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Questions tagged [climate-change]

Questions about changes of the climate system, including questions about global warming.

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642 views

How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
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126 views

Will global climate change alter the interannual and/or intraseasonal variance of temperature and/or precipitation?

A quick skim of the regional chapters in AR5 shows predicted changes to average temperature and precipitation. If I understand (in rough terms) the modelling methodologies used, a variety of models (...
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235 views

How will climate change affect the total kinetic energy in the atmosphere?

In particular, how it will affect the eddy and zonal components of kinetic energy in the atmosphere? (I'm also curious about potential energy, though that could come in another question)
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115 views

Will the recent findings regarding nitrogen rock weathering alter climate change projections?

I've seen a few articles lately about research published in the Journal Science that concludes that 26% of the nitrogen in the ecosystem is from rock weathering. These results seem to fill in a ...
5
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0answers
371 views

What is the “global mean surface temperature change estimate” an estimate of?

NASA publishes what it calls an "estimate" of the Earth's global mean surface temperature. Digging through papers I've been able to find some documentation of how these numbers are computed, but I ...
5
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0answers
68 views

Relationship between obliquity, antarctic circumpolar current, and atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$

Hannah's text on the biology of climate change appears to suggest that forcing due to changes in obliquity can act in opposite ways in Antarctic waters. On one hand, "Low obliquity brings cool ...
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82 views

How temperature anomaly are measured

Temperature Anomaly is the measure used to show that the earth is warming. The formula for temperature anomaly involves in the subtraction of average temperature measurement over 30 years considered ...
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75 views

Do man-made machines take natural Nitrogen out of the atmosphere and in turn cause global warming?

I read in Wikipedia that, "Natural Nitrogen, Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere. Dinitrogen is the most abundant uncombined element in the atmosphere." Do man-made machines destroy the ...
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49 views

How is the vertical distribution of water vapor changing?

In this publication about data assimilation and observations (paywall alert) in the chapter General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics (by Andrew Charlton-Perez, William Lahoz, Richard Swinbank, ...
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139 views

How to relate RCM/GCM RCP climate projections to observational data for use in a hydrologic model

As a (smaller) part of my research, I want to look at climate projection data and how that might influence the hydrology within a study catchment in Rajasthan, India. For "the present day" climate, I ...
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74 views

How to do frequency analysis of an index when some years have zero value?

I want to do frequency analysis of drought severity, but unlike precipitation data here I have few zero values in some of the years. how to do this? Here is the sample data: ...
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26 views

Biomes that existed during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Max (PETM)

I understand that you could fill multiple books with descriptions of the PETM and the mechanisms that incited the event. I have always wondered what regions of the world were covered in what types of ...
3
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44 views

How Warm would the Earth have to get for any crops to grow in the Antarctic Peninsula/South Orkneys

I found some little silly speculation about settling Antarctica when it warms up, and I wanted to know the minimum amount the world would have to warm up in order for just the most equator-ward ...
3
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48 views

What will happen to the tropical rainforest when climate increases by 5°C?

Today's most likely outcome regarding climate change is between +3°C and +6°C. My guess is at least +5°C. Has anybody found some papers indicating the average increase at the equator and a prognosis ...
3
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48 views

How can I analyze how environmental conditions are related among different sites?

I want to analyze how the environmental conditions along the migratory route of a bird are related to the environmental conditions found at the breeding ground (which it is at high latitudes and we ...
3
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54 views

Understanding climate in 100 year intervals

I find it hard to find information about how the Earth's past climates have been deduced. I know there are archaeological ways of seeing CO2 levels from the past, but to what range can the CO2 levels ...
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104 views

Are there any energy budget diagram showing separate day/night and summer/winter values?

I particularly like the classical energy budget diagrams like that produced by Trenberth et al in 2009. They are simple to understand and show all the various heat transfer mechanisms operating on the ...
3
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124 views

Desert greening - Do we have long term (several decades) data on precipitation around the Sahara?

This article of desert greening states that some areas around the Sahara have seen increased plant growth in recent decades, caused by global warming. The causal chain would be warmer air can hold ...
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35 views

Are there more meteorological catastrophic events due to climate change?

I was told by a sedimentologist there is no evidence of more climatic catastrophic events at the geological register previous to Pleistocene, when climate was warmer. My question is if meteorologists ...
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12 views

Sequestration of NO and NO2 Gasses into Soil

The university I'm a student at has been looking into Anaerobic digestion to reduce the environmental impact of the large amount of post-consumer food waste generated on campus. While this project has ...
2
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0answers
22 views

Is there any downscaled income data for representative concentrations pathways?

I know that downscaled income data existed for The Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) Scenarios for IPCC's climate change scenarios. (http://ciesin.columbia.edu/datasets/downscaled/) For ...
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60 views

Optical Thickness of the Atmosphere

Homework question: Show that the absorption optical thickness of the atmosphere at pressure $p$ (i.e., between $p$ and the top of the atmosphere) as a function of the mixing ratio of the ...
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52 views

Quantifying long term melt record on glacier surface

I intend to create a long term melt record on a glacier surface. What are parameters required to efficiently calculate the same using satellite, weather station observations & reanalysis datasets (...
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92 views

What is the general procedure to run WRF-chem with chen_opt=16

Is there anybody who has run WRF-chem with chem_opt=16 successfully to simulate the green house gases? According to the User guide, it can be done in this way. But ...
2
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0answers
47 views

What regions of the US will have *improved* climate given current predictions of climate change?

This is really a two part question: 1) Is there a good model for mapping climate conditions in a particular location to pleasantness or livability or something like that? 2) If there is such a model,...
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0answers
12 views

Do surface temperatures at lower latitudes continue to correlate with frequency of noctilucent clouds in the arctic stratosphere?

I saw this image in this answer to the question Noctilucent clouds and anthropogenic climate change which was listed as related to the question “New” cloud types: Can they be used as markers for ...
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35 views

How is OLR power of the atmosphere distributed with altitude?

The OLR (outgoing longwave radiation) from the top of the atmosphere to space is composed of radiative energy emitted by the atmosphere at all altitudes, as well as the surface. How is the radiative ...
2
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0answers
60 views

Good practices and pitfalls when fitting models $y = f(weather)$ and predicting $\hat{y} = \hat{f}(GCM)$

I've got a phenomenon of interest, $y$. It is determined in large part by the weather. Naturally, one becomes interested in what climate change may do to $y$, so one fits a model of the form $y = f(\...
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0answers
78 views

volcanic effects on the climate during Pangaea

Which influence does the constellation of the continents have on the global climate? Was the biosphere more susceptible to climatic effects a volcanic eruption may cause during the Permian than it is ...
2
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0answers
238 views

How about local impacts of deforestation on droughts and floods?

In fields like economics, people tend to think that catastrophic events like droughts, floods, desertification, landslides, soil erosion etc. are events which are linked to global climate change and ...
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128 views

Correlation of El Nino and south indian monsoon

A recent article in New Scientist reports the following claim made by Wenju Cai at CSIRO Melbourne. Southern India is having a lot of rain as it goes into winter, having come out of the dry ...
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0answers
123 views

vegetation types and their required or suitable climate condition

I am doing a variability analysis for landcover in Western Ghats region. I have various vegetation classes such as: evergreen (needle leaf, broad leaf), decidious (needle leaf, broad leaf), ...
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36 views

Can spraying sulphate particulates in the upper atmosphere to lower Earth's temperature have side effects?

According to Geoengineering treatment stratospheric aerosol injection climate change study Planes spraying tiny sulphate particulates into the lower stratosphere, around 60,000 feet up. The idea ...
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12 views

How does planned cattle grazing compare with other methods (like carbon capture) of mitigating climate change?

I recently saw a great talk by Allan Savory, the pioneering ecologist about holistic management of cattle grazing to prevent desertification of grasslands. He claimed that it is the only viable way ...
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0answers
31 views

Seeking CMIP5 or CMIP6 globally in .nc format

Is there in some ftp storage, a pre-processing CMIP5 data for direct download in netcdf extention?
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0answers
480 views

What are the environmental effects of leaking hydrogen from large-scale energy storage mechanisms?

I recently have calculated the total cost of an energy system that is based on wind power as the primary power source and hydrogen as the energy storage mechanism. The total system costs are ...
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0answers
22 views

Clarification: Effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature

This terminology is quite confusing to me. Are effective temperature, emission temperature, and effective emission temperature the same thing? Where does this occur, at the surface, or at some ...
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26 views

Relationship between Earth's heat dispersion rate (average surface air temperature from summer to winter time) and greenhouse gases

What is the most effective way to study global warming and the role of greenhouse gases using a methodology based on analyzing the Earth's seasonal variations (summer-winter) of the temperature of ...
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43 views

Global climate change

We all know that global climate change is becoming a big real change that is affecting the world's ecosystems and life cycles. Will global climate change affect the hot areas of the world or deserts ...
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27 views

Where I find the info about what plants, trees can be planted in a locality

I would like to know what plants, trees can be planted in a locality. I wanted this info around the globe based on latitude and longitude or by some other means. Is there a source organisation/source ...
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0answers
26 views

Trying to calculate the percentage of carbon emissions that is offset by 45,000 acres?

In my problem there is an average net ecosystem production rate of: 0.25kgC/m2/yr Am asked: a. What percentage of 140,000.000tons/yr would be offset from reforesting 45,000 acres? ...
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0answers
103 views

Gulf stream weakening affects on both ends of the system - Europe and Carribean

There have been reports about the Gulf Stream weakening. Everything I have read about this concentrates on the (possibly substantial) cooling this would cause in Europe. If this weakening occurs, ...
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0answers
27 views

How to analyze this data showing atomospheric CO2, CH4 and tempertures obtain from an ice sample?

Here is the chart: My questions are: Is the atmosphere in equilibrium over this record? how would I determine what the maximum and minimum values for each record is (approximation). Is there a ...
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0answers
55 views

Correlation between temperature and precipitable water in the tropical climate

Air temperature is known to correlate well with precipitable water at higher latitudes. What are the likely factors that degrade the correlation in the tropical monsoon climate?
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0answers
32 views

In which ways is soot the perfect absober of infrared and the absorber of ultraviolet?

In other question we've been discussing factors of the nuclear winter effect, soot among them. In this one I'd like to narrow the list down to soot, more precisely to ask about its ability to absorb ...
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0answers
113 views

Is there a formula to calculate shoreline length or water position from ocean?

Assuming in the past the water of the oceans were lower does it also mean that the water was not where it is right now?
 If yes, then how do we calculate approximately where the water would have been ...
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0answers
12 views

Calculate GWP over arbitrary time

The GWP (Global warming potential) is calculated over a given time scale $T$ (20 or 100 years usually), defined as the ratio between the energy absorbed by a pulse of 1Kg of gas during time $T$ ...
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0answers
51 views

Can we predict the rising temperature of Earth?

Where can I find a model of Earth's past climates and future projections from combined possibilities like magnetic pole movement and other forms of global warming as a map? Without a reference it has ...
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0answers
85 views

Milankovitch cycles and what?

Observe the vertical green lines in this diagram: Those events shows when temperature starts to sink when radiance is at top or even before that. If there was a simple connection between radiance and ...
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0answers
26 views

Estimating Diurnal Temperature Changes for a region due to Climate change?

I am working on UHI related studies. I am wondering is it possible to estimate how diurnal temperature cycle would change for a typical day of given season. Edit: Based on comment I am trying to add ...