Questions tagged [climate-models]

Mathematical models used for studying the dynamics of climate systems or predicting future climates.

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how can I upload my files to show my question better [migrated]

I would like to ask my questions by uploading my files to mean my questions, better but i Can't upload my files. how can i upload my examples file under my questions in this site? thank you very much ...
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64 views

What would the average temperature be if there were no greenhouse effect from water vapor? [closed]

CO2, methane and other gases contribute to the greenhouse effect. But most of the greenhouse effect is caused by water vapour in the atmosphere. There is always a lot average moisture present, but it ...
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How can we best objectively quantify climate change mitigation urgency? [closed]

Quantifying climate change mitigation urgency seems to have three aspects: (1) Green House Gas reduction targets required to meet a specific goal such as 2C. The first guesstimate seems to be zero ...
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Where can I get hourly ambient temperature for each county in United States?

Need temperature for 24 hours for each county of United States. Average values is ok, seasonal granularity welcome. I've been looking at nClimDiv datasets
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At what distance from a location does the average monthly climate significantly start to differ?

I am almost done creating an app that allows people to create a planting calendar based on garden journals created by people who live within a certain radius of a user. In those garden journals people ...
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Climate modelling: statistical downscaling or dynamical?

I would like to assess climate change impacts on Protected Areas (e.g. natural reserves, national parks) for Mediterranean countries. I found easily future data from several Global Circulation Models ...
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How is global greenhouse gas emission calculated?

I am sure there are different methodologies to arrive at such a number. Can someone in layman terms describe some of the most widely used and trusted methods and what data are used? Sorry I am outside ...
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Equatorial Bulge and its implications on the climate

How much of the variance in the climate is due to the equatorial bulge and how much sun radiation do we lose due to the equatorial bulge? I am interested in the variance both through time and ...
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Are there General Circulation Models that can simulate the atmosphere of Venus?

I would like to know what would happen with the atmosphere of Venus when it gets tidally locked, i.e. when one side would perpetually face the Sun. Probably a thermal low would be at the subsolar ...
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List some common metrics to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion?

Could you give me some basic understanding of how to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion? For example, could you list some basic metrics to diagnose the vertical motion? Like divergence, vertical ...
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216 views

Does WRF simulation use sigma or eta vertical coordinate system?

Could you tell me what the WRF's vertical coordinate system is? Sigma or eta? According to the User WRF Guide document, uses a terrain-following hydrostatic pressure coordinate while the WRF ...
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What caused peak CO2 to rise, starting about 400,000 years ago?

This question assumes the accuracy of this (and similar) charts. Source of image. From the image, CO2 peaked at about 260, perhaps 265 ppm during the interglacial periods between 800,000 years ago ...
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How to better understand the RIP-nomenclature used in the CMIP5 project?

I am a statistician working on a climatological downscaling project in the Caribbean Sea. I am just starting to learn about the CMIP5 GCM data project. I plan to download CMIP5 data from 6 climate ...
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Where can I find csv or json data on absolute global average temperature

I am essentially looking for a list of raw datasets without any processing. I can find anomaly datasets, but have had no luck with 100% unprocessed (other than averaging, of course) data. This data is ...
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Is there any natural phenomenon that can account for the 100 fold faster CO2 rate increase?

"Based on the best historical data that we have available CO2 is probably increasing at a rate at of least 100 times faster than at any time in the last 800,000 years." Pieter Tans lead scientist of ...
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With so many positive feedbacks accelerating global warming, how did the earth ever re-enter ice ages after it came out of one?

We hear a lot about positive feedbacks when it comes to global warming. For example: ice reflects solar radiation, so as the ice melts more solar radiation is absorbed which accelerates warming; ...
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On what basics, can scientists predict the effects of climate change?

I don't know much about the topic of climate change to be honest. However, I've been attending a number of talks recently on the topic. As someone who studies mathematical models and uncertainty ...
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Why rely on climate models as opposed to paleoclimate data?

Something I hear often from climate scientists, and indeed even politicians, is that we "don't understand climate change very well". And, I'm sure this is true since the climate is a complex adaptive ...
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Could someone please validate the Holmes equation [closed]

Dr. Robert Holmes has converted the ideal gas law to T = P M / (ρ R) in this paper: (Molar Mass Version of the Ideal Gas Law Points to a Very Low Climate Sensitivity) with T = temperature P = near-...
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Is there evidence to suggest that the release of methane clathrates in permafrost regions will impact climate change?

We can see that there are large buildups of methane clathrates in permafrost regions. Climate scientist James Hansen has predicted that the release of the permafrost methane clathrates could cause ...
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What is difference between an atmospheric model and a climate model?

I am wondering the major differences been an Atmospheric model and a Climate model? For example, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) versus Regional Climate Modeling System (RegCM). I recently ...
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What would the weather patterns on Earth really be like if Earth were tidally locked to the sun? [duplicate]

This question is different from How would weather change on a tidally-locked terrestrial planet?. None of its answers answer my question. I think it's answer might even have wrong information as I ...
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110 views

What would happen if I installed distributed water fountains in all of the ocean's dead zones? [closed]

As every thalassologist knows, the ocean is filled with great streches of desert with no marine photosynthetic life. What would happen if, for each of these oceanic deserts, I densely filled them with ...
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165 views

The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
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How reliable is sea-ice concentration (fraction) data in ERA-Interim?

I am using sea-ice data from the European Reanalysis from ECMWF (ERA Interim), but some grid cells over land have sea-ice information. Not a big issue so far, because spatial discretization must ...
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162 views

Which greenhouse gas has the most influence over global warming?

Carbon dioxide is the gas everyone talks about because of how much we emit, but it is the most influential greenhouse gas ? I know there are a lot of other gasses are way more potent to retain heat ...
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How can I create multi model ensemble from output of 3 CMIP5 models?

I have a output of 3 models of CMIP5, they are CCSM4, IPSL and MPI. I have two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for each model. I want to know that how can I create a multi model ensemble from these 3 ...
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Equations for Milankovitch Factors?

Are there equations for the radiative forcings of the three Milankovitch factors at any given time? Or a database of values?
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About the actual radiative impact of greenhouse gas emission over time

Say we will emit a certain amount of greenhouse gas over the next 50 years (e.g. 100 billion tons CO2-eq in total). What would happen if I implement a certain GHG mitigation effort to cut the same ...
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1answer
135 views

Are we at the beginning of a Heinrich Event?

Does our current weather trend properly reflect a Heinrich Event? It seems like the drastic weather swings are what I would expect but I realize that is not definitive. I don't see the term bandied ...
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Does this peer-reviewed study (referenced in Forbes) contradict the accepted position that climate change is real?

This Forbes article from 2013 (archive link here) with the headline "Majority Of Scientists Skeptical Of Global Warming Crisis" gets brandied around a lot. It states that Only 36 percent of ...
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How can I convert a CERA-20C total precipitation dataset of "monthly means of daily means' (edmo) to mm/month?

I downloaded an edmo dataset of 1 ensemble of the cera-20c model. I want to convert these data, which are in [m], to mm/month. Further specifications: 0.125/0.125 grid, -29/30/-30/31 area. Example of ...
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Computation of absolute precipitation forecast from precipitation anomaly forecast in NOAA CFSv2

I am currently trying to use absolute precipitation forecasts for medium term range (3wk-2mth). As no models of NOAA have absolute precipitation on this timerange, my idea was to compute those ...
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Why is a future increase in solar luminosity by 10% supposed to have disastrous consequences for life on earth when the last 30% did not?

One remarkable thing about the climate history of earth is that despite the fact that solar luminosity was fully 30% lower in the beginning, temperatures were actually quite close to today. Since then ...
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Are there natural-forcings climate projections over the 21st century?

CMIP5 offers natural-forcings-only simulations over 1850-2005, which allows comparison with the historical simulations, which allows us to show how anthropogenic forcings have affected the climate ...
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where to download NASA-NEX daily downscaled datasets?

I'm looking to download a small geographic area of the CMIP5 models part of NASA-NEX dataset. Previously I relied on the Planet OS OpenNEX GDDP website which had a great tool for selecting geographic ...
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How is the vertical distribution of water vapor changing?

In this publication about data assimilation and observations (paywall alert) in the chapter General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics (by Andrew Charlton-Perez, William Lahoz, Richard Swinbank, ...
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81 views

Uncertainty In ERA-Interim data

Greeting, What is the estimated uncertainty value in Temperature, relative humidity, U and V winds of ERA-Interim data?
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Creating regular grid for my data? [closed]

I have daily spatiotemporal data with covariates at 10 different locations. My question is is it possible to convert my data into a grid format?
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Do 360 day calendars affect climate models?

I was recently reading Zach Holman's blogpost on time and remembering that I've had to work with CMIP5 output that used a 360 day calendar, rather than a 365 day or a Greogrian (or Proleptic Gregorian)...
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Winter in the Northern Hemisphere in July? Can anyone explain it?

The July 2007 issue of the National Geographic Magazine dedicates several pages to "Climate Change" and "Global Warming". The author explains in detail the Earth's movements and how they provoke ...
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Gulf stream weakening affects on both ends of the system - Europe and Carribean

There have been reports about the Gulf Stream weakening. Everything I have read about this concentrates on the (possibly substantial) cooling this would cause in Europe. If this weakening occurs, ...
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Where can I find the original scientific articles on Heat index (published by either Larry P. Rothfusz or Steadman)?

I'm curious to learn more about the research and thought that went into calculating the heat index. In particular I want to understand how Steadman or Rothfusz managed to fit a model (in terms of ...
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How to run earth system, land surface and climate models?

I am interested in earth system models, land surface models and climate prediction models. I found a lot of online information on different models, including CIMP5, and the Earth System Modeling ...
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Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic “spring”?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ and a short term, but more intense ...
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883 views

Understanding a diagram of Earth's radiation balance

Trying to understand this image. Can someone tell me if I have the right reasoning here: Sun has 100% SW shooting to earth 30% of that 100% is reflected by clouds 70% remains Of that 70%, 45% of that ...
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Are we now and/or have we been in the RCP8.5 scenario?

Is it generally understood that we (globally) have been living in an RCP8.5 scenario over the past 7-8 years? Such that a predictive climate model using RCP8.5 assumptions that was run circa 2011 can ...
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How to relate RCM/GCM RCP climate projections to observational data for use in a hydrologic model

As a (smaller) part of my research, I want to look at climate projection data and how that might influence the hydrology within a study catchment in Rajasthan, India. For "the present day" climate, I ...
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CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, can it be shown as ensemble average?

Let’s say I have got 15 CMIP5 models’ outputs of a given variable e.g. temperature, for RCP6.5 (2020-2100) run. I want to plot how the temperature will change in the future 2020-2100 (scatter plot, x ...
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How well do past climate models stick to current observations? [duplicate]

I'm wondering how good the climate models of the recent past have been at predicting the current climate. Notably, I've heard quite a few times that the temperature was increasing faster than the ...