Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

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Rough empirical formula for average temperature and pressure

Is there a rough empirical formula that approximates local average annual air temperature and pressure from geographical latitude, altitude and distance from ocean shore?
Мікалас Кaрыбутоў's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
82 views

Does carbon dioxide naturally freeze on Earth?

The coldest temperature ever measured at Vostok Station is -89.2 °C, well below the sea-level sublimation point of carbon dioxide at -78.5 °C. However, Vostok Station is well above sea level (3488 m)....
Mark's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Unexplained Jump in NOAA Climatological Data Post-2001

Earth Science community, I've encountered a puzzling issue with a dataset from NOAA's Local Climatological Data Airports Database (which can be accessed here: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/local-...
code_error's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
23 views

How does coastal fog form on the Chilean coast?

When traveling through the northern parts of Chile (La Serena, Antofagasta) during November and December, I noticed a thin layer of coastal fog very close to the coastline. Since this fog was present ...
mu88's user avatar
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1 answer
89 views

Controlled studies of CO2 as a greenhouse gas

Since climate change is such a big topic and the world is investing billions of dollars each year. Are there any controlled studies of CO2 as a greenhouse gas? It's quite simple: build two 3mx3mx3m ...
mikewen's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

Question regarding the breakup of India from Eastern Gondwana [closed]

I wanted to ask this question as it relates to a project I am working on. In this "timeline" when India broke away from Gondwana the Indian Plate took a small piece of land from Eastern ...
GoofyGoober05's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

The reason for numerous warmer spots on Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg

About a year ago I read about the "arctic oasis of the Lake Hazen" in the Ellesmere Island Wiki article. According to that article, it is a thermal oasis. In the nearest Greenland areas, ...
Gangnus's user avatar
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Calculating the forcing factor for CH4, O3L and O3S

I have estimated the emissions (NOx, CO and HC) from a certain route, hence this is a list with emissions in grams per minute. Now I want to give some idea on the climate impact, so use the thesis ...
Ganesh Gebhard's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
56 views

How did the Earth cool from a temperature of hundreds-of-degrees, if runaway greenhouse effects also happen?

From this article: the team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) studied what would happen if the greenhouse effect were trapped inside ...
spraff's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Do sustainable aviation fuels make sense?

I'm not an expert in the sustainable aviation fuel field, but I have a descent understanding of science and the energy sector. I recently attended a conference where there were several presentations ...
phil1008's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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How can gaseous abundance in ppm be converted to density?

Consider a measurement of the concentration of a gas such as ozone in Earth's atmosphere in pseudo-units of parts-per-million (ppm). What is needed to convert such a measurement to density of the gas? ...
user900940's user avatar
3 votes
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Handling large-scale climate dataset in R

I am analyzing ERA5 climate data spanning from 1950 to 2023, covering 73 years. The dataset has a daily temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 0.25° (1440 x 720). Each yearly data is stored ...
Shunrei's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Estimated surface average temperature rise when forest is replaced by solar panels

In some places in the world it can be observed that spots which used to be forest (or with the potential to become a forest) were changed to fields of solar panels. I've been close to solar panels on ...
us3r's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
74 views

Would the North Pole have a continental climate with warm summers if it was surrounded by land?

I was researching solar insolation and found that solar insolation at the poles over summer is roughly equivalent to several places on earth that have relatively warm summers. Below is a Matlab graph ...
SethToast's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
31 views

Map showing monthly or weekly average low temperatures in Turkey and Iran

I am hoping to walk from Trabzon to Astara during October and November. I am hoping to take the route that will have the highest "average low" temperature across this period, to make camping ...
Tom's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is the baseline temperature for the climate-change debate

All of the literature at the heart of the current climate change debate talks about +1.5 degrees or +2.0 degrees above the pre-industrial average. I understand that, usually, pre-industrial means 1850-...
Andrew's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What causes the rapid change in temperature / climate at various points in the past 10 million years, generally speaking?

I am reading about the evolution of humans from ~2mya to today, and am running into some stuff on Geology like the 8.2-kiloyear event, and other "cooling" events and warming events. I ...
Lance's user avatar
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1 vote
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117 views

Assessment of Antarctic temperature anomalies

The University of Maine website climatereanalyzer.org has a plethora of data visualizations, among them a display of 2 meter temperature anomalies. The image of Antarctica today is below, with a green ...
Peter - Reinstate Monica's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
45 views

How to contextualize climate "1.14C warmer than pre-industrial" for a general audience

I'm trying to help a general audience understand some important climate numbers, starting with the fact that we're about 1.14°C warmer than pre-industrial. Is it helpful context or misleading ...
john's user avatar
  • 21
3 votes
1 answer
370 views

Downloading JRA-3Q efficiently using a python script

The JRA-3Q dataset is available from DIAS. There is an online interface to download what you need file-by-file. Other reanalyses like ERA5 and MERRA2 have access points that let you write a python ...
alex_danielssen's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
111 views

What is the highest evaporation rate in the world? I know evaporation rates for Australia

I have been searching for the above answer for more than 25 years. I am providing a map of Australia for comparison http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/maps/averages/evaporation/ Is evaporation rate 4000 ...
Tad Soroczynski's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Temperature Data Software

I'm looking to create a map of the U.S. that depicts mean winter and summer temperatures. Is there a software suitable for this? I found CSVs of data here: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/normals-daily/...
Test's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

Where is seasonally latent heat stored?

The hottest and coldest days of the year lag the solstices by several weeks. Where is the latent heat stored that causes that? Obviously, it's some combination of land, sea, and air, but which (if ...
Ed Staub's user avatar
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1 vote
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65 views

How is the "hottest day ever on Earth" determined?

The news is reporting a global climate event: The hottest day ever on Earth since records began happened on July 3, 2023. Earth's hottest day ever recorded was on July 3, 2023 Turns out, the record ...
Rebecca J. Stones's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

How to calculate ΔSST change in time series climate dataset

I have monthly SST data (21 years = 252 months) and now I am wondering to figure out ΔSST in python. Basically I am unable to understand the Δ term meaning as shown in below equation: I am able to ...
hbkumar's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
130 views

The hottest part of the day

I have lived nearly my entire life in the same home. It appears to me, the hottest part of the day is getting a bit latter in the day. I tired doing a google search, but I did not see any links that ...
Bob's user avatar
  • 113
1 vote
0 answers
32 views

Curve number adjustment based on antecedent rainfall

Is there any equation I can use to determine curve number as a function of the antecedent precipitation? I am aware of three sets of curve numbers for dry, wet and normal conditions. I was looking at ...
user1889930's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
148 views

Planetary surface temperature from first principles

How can you calculate planetary surface temperatures from first principles? The obvious application is for Earth, with a surface temperature of $288$K. I want a calculation with no fudge factors (i.e.,...
Sebby's user avatar
  • 111
2 votes
1 answer
131 views

Why is it that the Holocene's temperature is much more stable than the Pleistocene?

I'm currently in university for environmental science, and in a lecture on paleoclimate our professor showed some graphs of climate in the Holocene and Pleistocene periods (included below), then ...
cafwin0's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
141 views

Dedicated book to understand climate and ocean science

Let me explain: I am a physics student who did some basic earth science during my early high school days. But thinking about earth science makes me very curious about deeper topics, like how the ...
आर्यभट्ट's user avatar
25 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why is geothermal heat insignificant to surface temperature?

I believe the temperature gradient underground is as high as 30°C per kilometer of depth. Thus, it is very warm only 1 kilometer below the Earth's surface. Yet, it is commonly stated that geothermal ...
Peter A's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
85 views

Ocean oscillations with long time periods

I heard that some ocean oscillations act on a time scale of a millennium. Is this true, or at least argued by some oceanographers? If so, what are they and what causes them? If not, what are the ...
Peter A's user avatar
  • 553
4 votes
1 answer
94 views

“Coastal regions experience moderate climate”. What size are these regions?

It’s common knowledge (and I’m expecting correct) that coastal regions experience moderate climate. But how far is the coastal region affected? Does this affect people sitting on the beach? The ...
Fernando César S.'s user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
60 views

What are some places that have never recorded an "ice day" nor a "tropical night"?

An ice day is a day on which the maximum temperature doesn't exceed 0 °C and a tropical night is a night on which the minimum temperature exceeds 20 °C. Probably no part of the tropics has experienced ...
user28506's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
60 views

Rossby waves in the atmosphere

I have trouble understanding the Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Sometimes they are said to be caused by the jets moving from west to east. But the phase velocity of the waves is in the west direction ...
Nina's user avatar
  • 11
3 votes
2 answers
139 views

If all land mass was desert would the world be hotter or colder than it is now?

Its normally said that deserts cool planets because they reflect more radiation back to space. According to this logic if all the land mass in the world was desert the world should be colder. Is it ...
mudpuppy's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
66 views

What are the next meteorology breakthroughs? [closed]

It seems to me that not much attention is given to meteorology these days. I am wondering if this is because it is an almost "solved" science in terms of what could be possibly known and ...
Redirectk's user avatar
  • 272
1 vote
0 answers
35 views

How has the earth's temperature stayed relatively stable despite all the heat released in the atmosphere by humans? [duplicate]

If one considers the sum total of human heat emissions, especially over the last 3 centuries, the temperature increase over the time period does not seem to be commensurate. What gives? What self ...
Suraj Pandya's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
35 views

How much shifts the Subtropical high zone from 30 degrees during seasons?

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a band of low pressure that runs around the planet Earth; The Polar front is the Arctic band of low pressure that run around 60° N and south. Both those ...
Naima's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
56 views

On the occurrence of 'two summers' on certain regions of the Earth

My conception is that the two factors affecting seasons should be the following: The relative duration of day and night throughout one rotation The angle made by the sunlight w.r.t the normal to the ...
Ambica Govind's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
24 views

Daily data for snow water equivalent (not including rain)

Do you know a way to find daily snow water equivalent data, for just snow and not any rain that may have fallen same day? Backstory: Hi, I'm pretty new to all this. I work for a small city that wants ...
fnea's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
3 answers
138 views

Why do clouds have positive climate feedback although they have a cooling net effect?

In a lecture we learned that instantaneously removing all clouds from earth would give radiation forcing of about 18W/m² [1], leading to significant warming. So clouds, in simple words, cool the earth ...
MichaelW's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
68 views

Is good rainfall in the UK the result of being a small island surrounded by large moving seas, having mountains and trapped salt [closed]

If the mountains were levelled and salt removed would the country experience as much rainfall? Context Damp in houses: Salt absorbs moisture: think of plaster walls that grow mould from proximity to a ...
Steve Tomlin's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
42 views

is there any site a layman can understand excess rain (floods) and earth warming

I am not a scientist but I am interested in the effects of global warming on the envirand would like to read more in a layman form. I have read where global warming - hotter earth surface temperature ...
rhett's user avatar
  • 121
3 votes
1 answer
77 views

What are the main differences between the reference temperature and the average air temperature?

Last week when I was dealing with the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecasting system, a variable named “tref,” or Reference Temperature, caught my attention. I read some ...
Behzad's user avatar
  • 33
4 votes
1 answer
75 views

IPCC AR6 References

Does the IPCC publish its references (i.e. the references used in the report, not citations for the reports or chapters themselves) beyond what is in the PDFs of the reports themselves? I'm looking ...
Declan's user avatar
  • 41
3 votes
0 answers
55 views

Approximating Soil Moisture level

Are there any simple models to approximate soil moisture level (%) as a function of distance from a waterbody (say a lake)? If one assigns saturation level of lake to 100% , then are there any ...
user1889930's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
67 views

What is the definition for a hyper-humid area?

We can use the aridity index $\left ( ai = \dfrac{P}{PET} \right )$ to define arid areas. Hyperarid areas have $ai < 0.05$. Is there a similar threshold for hyper-humid regions? Would it be 20 (...
Pedro Alencar's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
56 views

Why are rainy seasons different in different locations?

I noticed that the Middle East's rainy season generally runs from November to May; but Florida, which is at almost the same latitude, is exactly the opposite, peaking from May to November. Can anyone ...
Jordan Fine's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
26 views

What was the physical environment like in the Fertile Cresent between 10k BCE and 1 CE?

Mesopotamia was part of the Fertile Crescent, and Assur was an Assyrian city in Mesopotamia for roughly 1500 years, but it looks like this now (barely any vegetation, pure desert): What was the ...
Lance's user avatar
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