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Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

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On what basis are hurricanes,cyclones or typhoons named? [duplicate]

now its well known that common names are used to name weather storms but on what bases are they named ? is it the person who first notices them ? Is it the the most common name in the region where the ...
3
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1answer
40 views

Why are climate anomalies calculated relative to 1981-2010 average?

What is the purpose for doing this? Is it inaccurate to calculate anomalies for variables such as sea surface temperature and precipitation based on a different time period?
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2answers
32 views

Is this a contradiction in Wikipedia's definition of temperate zone?

Under the Wikipedia article Temperate climate Temperate climate in the introduction is describes: In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span ...
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22 views

How to classify the ENSO phase of a year?

I am using the ONI index to classify the years of high rainfall seasons (December–February) as El Niño, Neutral or La Niña. El Niño year is classified as one if the ONI index value is +0.5 °C for 5 ...
2
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1answer
52 views

What would happen to the Earth if there were no seasons?

If the Earth was in a fixed equinox state, what would the equilibrium temperature be at each pole? Assume daily cycle and convection and so on operate as usual, just that it's permanent sunset at both ...
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28 views

Are clouds more common at night?

Clouds obviously have a strong effect on surface temperatures. By blocking sunlight they can decrease the temperature by several degrees. At night they have a blanket effect that traps warm air and ...
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30 views

How is the vertical distribution of water vapor changing?

In this publication about data assimilation and observations (paywall alert) in the chapter General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics (by Andrew Charlton-Perez, William Lahoz, Richard Swinbank, ...
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35 views

How Warm would the Earth have to get for any crops to grow in the Antarctic Peninsula/South Orkneys

I found some little silly speculation about settling Antarctica when it warms up, and I wanted to know the minimum amount the world would have to warm up in order for just the most equator-ward ...
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2answers
70 views

How to best visualize temperature increase (due to climate change) using GHCN data?

Immediately below is an illustration of my first/prototype attempt to visualize this, which is further explained after that... What you're looking at is a year-by-year animation of TMAX (daily max ...
7
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1answer
57 views

What are good metrics to compare climates?

I'm interested in visualizing climate data across the conterminous U.S. to determine regions that I would be interested in living in. So far, I've pulled in NOAA data, and I've: averaged the maximum ...
3
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1answer
37 views

Are La-Nina and positive Indian Ocean dipole similar?

Because in both the cases, the warm water/ increase in temperature is seen on the east side of Africa. Does not they mean that they carry rain bearing clouds from east of Africa to India, resulting ...
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1answer
46 views

Are there resources for determining what percentage of the earth's surface is occupied by air conditioned spaces?

EDIT: My goal with this question was to better understand the impact of cooling systems on local urban environments, but its been pointed out I am asking the incorrect questions for the answer's Im ...
4
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1answer
32 views

How to split climate modes of variability into positive, negative and neutral phases?

How can I split all the climate modes of variability that you can find here, into positive, negative and neutral phases? I know that depending on the climate mode there exist different methods of ...
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2answers
69 views

Sensible and Latent Heat. how to separate them

I need help with latent and sensible heat. P.S: I have been through all Wikipedia and other pages that say phase change and temperature change. My Question is: if there is convection, it will take ...
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0answers
55 views

Can cloud seeding make a much hotter summer, at a middle latitude, at the area that receives less water than expected?

My country, Spain (40ºN), receives clouds from the Atlantic Ocean during the summer. Our most visited beaches are on the Eastern coast, which sits on the Mediterranean Sea, there is typically more dry ...
2
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1answer
50 views

What was the percentage of land mass in prehistoric times when temperatures were high enough that we had no ice caps?

I grew curious after watching a presentation about the large creatures of prehistoric times. One of the theories cited about why creatures were so big was the increased oxygen in the atmosphere due to ...
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42 views

regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
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41 views

Do 360 day calendars affect climate models?

I was recently reading Zach Holman's blogpost on time and remembering that I've had to work with CMIP5 output that used a 360 day calendar, rather than a 365 day or a Greogrian (or Proleptic Gregorian)...
3
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1answer
94 views

What kind of climate could you expect in a mountainous area in a subtropical region?

More specifically, I'm trying to work out climate analogues for my farm. It's at 5200-6200ft in South India. My area is a bit too small for the Köppen Map to correctly reveal patterns. I'll be ...
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1answer
25 views

monthly temperatue by state

I am trying to find out monthly average temperature and average rainfall for states of USA from 2015 to 2017. To my surprise I am not able to find it anywhere. Please help. I could find this link - ...
2
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1answer
116 views

Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Consequences on Earth's system

Coming from this post: Causes of fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen in past 300 Mya I believe there are a lot of questions still unanswered about Permian-Triassic mass extinction, but I ask only ...
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36 views

Forecast accuracy in different climate types

Which climate is easier to be predicted. In other words. Which climate forecast results better accuracy? Is there any climate more convenient to be predicted? Is there any paper concerning this topic?...
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24 views

Where I find the info about what plants, trees can be planted in a locality

I would like to know what plants, trees can be planted in a locality. I wanted this info around the globe based on latitude and longitude or by some other means. Is there a source organisation/source ...
3
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1answer
54 views

What is the better way to deal the missing and negative cells of satellite snow cover data

Daily and monthly MODIS snow cover L3 data has downloaded, next to deal with missing and negative cells. Different types of interpolation are being used to fill the missing cells. I want to fill the ...
5
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1answer
48 views

Why does Colorado have so many days of partly cloudy skies?

So I found a map of the US that shows the number of partly cloudy days in different areas of the country. It seems that Florida is the only state with more partly cloudy days. Partly cloudy days are ...
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0answers
29 views

Why is December colder than January in the western United States?

Well it seems like the coldest month in the western US should be February since it's closer to oceans than interior areas of the continent. This is called seasonal lag. It's a phenomenon where the ...
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2answers
81 views

Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
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56 views

Will the recent findings regarding nitrogen rock weathering alter climate change projections?

I've seen a few articles lately about research published in the Journal Science that concludes that 26% of the nitrogen in the ecosystem is from rock weathering. These results seem to fill in a ...
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2answers
70 views

How should one compare the comfort of climates?

Is there a way to measure the overall feel of the weather for a place? Suppose that: Place A has Temperature $33^o C$, Humidity $57\%$, Wind $14\;km/hr$, and Precipitation $20\%$ Place B has ...
4
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1answer
286 views

What percentage of Earth's surface is arid?

Is there available information on how much of Earth surface is arid?
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0answers
13 views

Does Vietnam's highlands have both colder winters and hotter summers than lower lying areas?

In the climate section of Wikivoyage's guide to Vietnam, it's claimed that the highlands of Vietnam have both colder winters, and hotter summers: The north has four distinct seasons, with a ...
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0answers
38 views

Snow under Siberian High

The Siberian High is a very strong anticyclone present over Siberia in the winter. Cities like Irkutsk lie at its very center, yet Irkutsk has 18-20 days of snow per month in the winter. Shouldn't we ...
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3answers
331 views

Does general relativity influence climate (vs Newtonian mechanics)

That may sounds like a silly question but here it is. One of the early great successes of general relativity was to explain the discrepancy between the prehilion advance of Mercury predicted by ...
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32 views

How to divide timeseries into normal periods in meteorology and climatology?

When analyzing hydrological and climatological timeseries/observations it is a common practice to compare statistics made on normal periods. As WMO calls them: "WMO Climatological Normals". These ...
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61 views

Science behind the groundhog day myth

The myth goes that if a groundhog sees his shadow on Feb 2, six more weeks of winter are yet to come, but if he doesn't, spring is just around the corner. I am wondering if there is any science ...
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2answers
4k views

Where is the calmest place on Earth?

I have done some research online, and I've found out that Antarctica has the calmest winds (lowest maximum wind speed) recorded on Earth. However, it is uninhabitable for human life. Other very calm ...
4
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1answer
39 views

CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, can it be shown as ensemble average?

Let’s say I have got 15 CMIP5 models’ outputs of a given variable e.g. temperature, for RCP6.5 (2020-2100) run. I want to plot how the temperature will change in the future 2020-2100 (scatter plot, x ...
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1answer
49 views

CMIP5 Historical experiments, what do they mean?

What are the main characteristics of CMIP5 Historical experiments? e.g. Initial conditions? Greenhouse gases forcing? How they differ from RCPs? And how they are similar to Observed reanalysis data?...
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2answers
83 views

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather?

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather? As an example, NASA estimated the annual loss of the Greenland ice field 2002-2013 as more than ...
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0answers
43 views

What will happen to the tropical rainforest when climate increases by 5°C?

Today's most likely outcome regarding climate change is between +3°C and +6°C. My guess is at least +5°C. Has anybody found some papers indicating the average increase at the equator and a prognosis ...
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1answer
78 views

Building massive seawall around endangered Islands like Mauritius to save from climate change [closed]

Would it be possible to build a massive seawall, say maybe even made from metal that could rise as the sea level rises to prevent being erased? I am not considering costs here, nor beauty, only if ...
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0answers
101 views

What controls the acidity of the ocean?

I have learned that: coral reefs are made up mostly of calcium carbonate coral reefs are mainly distributed in the tropical zone The calcium carbonate will be decomposed in the reaction as ...
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2answers
229 views

Polar Ice caps are melting? Questions on enviromental impact

The polar ice caps are melting at a significant rate partly due to the albedo effect, releasing greenhouse gas-methane into earth’s atmosphere. At the same time we are logging our forests for ...
2
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1answer
92 views

Defining dry/wet season in Europe

I am developing a remote sensing model and I also want to consider the climate data. My question is, how can I define a dry/wet season for a country like e.g. Austria? I have the weather data for ...
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2answers
134 views

Colder winters along the North American Atlantic northeast

Why are winters along the North American Atlantic northeast coast colder than winters along the North American Pacific Northwest coast?
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1answer
238 views

What is the consensus among geologists about climate change being caused by humans?

I'm terribly frustrated with the way that climate change has been debated in Europe. I live in the Netherlands and members of one of the biggest parties here, the Party for Freedom (PVV), frequently ...
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0answers
86 views

How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
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0answers
12 views

What is the methodology to ground-truth DGVMs with palaeoecological data?

If you have a vegetation model that simulates palaeovegetation (ex. North America during the Last Glacial Maximum), how do you ground-truth/validate/benchmark the model against empirical data (ex. ...
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1answer
89 views

Is evapotransporation accounted for in climate models?

Is evapotransporation accounted for in climate models, or is it considered so insignificant that it's not considered? Could additional crops being planted within the last 100 to 50 years account ...
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0answers
825 views

Is this an accurate simulation of a further south Australia with a filled lake Eyre?

I created this climate map based on a simplified Koppen Climate Classification map (shown below). In this scenario Australia is moved 10 degrees of latitude further south and the Lake Eyre basin is ...