Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

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How quickly climate zones are shifting due to climate change!

Hi I was wondering how fast the climate zones (according to W. Köppen) have shifted in the last 22 years. It is well known that the zones shift about 100-200 km to the north or south for each degree ...
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How does the increase in CO2 concentration model explain the extreme lower colder temperatures

With burning of fossil fuels resulting in increased CO2 concentration, I get how increase in CO2 leads to a hotter planet and global warming because Earth's heat balance has been affected by CO2 ...
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How does water vapor cool the troposphere?

I have read about the Fixed Anvil Temperature (FAT) hypothesis and wonder why radiative cooling decreases with decreasing water vapor mixing ratio. Doesn't this stand in contrast with the fact, that ...
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Isotope fractionations

The isotopic fractionations in the precipitate are equilibrium fractionations and the evolution of a system can be described using Rayleigh destillation! The fractionation type during evaporation is ...
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In the northern hemisphere summer, why are places in the north cooler than those in the south?

As the Earth's axis is inclined, during summer in the northern hemisphere places in the north are exposed to the Sun's rays for longer, so days are longer during summer (say in June - Aug). Yet, ...
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Where can I live if I like long periods of consistent rain?

Let me elaborate on what I mean by "long periods of consistent rain". I currently live in London and contrary to popular belief, it's not rainy. When it rains, it's usually only for 20 ...
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If Earth's axis wasn't slanted, would all earth be tropical? [duplicate]

If Earth's axis wasn't slanted, would all Earth be tropical due to even scattering of sun light beams all over the planet? Of course, the poles would still be cold, even colder, but earth in general ...
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Is the current tropical depression headed towards Taiwan unusually early for the season? (April 7, 2022 at 4.0N 148.0E)

Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau's Current Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones page shows a tropical depression with the following information: TROPICAL DEPRESSION TD02 Position 061800Z at 4.0N ...
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Does absorbed energy from sun go to increasing atmosphere's height, as well as heating earth up?

Water transports heat from the surface of the earth to the upper atmosphere by evaporation, which cools the surface, and then condensing at cloud height, where it releases latent heat. So water ...
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How far Kinshasa DRC is tilted away from the solar plane on the summer and winter solstices?

I am given examples of this for Brampton (Canada) (43° 41’ latitude) On the Summer Solstice you do latitude minus the Earth’s axis tilt which is 23° 26’, so 43° 41’ - 23° 26’ = 20° 15’. On the Winter ...
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radar data for buoyancy measurements of cyclones

I'm sorry if I'm asking in the wrong forum. I'm a computational scientist and I do not have much physics background. I'm working on constructing machine learning models from data. Currently, I've only ...
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What is the unit impact of $\small\sf{CO_2}$ on global temperature?

I'm trying to find the impact of X tonnes of CO2 on global temperature so I can infer the unit impact of CO2 on temperature. While we know there is a positive correlation, I can't seem to find a study ...
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How do higher-latitude convection cell currents (Ferrel, Polar) work?

I'm a forest ecologist and college professor who has been teaching about the Earth's convection cell circulation for many years. Explaining Hadley cells is very straightforward with differences in ...
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Is there any place on Earth that does not have a "sub-annual" cycle/season?

I am not sure if this question makes sense, it is completely out of the blue. Over a large range of latitudes, we have 4 distinct seasons and repeat again and again the next years. Even in the poles, ...
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Extract data from NetCDF file with tripolar projection for lat & long coordinates

I have coordinates obtained from Google Maps (latitude and longitude). I also downloaded a number of NetCDF4 files for different years and months that contain sea surface temperature (SST) from the ...
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How to convert CORDEX netcdf data to be used for importing data to DHI Mike?

I have the CORDEX netcdf data and I would like to convert them to raw text file that can be used for importing data to DHI Mike. To give more context, I have previously converted the ECMWF netcdf (...
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Why don't errors accumulate in climate models when the time horizon increases?

First of all, I want to add the disclaimer that I am not a climate sceptic or anything. I honestly want to understand this phenomenon. Hopefully, someone can also go into the details as I do have ...
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In terms of atmospheric pressure, why do pressure systems move and what factors affect the general pressure of an area?

With very limited background in the physics of air and weather, this question occurred to me for no particular reason. With that in mind, a simplified answer would be much appreciated. This weatherman'...
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6 votes
2 answers
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How to calculate Ocean heat content?

I have subsurface temperature data for up to 300 m oceanic depth (at varying depth intervals). I want to calculate the ocean heat content for 0-300 m. The formula is: OHC = seawater density * Specific ...
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Why is iron an essential part of iron fertilization and carbon sink?

I just started researching iron fertilization, which is the induction of carbon sinks in the atmosphere through depositing iron in large areas, specifically the ocean. Why do most of the studies ...
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What was the weather like in Pangaea's equatorial regions ( i.e. 23 latitude North to 23 latitude South )?

I've been having this burning question about the tropical climate of Pangaea but not sure how to ask until now. So far I've read that the carbon dioxide levels back then were much higher than it is ...
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How cold would the Earth have to be for the oceans to freeze entirely?

I imagine it is difficult for the ocean to freeze solid due to the low freezing point of salt water and the insulating effect of the formation of sea ice over the cool but still liquid ocean water. ...
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Why is NYC so much colder than Rome despite being at the same latitude? [duplicate]

New York City and Rome are at about the same latitude, but their climates are different. Rome has subtropical climate and it doesn't snow in winter. NYC has temperate climate and it's extremely cold ...
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Where can I find the journal articles associated with CMIP6 models available on World Climate Reseaerch Programme ESGF website?

I want to see how well different CMIP6 model realisations did during the model evaluation, but I can't find papers associated with the data presented on the ESGF node. For example, if I was interested ...
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I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4⁰C warmer in every month. What are my options?

I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4 degrees Celsius warmer in every month. What are my options?
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1 answer
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Does total precipitation have different meanings?

I'm new in hydrology sciences and for my work, I have to differentiate solid precipitation time series and liquid precipitation from total precipitation time series. My data are from a meteorological ...
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How to best calculate ensemble spread with 2D data?

Sorry if this has been asked before, but I am looking through papers and websites and cannot find something satisfying. Say that I have 10 different ensemble members calculating geopotential height ...
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What is the best way to check for technical validity of climate data?

I processed a lot of modeled climate data from CMIP and I want to check that I have not made any errors. I think the best way to do this is to somehow evaluate the data I produced geographically ...
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Do greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit photons or reflect them diffusely? Or both? (CO2, CH4, H2O, N20, HFC-134a, etc.)

Also, would it matter if a particular type of greenhouse gas molecule reflected rather than absorbed and then re-emitted light? Would its GWP be higher or lower? Perhaps this is more of a pure ...
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3 votes
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How to calculate mean annual maximum temperatures from monthly temperature values?

Apologies, this is a simple question. But I just want to make sure I am calculating the mean, annual maximum temperatures correctly. I have monthly temperature data from 1980 - 2019. In order to get ...
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Why can't we increase cloud coverage of the Earth to reduce mean temperature by flooding basins to increase evaporation?

There are millions of square kilometers of below sea level dry land, mostly in desert areas. Reducing the mean temperature of the earth by 2 °C requires increasing cloud cover of stratus clouds by ...
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Boundary between areas having frequent versus infrequent forest fires

In some parts of North America, such as California, the climax ecosystem has frequent forest fires -- that is, relatively dry forest that in absence of human intervention would burn perhaps every ...
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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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2 answers
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Do satellites decrease the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth?

According to this website, there were 3,372 active satellites in orbit at the beginning of 2021. Furthermore, SpaceX is planning to launch 12,000 satellites to provide cheap internet for everybody, ...
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Are there climatic projections for past conditions in Northern Europe?

I'm looking for projections of past climatic conditions during the last two millennia for northern Europe. I know there are initiatives studying tree rings, but I want to know whether there are ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Temperature Inversion

According to my environmental management textbook, the conditions necessary for a temperature inversion are: High air pressure, which causes the upper air to sink Calm conditions resulting from high ...
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1 answer
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How authentic was the movie scene in "The day after tomorrow" related to the understanding of the north Atlantic current system?

Today's The Guardian headline was that Climate crisis: Scientists spot warning signs of Gulf Stream collapse. It reminded an old movie called "The Day After Tomorrow", which suggested the ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Cooling the Indian subcontinent using Tibetan Plateau

Apologies if this question may not be up to mark for this stack. I initially asked this on the world building stack but with the lack of replies, I thought I might try my luck here. The main premise ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Do perfumes and deodorants contribute to global warming?

If perfumes and deodorants cause air pollution, does that mean they also heat the planet?
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4 votes
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How hot would days get if it were always the solstice in the northern hemisphere?

Imagine the Earth's axis of rotation were to precess in synch with the orbit of earth around the sun so the north pole always pointed towards the sun (same current axial tilt of about 23 degrees). ...
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1 vote
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Why is there no American dry winter monsoon?

Some regions have monsoon conditions, a seasonal reversal of wind due to the heating and cooling of major land masses. This is true of east Asia in particular; according to https://science.jrank.org/...
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Simple model that exhibits a climate tipping point

I am trying to understand climate tipping points better and I am looking for a place to ask the following question. If Earth Science SE isn't the right place, a recommendation of a better place would ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Is there a global map of wind design loads or wind gust climatology?

I'm looking for a world map of wind gust climatology data, with the specific purpose of being used for coarse comparison of building design loads, with a consistent metric regardless of location. ...
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9 votes
2 answers
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I just read news that Antarctica had set a new record high temperature, above 18 °C. How can this be the case if it is currently winter there?

Currently it is winter in Antarctica. According to news I read, Antarctica has set a new record high temperature, above 18 °C. How did this temperature records occur?
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Rainfall index and water crisis in Brazil

With the absence of flying rivers, the southeast will return to its natural state condemned by the latitude it occupies: desert In the latitude of southeastern Brazil is desert all over the world, ...
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1 answer
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Why does the Indian subcontinent experience it's warmest weather in April and May?

The summer solstice is on June 21,2021, indicating the start of summer in the northern hemisphere. Why does the Indian subcontinent experience it's warmest weather in April and May followed by the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Can a planet be heated by the green house effect to a temperature higher than that created by its incident and net absorbed, peak external radiation?

In that the green house effect, as caused by various atmospheric gases (e.g., H2O, CO2, CH4, etc), acts as an insulating layer which only retards the escape of heat from the planet, it would seem that ...
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3 votes
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What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
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Were Carboniferous plants more efficient sequestering $\ce{CO2}$ than present plants?

The Carboniferous was a period where CO2 levels fell drastically. Source: Geologic history of seawater: A MAGic approach to carbon chemistry and ocean ventilation I think the main reasons are ...
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