Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

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In terms of atmospheric pressure, why do pressure systems move and what factors affect the general pressure of an area?

With very limited background in the physics of air and weather, this question occurred to me for no particular reason. With that in mind, a simplified answer would be much appreciated. This weatherman'...
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168 views

How to calculate Ocean heat content?

I have subsurface temperature data for up to 300 m oceanic depth (at varying depth intervals). I want to calculate the ocean heat content for 0-300 m. The formula is: OHC = seawater density * Specific ...
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Why is iron an essential part of iron fertilization and carbon sink?

I just started researching iron fertilization, which is the induction of carbon sinks in the atmosphere through depositing iron in large areas, specifically the ocean. Why do most of the studies ...
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What was the weather like in Pangaea's equatorial regions ( i.e. 23 latitude North to 23 latitude South )?

I've been having this burning question about the tropical climate of Pangaea but not sure how to ask until now. So far I've read that the carbon dioxide levels back then were much higher than it is ...
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How cold would the Earth have to be for the oceans to freeze entirely?

I imagine it is difficult for the ocean to freeze solid due to the low freezing point of salt water and the insulating effect of the formation of sea ice over the cool but still liquid ocean water. ...
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Why is NYC so much colder than Rome despite being at the same latitude? [duplicate]

New York City and Rome are at about the same latitude, but their climates are different. Rome has subtropical climate and it doesn't snow in winter. NYC has temperate climate and it's extremely cold ...
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Where can I find the journal articles associated with CMIP6 models available on World Climate Reseaerch Programme ESGF website?

I want to see how well different CMIP6 model realisations did during the model evaluation, but I can't find papers associated with the data presented on the ESGF node. For example, if I was interested ...
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I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4⁰C warmer in every month. What are my options?

I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4 degrees Celsius warmer in every month. What are my options?
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Does total precipitation have different meanings?

I'm new in hydrology sciences and for my work, I have to differentiate solid precipitation time series and liquid precipitation from total precipitation time series. My data are from a meteorological ...
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How to best calculate ensemble spread with 2D data?

Sorry if this has been asked before, but I am looking through papers and websites and cannot find something satisfying. Say that I have 10 different ensemble members calculating geopotential height ...
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What is the best way to check for technical validity of climate data?

I processed a lot of modeled climate data from CMIP and I want to check that I have not made any errors. I think the best way to do this is to somehow evaluate the data I produced geographically ...
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Do greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit photons or reflect them diffusely? Or both? (CO2, CH4, H2O, N20, HFC-134a, etc.)

Also, would it matter if a particular type of greenhouse gas molecule reflected rather than absorbed and then re-emitted light? Would its GWP be higher or lower? Perhaps this is more of a pure ...
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How to calculate mean annual maximum temperatures from monthly temperature values?

Apologies, this is a simple question. But I just want to make sure I am calculating the mean, annual maximum temperatures correctly. I have monthly temperature data from 1980 - 2019. In order to get ...
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Why can't we increase cloud coverage of the Earth to reduce mean temperature by flooding basins to increase evaporation?

There are millions of square kilometers of below sea level dry land, mostly in desert areas. Reducing the mean temperature of the earth by 2 °C requires increasing cloud cover of stratus clouds by ...
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Boundary between areas having frequent versus infrequent forest fires

In some parts of North America, such as California, the climax ecosystem has frequent forest fires -- that is, relatively dry forest that in absence of human intervention would burn perhaps every ...
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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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Do satellites decrease the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth?

According to this website, there were 3,372 active satellites in orbit at the beginning of 2021. Furthermore, SpaceX is planning to launch 12,000 satellites to provide cheap internet for everybody, ...
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Are there climatic projections for past conditions in Northern Europe?

I'm looking for projections of past climatic conditions during the last two millennia for northern Europe. I know there are initiatives studying tree rings, but I want to know whether there are ...
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Temperature Inversion

According to my environmental management textbook, the conditions necessary for a temperature inversion are: High air pressure, which causes the upper air to sink Calm conditions resulting from high ...
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987 views

How authentic was the movie scene in "The day after tomorrow" related to the understanding of the north Atlantic current system?

Today's The Guardian headline was that Climate crisis: Scientists spot warning signs of Gulf Stream collapse. It reminded an old movie called "The Day After Tomorrow", which suggested the ...
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Cooling the Indian subcontinent using Tibetan Plateau

Apologies if this question may not be up to mark for this stack. I initially asked this on the world building stack but with the lack of replies, I thought I might try my luck here. The main premise ...
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Do perfumes and deodorants contribute to global warming?

If perfumes and deodorants cause air pollution, does that mean they also heat the planet?
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How hot would days get if it were always the solstice in the northern hemisphere?

Imagine the Earth's axis of rotation were to precess in synch with the orbit of earth around the sun so the north pole always pointed towards the sun (same current axial tilt of about 23 degrees). ...
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Why is there no American dry winter monsoon?

Some regions have monsoon conditions, a seasonal reversal of wind due to the heating and cooling of major land masses. This is true of east Asia in particular; according to https://science.jrank.org/...
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Simple model that exhibits a climate tipping point

I am trying to understand climate tipping points better and I am looking for a place to ask the following question. If Earth Science SE isn't the right place, a recommendation of a better place would ...
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Is there a global map of wind design loads or wind gust climatology?

I'm looking for a world map of wind gust climatology data, with the specific purpose of being used for coarse comparison of building design loads, with a consistent metric regardless of location. ...
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I just read news that Antarctica had set a new record high temperature, above 18 °C. How can this be the case if it is currently winter there?

Currently it is winter in Antarctica. According to news I read, Antarctica has set a new record high temperature, above 18 °C. How did this temperature records occur?
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Rainfall index and water crisis in Brazil

With the absence of flying rivers, the southeast will return to its natural state condemned by the latitude it occupies: desert In the latitude of southeastern Brazil is desert all over the world, ...
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Why does the Indian subcontinent experience it's warmest weather in April and May?

The summer solstice is on June 21,2021, indicating the start of summer in the northern hemisphere. Why does the Indian subcontinent experience it's warmest weather in April and May followed by the ...
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Can a planet be heated by the green house effect to a temperature higher than that created by its incident and net absorbed, peak external radiation?

In that the green house effect, as caused by various atmospheric gases (e.g., H2O, CO2, CH4, etc), acts as an insulating layer which only retards the escape of heat from the planet, it would seem that ...
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What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
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184 views

How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
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Were Carboniferous plants more efficient sequestering $\ce{CO2}$ than present plants?

The Carboniferous was a period where CO2 levels fell drastically. Source: Geologic history of seawater: A MAGic approach to carbon chemistry and ocean ventilation I think the main reasons are ...
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What does a change in the mean pressure across 750 km indicate/signify?

Coming from the aviation site: What is the westerly index? The westerly index is: ... the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure difference between ...
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Why don't green house gases escape into space?

I have never heard an explanation as to what traps GHGs. What holds them in place? Has research been conducted to assess the efficacy of say triggering a change in their chemical composition into a ...
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379 views

Can clouds be formed without a pollen particle's role?

I read online that it is scientifically proven that pollen particles can trigger cloud formation "is that true"? if true ,does it mean that no clouds can be formed without pollen particles' ...
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When are the IPCC AR6 reports going to be published?

Im trying to find out when each of the reports from working groups 1,2 and 3 will be published due to the delay due to covid19. Does anyone have any up to date information about these dates as opposed ...
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151 views

Will a new glacial age take place on Earth or Holocene will become a new climatic epoch?

Pleistocene shows a switch between glacial and interglacial ages. However, humanity is burning fossil fuels and increasing atmosphere's $\ce{CO2}$ content. Should we expect a new glacial age after ...
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Why is Somalia so dry?

Most deserts are a result of the rainshadow effect, cold currents, the subtropical ridges, or a combination of those. Knowing this, how is the Somali desert caused? It is notable since it has a desert ...
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Why divide total insolation by $4$?

From Nature: We divide by $4$ since the solar energy is spread over the surface of the planetary sphere. The Earth intercepts a circular area of incoming sunlight, and this area is spread over a ...
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Can the absorbtion of infrared around the 650 wavenumber in water be a substantial cause of converting that spectrum range into other spectra?

CO2 absorbs around the 15 microns wavelenght or wavenumber 650, and radiates in the same but also a somewhat wider range. However, the top layer of the oceans seem to also convert that spectrum range. ...
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Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
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Is it possible to kickstart an hypothetical frozen earth with 0.6 ice albedo to an earth with an atmosphere, with just the sun at current distance?

Phase change of water at different pressures and temperatures tell us that with no atmospheric pressure 200 Kelvin (minus 73 Celcius) is enough to turn ice into vapor directly Wouldn't that suggest ...
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What was the oxygen concentration in the air during the late miocene period?

As the title says, I'd like to know what the O2 concentration was during the late Miocene period. I've tried to look this up but I'm having a hard time finding any conclusive data on it, or even any ...
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Why is the average 1 Bar temperature on planets with a thick atmosphere proportional to the distance of the sun?

The temperature of a planetary body in space varies with the fourth-root of the power incident upon it, this is derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. This is understandable when applied to a black ...
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Why is it that "With higher CO2, the dry gets drier and the wet gets wetter"?

The Phys.org article CO2 dip may have helped dinosaurs walk from South America to Greenland quotes Dennis Kent, "adjunct research scientist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth ...
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Is the weather of Miami, Florida and the weather of Lagos, Nigeria the same

I've been to Lagos and it rains a lot sometimes overflooding but it's pretty sunny. I'm aware that it rains a lot too in Miami. Is the climate the same apart from Lagos being near Equator and ITCZ ...
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Is there an average year of weather across the United States?

I am interested in which year has the best representation of average weather across a large area, the contiguous USA. This is challenging since what was average in the Midwest might have been unusual ...
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Solution for the coexistence of overpopulated human species with nature [closed]

Is there any solution to deal with the overpopulation of our species at the same time protect the natural environment of ours? (other than finding a inhabitable planet?)
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Is there scientific consensus on the existence of the iris effect

Question: Is there scientific consensus on the existence of the Iris Effect and whether it is a positive or negative feedback mechanism? If so, can you refer to a recent publication? Background: In ...

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