# Questions tagged [atmospheric-circulation]

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### Why does relative vorticity in spherical coordinates have an extra term as compared to the usual cartesian derivation?

With $u, v$ denoting the components of wind velocity along zonal (x) and meridional (y) direction, atmospheric (relative) vorticity is usually defined by \zeta_z = \frac{\partial v}{\partial x} -\...
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### How should one even try to start thinking about quantifying the total emissions footprint for the planet?

I was recently reading a paper in which nine planetary boundaries have been proposed. The paper uses modeling and literature assessment to quantify safe and just Earth system boundaries (ESBs) for ...
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### Why air parcel is on a circular trajectory when considering Coriolis force

According to Coriolis force an air parcel is deflected in the absence of other forces by the acceleration (Holton, 4th Edition): These equations lead to circular motion. This figure is from a Matlab ...
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### What has been going on in the atmosphere over the past couple weeks?

First there was a once-a-century bomb cyclone 2000 miles wide that froze the entire Eastern US. Gigantic US winter storm leaves millions without power and cancels holiday plans Then Europe had a ...
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### Book on atmosphere dynamics

I plan to study a good introductory book on atmospheric dynamics: which one is more recommended? My background is a university degree in physics, but I'm new to meteorology. An Introduction to ...
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### Air pressure, fronts and temperature

I have spent hours on this topic and I seem unable to make sense of it. If air moves from high pressure toward low pressure, and wind is the movement of air due to differences in pressure, how can, ...
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### What does the "strength" of a circulation cell refer to?

I'm reading articles about climate models for possible exoplanets, and I'm confused as to what the "strength" of a Hadley or Ferrell cell refers to. Does it refer to wind speed? Wind force?
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### Why do the dry and moist adiabatic lapse rates converge with height?

Near the surface, the slope of the moist adiabats are much steeper than dry adiabats due (as I understand it) to the the latent heat released as water vapour condenses. The difference is amplified at ...
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### Relation between direction of shear and tropical cyclone formation

In an earlier question/answer Why are there no cyclones in the southern Atlantic basin there was a point raised about direction of shear(abetting/retarding) cyclone formation. It appears ...
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### Monsoonal interactions with mid latitude disturbances

For the past few years in succession India has witnessed extreme flooding events caused by monsoonal troughs colloding with what appears transitory mid latitude disturbances and these appear to ...
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### Is everything affecting everything on Earth?

If a single butterfly can alter the future, then can't every single action keep the future in chaos? According to the question about butterfly effects, this must be so, is it not? If this is an ...
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### How long does it take for the atmosphere to mix?

If I release a say, one litre of gas, at a particular point on the planet, how soon, on average, would it take to be distributed evenly (mixed) across the entire earth's atmosphere?
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### What factors determine the number of Hadley cells for a planet?

We know (think?) that Earth has three Hadley cells per hemisphere, but from observing gas giants such as Jupiter, we see that they have many more cells. According to a link from a comment in this ...
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### Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
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### Why does the Hadley cell descend at 30 degrees latitude?

George Hadley's initial model of the Hadley cell described air as being heated at the equator, ascending, and then moving aloft pole-wards where it would cool and descend. Meanwhile surface air would ...
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### Why does the El Niño Stop?

The reason for the initiation of the El Niño is unknown, but what is well known is how it progresses once initiated. The West Pacific warm pool begins to drift East, and the strength of the trade ...
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