Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

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why isotherms are skwed to 45 degree in tephigram?

I have studied about tephigram. In all the books, it has written that isotherms and dry adiabats are skewed to certain degrees. But practically I could not connect it. how is it possible that constant ...
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On what basics, can scientists predict the effects of climate change?

I don't know much about the topic of climate change to be honest. However, I've been attending a number of talks recently on the topic. As someone who studies mathematical models and uncertainty ...
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How much did the worst volcanic eruption in human history affect global temperature?

According to this, 2018’s Biggest Volcanic Eruption of Sulfur Dioxide In extreme cases, like the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, these tiny aerosol particles can scatter so ...
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Did global temperature increase or drop in the last 2 years (2017-2018)?

This website Climate change global temperature from a governmental organization, shows 2 graphs , one called "History of global surface temperature since 1880" and the other called "Yearly surface ...
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50 views

A little question on climates

What is sub-tropical wet climate, semi-arid climate and semi-tropical continental climate. I encountered this while reading climate of my state Haryana. (I have no background in enviromental science)
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Why is more carbon in the atmosphere good, up to a certain level?

According to Elon Musk, there's "an argument" stating that the current level of carbon in the atmosphere (more than 400 ppm) is better than it was some hundreds of years ago (200 ppm). He even calls ...
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51 views

downloading ERA5 netCDF daily data for a decade, how to restrict location to reduce data size?

I have download ERA5 netCDF file in order to get precipitation monthly/daily rates for 11 years. But I have realized, there is no option to select my area of interest. It seems it is a big file to ...
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63 views

What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
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92 views

Origin of Serious Wildfires

At a very rough estimate, what proportion of wildfires are caused by natural events like lightning? I am absolutely sure that in Europe, where there are often wildfires, the sun is never hot enough to ...
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Temperature of the earth [closed]

What are the main factors that contribute to the temperature fluctuations/cycles of a location? Is the earth's temperature cycle dictated mainly by the temperature cycle of the ocean? How does the ...
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71 views

What portion of global warming is caused by radioactive CO2 produced from cosmic rays?

The Earth's magentic field has been weaking recently, and the sun's magnetic field has been weaking recently, and it is a known fact that when either of these magnetic fields weaken (let alone both of ...
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Regional and Relative Sea level

I am a little confused by the terms "regional" and "relative" in the sea level change context. Do the two words have the same meaning? Does the "regional MSL trend" in https://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/...
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How does jetstreams lead to formation of heat waves in Europe?

Jetstreams move at an altitude of roughly 6-9km above the sea level. Since, it is moving at such a great altitude how could it have possible impacts on the land? And how will jetstreams that flow at ...
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74 views

What types of high-level mathematics are useful in doing climate modelling/meteorology?

I'm aware that PDEs, linear algebra, numerical analysis and such are staples of most applied mathematical endeavors. I want to know if there are other areas of "higher" mathematics that have useful ...
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92 views

What was the lowest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

This article Lowest recorded temperatures lists a -89 Degrees Celsius in Vostok, Antartica as the lowest recorded temperature. However, this other article List of weather records lists a −93.2 °C (−...
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100 views

The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
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Climate consequences of very large asteroids striking the Deep Ocean

For every asteroid or meteorite that hits dry land, two hit the sea. If a Manicouagan-sized asteroid struck the deep ocean (but not above a trench),how would the H2O vapour, chlorine, iodine bromine ...
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47 views

Do cloud formations change depending on the season?

I'm currently working on some software for cloud masking, and thus far I have only been using satellite data as recent as spring (northern hemisphere). However, I'm wondering if cloud coverage or ...
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Oscillating dew point throughout the year?

I was searching for the climate of Saudi Arabia and I noticed that the city of Abha (altitude of 7000 feet) has a "strange" behavior in its dew point, as numbeo suggests: https://www.numbeo.com/...
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Are there more meteorological catastrophic events due to climate change?

I was told by a sedimentologist there is no evidence of more climatic catastrophic events at the geological register previous to Pleistocene, when climate was warmer. My question is if meteorologists ...
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111 views

What happens when the North and South poles flip?

How long does it take the magnetic field to move once the poles start to flip? What environmentally would change? Does the core of the Earth flip? The magnetic poles are moving now. When will it ...
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Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
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Estimating Diurnal Temperature Changes for a region due to Climate change?

I am working on UHI related studies. I am wondering is it possible to estimate how diurnal temperature cycle would change for a typical day of given season. Edit: Based on comment I am trying to add ...
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Why doesn't vapor counts when calculating global radiative forcing?

When NOAA/ESRL calculates global radiative forcing (Table 2) there seems to be no contribution from water vapor. How come?
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Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...
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Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
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1answer
128 views

Which greenhouse gas has the most influence over global warming?

Carbon dioxide is the gas everyone talks about because of how much we emit, but it is the most influential greenhouse gas ? I know there are a lot of other gasses are way more potent to retain heat ...
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281 views

Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) - How to interpret the index?

How the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) index can be interpret? Let's suppose I have got an MJO index value of 0.6 in a given day, what this does mean? Does 0.6 represents a weak MJO? Data from ...
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78 views

Equations for Milankovitch Factors?

Are there equations for the radiative forcings of the three Milankovitch factors at any given time? Or a database of values?
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46 views

Calculate the maximum power angle of a solar panel (photovoltaics)

I want to calculate the maximum power angle of photovoltaics depending of the coordinates on Earth. That means at which angle I should align my solar panel to get the maximum power over the year? I ...
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Any appreciable differences in microclimate on the shores of small mountain streams?

I have land in India (the tropics), in the hills, on a slope from 6800 feet - 5200 ft altitude (roughly). At that lowest point there's a stream of about 10-15m across. On one side is our land, on the ...
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61 views

Solar Cycle 25: Can a strong solar storm trigger a violent geomagnetic shift? [closed]

In light of the material presented in the link, hopefully not disregarded as a complete mumbo-jumbo, I would like to pose a simple question, as mentioned above in the question - While we are ...
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1answer
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Where can I find archived night microphysics images from EUMETSAT? I

I want night microphysics RGB composite from EUMETSAT. I'm looking for archived images. I tried finding them on EUMETSAT's data center page. Data from different channels of SEVIRI is available but ...
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107 views

Method to determine Tmax 95th percentile in a climate data

I am analyzing the effect of extreme weather on milk production (Panel data). I am looking at direct effects and indirect effects of weather on animal (milk production). Regarding extreme weather, I ...
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The Tambora eruption caused the “Year without a summer”. How much would such an eruption today affect the output of solar pv on a global scale?

Are there any estimates for the reduction of global solar insolation at the Earth's surface that a Tambora scale eruption would bring? If our electrical power generation became heavily reliant on ...
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161 views

What are the ranges of natural (or pre-industrial era) levels of CO2 in the atmosphere in ppm and tons?

Are the levels of natural (before the industrial revolution) levels of CO2 and ppm known? Also as a related question, should the "natural" levels be considered before the industrial revolution or ...
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219 views

Which percentage of $\text{CO}_2$ emissions are human made emissions?

I was watching a science/myth Youtube channel (science mixed with a lot of speculative/fantasy content) with 2M+ followers and the Youtuber said volcano made emissions were higher than human made ...
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Is there consensus amongst climatologists that cold weather extremes are caused by global warming or human influence?

Is there consensus amongst climatologists that cold weather extremes are caused by global warming or human influence? I hear the claim a lot that the recent cold weather extremes (such as the polar ...
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202 views

If US emissions went to zero how long until global emissions reach current levels

Given the current global CO2 emission trends, if the US overnight magically went to zero emissions (without affecting worldwide emissions), how many years until global CO2 emissions return to exactly ...
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193 views

Would more or less land be usable if global temperatures rose?

I think a large portion of the earth's land is unusable from being too cold and land that is too hot does not have enough water and dries out which could be fixed by diverging water to those areas. ...
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134 views

Where can I find information about monthly seasonal change in a given area?

I have searched Google for almost an hour with no result. I'm looking for something like, "Indonesia, January to August is rain season, September to December is hot season". I can't use the old ...
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Is pollution a contributing factor to freezing rain?

I have been to different places with nearly the same freezing temperatures, around -2°C, but only at some specific places I repetitively experienced freezing rain. One common factor at these places ...
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Do daily operations (max, min etc) on climate model data reference different periods because of UTC?

If I calculate daily accumulated precipitation or daily maximum temperature from global climate data, will I be getting statistics over different local times, because the operation uses the climate ...
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Is the effect of Earths position relative to sun large or small compared to CO2 level in climate change?

A recent answer by Camilo Rada for "What place on Earth is closest to the Sun?" inspires this question. He makes clear that significant changes in the wander of the earth through its orbit results in ...
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How much climate history can be reconstructed using marine sediment cores?

Today I learnt in college that marine sediments can be used to reconstruct the climate up to 500 million years back. I find that number very strange because in another class we learnt that the ocean ...
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Where can I download recent precipitation data for Cape Town

I need data on monthly precipitation for Cape Town between 1970 and 2018. I found this page: http://cip.csag.uct.ac.za/webclient2/datasets/ But it only seems to offer information until 2000. It's the ...
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What was the highest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

The article entitled "54 Celsius degrees in Iran, the highest temperature ever recorded?" says 56,6 Celsius may be the highest temperature ever recorded, in Death Valley, California, and it also ...
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212 views

Why is a future increase in solar luminosity by 10% supposed to have disastrous consequences for life on earth when the last 30% did not?

One remarkable thing about the climate history of earth is that despite the fact that solar luminosity was fully 30% lower in the beginning, temperatures were actually quite close to today. Since then ...
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Are there natural-forcings climate projections over the 21st century?

CMIP5 offers natural-forcings-only simulations over 1850-2005, which allows comparison with the historical simulations, which allows us to show how anthropogenic forcings have affected the climate ...