3answers
526 views

Which physical parameters can we actually measure to confirm the existence of the Greenhouse Effect (GHE)? [closed]

The theory of a GHE in a planetary atmosphere is rather well known. Many claim it is no longer a theory but actually proven as a fact. However I have been reading a lot of things Richard Feynman said ...
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1answer
135 views

Is the Mauna Loa CO$_\mathsf{2}$ record affected by the nearby mantle plume?

How is it possible that Mauna Loa Observatory is the International Reference Observatory for CO2 Global Measurements if it is placed above the most important earth thermal plume that is heating the ...
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2answers
91 views

Why does chlorophyll only come in green? [closed]

Plants do not only come in green but chlorophyll does. The pigment in the plant creates other colored plants other then green. Could a plant grow under an alternative light spectrum like a green sun ...
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2answers
499 views

Other than the South Pole where is the windless place on Earth?

For this other question "Would this chambered cylinder be possible", preferably near the equator where is a calmest place from the troposphere to the stratosphere where is the windless place one Earth ...
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1answer
85 views

How closely related is surface air temperature to pressure?

Obviously with a given mass and volume of air, pressure is directly proportional to temperature. However, I would expect the total mass of air within a column of atmosphere to vary over time, due to ...
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3answers
162 views

How to design an experiment to quantify back radiation from atmospheric carbon dioxide?

Based on our current knowledge of CO$_2$ and current instrumental techniques, how big would a laboratory sample of air with 400ppm of CO$_2$ need to be in order to quantify the back radiation from CO$...
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1answer
127 views

There is soil in Archean? [closed]

Following a mobilista approach over geological time, and considering the Earth's internal heat as responsible for tectonic regime, which was involved in the "Permobile type" during the early times of ...
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2answers
73 views

Thickening Mars's Atmosphere

if we were to send a mission to mars (unlimited budget WE WISH!) to explore different methods that would enable us to thicken the martian atmosphere, what different types of data should this mission ...
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1answer
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25 views

Definition of Surface-based atmospheric duct

I am writing a literature review for a project and I have a problem. Namely, I cannot figure out the the condition required for surface-based duct to occur. Literature does not help either. In one of ...
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1answer
34 views

Temperature of the earth [closed]

What are the main factors that contribute to the temperature fluctuations/cycles of a location? Is the earth's temperature cycle dictated mainly by the temperature cycle of the ocean? How does the ...
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1answer
129 views

What were CO2 levels in Carboniferous?

What were CO2 levels in early and late Carboniferous, an what were mean levels? Who are the sources for these figures?
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1answer
311 views

Over which surface will the albedo changes due to clear and overcast skies have the greatest impact?

With respect to climate change, will the changes in albedos due to clear skies and overcast skies have the greatest impact on incoming solar radiation over ocean, sea ice, or land? My thoughts: On a ...
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2answers
46 views

Calculating exoatmosphereic flux and figuring out amount of SW Earth will absorb at an albedo of 0.3?

Am working through two problems which I am not sure if I am handling correctly. Here they are: a. If the Earth decreases its distance from the sun by 0.03 Astronomical Units (AU), what will be ...
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3answers
147 views

What makes up a gradient [closed]

My question is a two part question. First I currently know of two different gradients.I think there is more; however, I don't completely understand what makes a gradient. So, here is my questions. ...
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1answer
1k views

What are the composition and pressure of the exosphere?

I've read that the pressure and temperature are different - how different are they, and does that affect the atmosphere's composition?
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25 views

How do thunderstorms generate ionospheric potential?

In all the explanations of how global electric circuit on Earth works, I've always encountered statements like "thunderstorms generate ionospheric potential" (which is about 250 kV). E.g. here: https:...
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2answers
46 views

Why does haze and poor visibility present in stable air?

Haze is not considered to be a cloud or mist, and it also is not fog. What is the ultimate reason that haze and general poor visibility ranges prevail in stable atmospheric conditions? Is the cause ...
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35 views

How to Obtain an Accurate Estimate for the Pressure of a Putative H2 and He4 Primordial Atmosphere?

How can we obtain an accurate estimate of the pressure of the hydrogen and helium primordial atmosphere of Earth just after it was formed? I was admonished by a user on Astronomy Stack for saying it ...
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81 views

Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
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44 views

Why doesn't vapor counts when calculating global radiative forcing?

When NOAA/ESRL calculates global radiative forcing (Table 2) there seems to be no contribution from water vapor. How come?
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39 views

Can CO2 / greenhouse gas levels override the effects of milankovich cycles?

I understand that we are, in all likelihood, towards the end of an interglacial period (the holocene). What I'd like to know is, what has a stronger effect on global temperatures - the low point of ...
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0answers
47 views

Why Do Carbon Dioxide Levels Vary Seasonally? [duplicate]

I was reading this article today, and I saw this chart of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the past year: The chart shows a decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from roughly June-October,...
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1answer
876 views

Prevailing winds between 30 to 60 degrees latitude [duplicate]

Prevailing winds are generated by Coriolis effects. I think I understand why NE winds are the prevailing winds in 0 to 30 degrees and 60 to 90 degrees latitude in the northern hemisphere (e.g., ...
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1answer
41 views

Does anyone have absorption coefficients at different wavelengths for sulfur dioxide? [closed]

Does anyone have absorption coefficients for sulfur dioxide at various wavelengths?
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1answer
157 views

Do HAARP-like programs have effects on climate? [closed]

Military powers like USA, Rusia and China have programs to heat through electromagnetic waves the Ionosphere. HAARP supposedly is a research program, but run by part of the military of US (Air Force ...
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1answer
92 views

At what rate does Earth's atmosphere shed heat into space? [closed]

If we had a heat bank account (the atmosphere) + heat cash supply (ice) + heat debt (the oceans) could governments find a way to balance our heat economy that doesn't kill ...
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1answer
423 views

Experimental testing to falsify the theory of the greenhouse gas effect [duplicate]

Irrespective of how accepted any scientific theory happens to be it is often worth thinking about a possible experiment to test said theory and perhaps falsify it. If we wanted to do this for the ...
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2answers
513 views

Why cannot people burn all the atmospheric oxygen? [closed]

We are told that photosynthesis, developed a couple of billion years ago has produced all the atmospheric oxygen. I wonder, why did the process stop? Why do modern plants prefer to recover the entropy ...
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1answer
202 views

What is the science behind CFCs depleting the ozone layer? [closed]

Specifically, if the daily production of ozone and cfc were at most 400 million and 3k tons, respectively, would each mol of cfc be able to destroy tens of thousands of mols of ozone? All the sources ...