Questions tagged [climate-change]

Questions about changes of the climate system, including questions about global warming.

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How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
InquilineKea's user avatar
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Will global climate change alter the interannual and/or intraseasonal variance of temperature and/or precipitation?

A quick skim of the regional chapters in AR5 shows predicted changes to average temperature and precipitation. If I understand (in rough terms) the modelling methodologies used, a variety of models (...
generic_user's user avatar
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265 views

How will climate change affect the total kinetic energy in the atmosphere?

In particular, how it will affect the eddy and zonal components of kinetic energy in the atmosphere? (I'm also curious about potential energy, though that could come in another question)
InquilineKea's user avatar
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Why is the Northern Hemisphere warming faster than the Southern Hemisphere?

Hi I just found the NOAA table. It clearly shows that the N. hemisphere has warmed much more than the southern hemisphere since 1880! https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/monitoring/monthly-report/global/...
Weiss's user avatar
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6 votes
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Is cutting down boreal forest good or bad for our climate?

I read in the latest IPCC report that felling trees growing in Northern areas lays bare snow cover that, since it's white, reflects sun rays so it's kinda good (or at least, has a substantial positive ...
Sergey Zolotarev's user avatar
6 votes
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138 views

Will the recent findings regarding nitrogen rock weathering alter climate change projections?

I've seen a few articles lately about research published in the Journal Science that concludes that 26% of the nitrogen in the ecosystem is from rock weathering. These results seem to fill in a ...
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What is the "global mean surface temperature change estimate" an estimate of?

NASA publishes what it calls an "estimate" of the Earth's global mean surface temperature. Digging through papers I've been able to find some documentation of how these numbers are computed, but I ...
jacobm's user avatar
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Relationship between obliquity, antarctic circumpolar current, and atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$

Hannah's text on the biology of climate change appears to suggest that forcing due to changes in obliquity can act in opposite ways in Antarctic waters. On one hand, "Low obliquity brings cool ...
Eric's user avatar
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How much of Earth's forested land is currently protected from logging/deforestation?

Deforestation is an ongoing global problem. From this National Geographic webpage: The quickest solution to deforestation would be to simply stop cutting down trees. [However], financial realities ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
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Simulating snow melt inundation in urban areas

I am trying to understand how melt water from snow in urban setting gets routed. I understand that for routing rain water, one can create grid and then determine the flow direction for each cell by ...
user1889930's user avatar
5 votes
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Carbon emission from estuaries

I've heard that estuaries like Chesapeake Bay produce a lot of methane during anoxic conditions. Is there a chance of these estuaries emitting significant amounts of CH4 in the future (because of the ...
Victor1995's user avatar
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Is there scientific consensus on the existence of the iris effect

Question: Is there scientific consensus on the existence of the Iris Effect and whether it is a positive or negative feedback mechanism? If so, can you refer to a recent publication? Background: In ...
Joscha Fregin's user avatar
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Dynamic of glacier retreat? (here: in Greenland)

During the last years I have taken many pictures of obviously retreating glaciers and empty moraines in Greenland - just like this one. Looks devastating, actually. In my understanding, the current ...
Stephan Fürnrohr's user avatar
5 votes
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What is the radiative forcing change associated with the Chinese 2020 COVID lockdown, and how does this affect the circulation?

The lockdown imposed in China and other countries in response to the COVID 19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic change in air quality. Factories and transport systems have shut or continue at ...
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Climate modelling: statistical downscaling or dynamical?

I would like to assess climate change impacts on Protected Areas (e.g. natural reserves, national parks) for Mediterranean countries. I found easily future data from several Global Circulation Models ...
Circus pygargus's user avatar
5 votes
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Climate Change in the North

Why has it been so warm in Moscow, Russia the past few winters where the temperatures even overnight have been above freezing when normally it gets brutally cold?
Ryan Amalfitano's user avatar
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Is this description of the effects of global warming supported by scientific research?

I found the following web-page which contains a dramatic degree-by-degree account of how climate change could play out in the future: http://globalwarming.berrens.nl/globalwarming.htm. It is more ...
Wondering.'s user avatar
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How temperature anomaly are measured

Temperature Anomaly is the measure used to show that the earth is warming. The formula for temperature anomaly involves in the subtraction of average temperature measurement over 30 years considered ...
newlearnershiv's user avatar
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Biomes that existed during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Max (PETM)

I understand that you could fill multiple books with descriptions of the PETM and the mechanisms that incited the event. I have always wondered what regions of the world were covered in what types of ...
Jonathan L.'s user avatar
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How is the vertical distribution of water vapor changing?

In this publication about data assimilation and observations (paywall alert) in the chapter General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics (by Andrew Charlton-Perez, William Lahoz, Richard Swinbank, ...
Communisty's user avatar
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How to relate RCM/GCM RCP climate projections to observational data for use in a hydrologic model

As a (smaller) part of my research, I want to look at climate projection data and how that might influence the hydrology within a study catchment in Rajasthan, India. For "the present day" climate, I ...
telegott's user avatar
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How to do frequency analysis of an index when some years have zero value?

I want to do frequency analysis of drought severity, but unlike precipitation data here I have few zero values in some of the years. how to do this? Here is the sample data: ...
dsbisht's user avatar
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1 answer
153 views

Is Global Mean Surface Atmosphere Pressure changed long-term by global warming?

We know the Global Mean Temperature is increasing due to climate change. But for the Global Mean Atmosphere Pressure, can we see an obvious trend?
mqzhang's user avatar
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How is causality between past CO$_2$ levels and fossilized plant pores proxies established?

According to Mann and Kump (2015), Geologic proxies are characteristics of sedimentary rocks that we can use to infer ancient environmental conditions. Climate scientists study proxies because there ...
Ryan da Silva's user avatar
4 votes
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130 views

What was the impact of nuclear tests on climate change and ozone layer depletion?

Since 1945 2476 nuclear bombs were exploded on this planet during tests with a total yield of 545 megatons. The peak of testing took place in the late 50's and early 60's with 116 bombs exploded in ...
holmes's user avatar
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Why is the global warming potential of methane and ozone so much higher than CO2?

When sources describe global warming potential of different gasses, such as in this paper on radiative forcing, methane and tropospheric ozone respectively are given GWP values of around 29 and 65. ...
ckersch's user avatar
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Why is draining wetlands not a good idea, climate-wise?

Suppose we say, "We have a climate emergency going on, there's no way we're going to decarbonize our economies fast enough, to hell with biodiversity, we are going to drain the swamps". What ...
Sergey Zolotarev's user avatar
4 votes
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49 views

How do radiative forcing and anti-forcing scale with concentration?

Table 6.2 on p. 10 here contrasts the logarithmic radiative forcing of $\ce{CO_2}$ with the square-root forcing of $\ce{CH_4}$ and $\ce{N_2O}$, and the linear forcing of CFCs. Are there similar ...
J.G.'s user avatar
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63 views

What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
K. Mooney's user avatar
4 votes
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54 views

How would you predict the future climate with only 7 years of interest?

In my specific case, I have worked with a data set from 2001 to 2018 which had to be split up in 2012 due to major updates in the data. Therefore, I am now dealing with a data set of 12 years (2001 to ...
Thomas's user avatar
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Has the research into the apparent "Pause" in GMSTs produced a substantially better explanation?

Zeke Hausfather tweets Just six years ago many in the scientific community were obsessing over the apparent "pause" or "hiatus" in surface temperatures. It famously made it into ...
Dikran Marsupial's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
62 views

How Warm would the Earth have to get for any crops to grow in the Antarctic Peninsula/South Orkneys

I found some little silly speculation about settling Antarctica when it warms up, and I wanted to know the minimum amount the world would have to warm up in order for just the most equator-ward ...
Antarctica07's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
68 views

What will happen to the tropical rainforest when climate increases by 5°C?

Today's most likely outcome regarding climate change is between +3°C and +6°C. My guess is at least +5°C. Has anybody found some papers indicating the average increase at the equator and a prognosis ...
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4 votes
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55 views

Do surface temperatures at lower latitudes continue to correlate with frequency of noctilucent clouds in the arctic stratosphere?

I saw this image in this answer to the question Noctilucent clouds and anthropogenic climate change which was listed as related to the question “New” cloud types: Can they be used as markers for ...
uhoh's user avatar
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4 votes
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57 views

How can I analyze how environmental conditions are related among different sites?

I want to analyze how the environmental conditions along the migratory route of a bird are related to the environmental conditions found at the breeding ground (which it is at high latitudes and we ...
MSS's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
59 views

Understanding climate in 100 year intervals

I find it hard to find information about how the Earth's past climates have been deduced. I know there are archaeological ways of seeing CO2 levels from the past, but to what range can the CO2 levels ...
Biomed Boy's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
131 views

Are there any energy budget diagram showing separate day/night and summer/winter values?

I particularly like the classical energy budget diagrams like that produced by Trenberth et al in 2009. They are simple to understand and show all the various heat transfer mechanisms operating on the ...
user7733's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
150 views

Desert greening - Do we have long term (several decades) data on precipitation around the Sahara?

This article of desert greening states that some areas around the Sahara have seen increased plant growth in recent decades, caused by global warming. The causal chain would be warmer air can hold ...
mart's user avatar
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1 answer
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Simple model that exhibits a climate tipping point

I am trying to understand climate tipping points better and I am looking for a place to ask the following question. If Earth Science SE isn't the right place, a recommendation of a better place would ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
3 votes
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43 views

Since the upwelling of calcium carbonate reduces surface pCO2, why is its dissolution in the CCD below the lysocline of concern?

Why is so much of the literature I run across regarding global warming concerned with precipitating $\ce{CaCO3}$ to the ocean floor? In areas of relatively lower pH, such as the eastern equatorial ...
James Bowery's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
150 views

How can a single layer atmospheric model for the greenhouse effect be consistent with adiabatic temperature gradient and optical depth considerations?

I'm completely lost...In an elementary course on meteorology, we recently learned how to explain the greenhouse effect in terms of a simple single-layer atmosphere model. Based on the image below ...
MichaelW's user avatar
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How can carbon flows be modeled mathematically?

In this video Earth's carbon cycle is investigated with a bit of maths. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIOrF0-R33o It is in German, but the idea behind I can describe easily: There are reservoirs of ...
MichaelW's user avatar
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Change in vapour pressure due to climate change

I was just wondering how much the vapour pressure has changed due to climate change. Because with changing temperatures, the vapour pressure also changes; this is described by the Clausius-Clapeyron ...
Weiss's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
86 views

How quickly climate zones are shifting due to climate change!

Hi I was wondering how fast the climate zones (according to W. Köppen) have shifted in the last 22 years. It is well known that the zones shift about 100-200 km to the north or south for each degree ...
Weiss's user avatar
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3 votes
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45 views

How quickly can global means surface temperatures react to changes in CO2?

I am interested in whether short term (approximately decadal) variations in atmospheric CO2 would be observable in the consequent variability in Global Mean Surface Temperatures (GMSTs) as a result of ...
Dikran Marsupial's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
45 views

Are their any tools or code available to evaluate cmip6 models (r or matlab preferred)?

I would like to carry out a superficial analysis of a small number of CMIP6 models I downloaded from the ESGF. I'm thinking that a spatial correlation or Mean Square error between climatologies of ...
matlabcat's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
53 views

Do greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit photons or reflect them diffusely? Or both? (CO2, CH4, H2O, N20, HFC-134a, etc.)

Also, would it matter if a particular type of greenhouse gas molecule reflected rather than absorbed and then re-emitted light? Would its GWP be higher or lower? Perhaps this is more of a pure ...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
48 views

Help in understanding this. Is this just an empirical observation on climate sensitivity?

I was reading this on realclimate.org. My question on the below is this. Physics can tell you the radiative forcing of CO2, which is $\small\mathsf{5.35ln(Cnew/Cpreindustrial)}$. This tells you how ...
Abcderia's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
70 views

Median earth temperature development in 20th century

Are there graphs with the median temperature development in the 20th century and if not, is there readily accessible data that can be used to calculate it? Median is statistically more stable, at the ...
Philip's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
167 views

How does extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contribute to radiative forcing?

The CO2 absorption spectrum taken at 200 mmHg partial pressure, beam path length = 10 cm, resolution = 4 cm^-1 shows that light can only travel a couple hundred meters before being completely absorbed ...
arax's user avatar
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