Questions tagged [climate-models]

Mathematical models used for studying the dynamics of climate systems or predicting future climates.

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1answer
54 views

Is spin-up really required to run the WRF-Chem model and if so, what determines the time period of the spin-up?

For example, I am interested in making a simulation for some chemical species for 2019. I am planning to provide NCEP/GDAS FNL meteorological data at 0.25 degree and CAM-Chem chemical boundary layer. ...
2
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1answer
74 views

How exactly can one make out the direction of and temperature of winds [closed]

I am trying to make a fictional world, but I want to be as realistic as humanly possible with the winds and climate. So my question is, knowing various parametres, how exactly can I make out what ...
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1answer
62 views

How are they holding COP26 if the IPCC hasn't yet finished the report?

How are they holding COP26 if the IPCC hasn't yet completed its latest Assessment Report? I'm reading it at the moment, and more often than not there are descriptions to figures without the figures ...
2
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1answer
430 views

Looking for the mathematics so I can run climate change simulations

Sorry for the stupid question, but I have been unable to answer it even after wasting time googleing for a while... I know there are several climate-changes scenarios, and I know the several climatic ...
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19 views

How to best calculate ensemble spread with 2D data?

Sorry if this has been asked before, but I am looking through papers and websites and cannot find something satisfying. Say that I have 10 different ensemble members calculating geopotential height ...
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1answer
53 views

What Pa level should I use when looking at Relative Humidity data from CMIP6 models?

I have downloaded a number of future simulations for a group of GCMs from CMIP6 for the variable Relative Humidity (hur). I chose the 100000pa level to view the RH data in panoply for the EC-Earth ...
4
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1answer
75 views

Why are the CMIP6 model outputs for Relative Humidity not scaled to between 1-100%?

I have been looking at the CMIP6 model outputs for 'hur' (Relative Humidity/RH) and I see that they are not scaled to be between 1 and 100 (the units are percent). Why is this? Is it just an oversight ...
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23 views

Using variables from different CMIP6 models

I would like to know if using variables (ex: sea surface temperature, precipitation, etc.) from two CMIP6 climate models to produce a species/niche distribution model is an accepted practice and won’t ...
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2answers
161 views

How do academics/institutions run large climate simulations given the computing challenges?

I have been brushing up on numerical methods for PDEs lately, and climate models provide such a rich set of models and ideas to practice with. However, I was a little confused about how academics can ...
3
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1answer
63 views

Simple model that exhibits a climate tipping point

I am trying to understand climate tipping points better and I am looking for a place to ask the following question. If Earth Science SE isn't the right place, a recommendation of a better place would ...
3
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1answer
59 views

Climate on Venus after it becomes tidally locked

Suppose, Venus becomes tidally locked. Will its dark side cool enough so that the CO2 from atmosphere to precipitate in liquid form to make an ocean?
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61 views

How to convert CO2 emission from gC/m2/day to Tonnes?

I have an ODIAC Global CO2 emission dataset. The dataset is provided in netCDF (.nc) format and the resolution of the dataset is 1x1 degree. The unit of the dataset is gC/m2/day. I need to convert it ...
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1answer
68 views

How to convert mol m-2 s-1 CO2 emission to Megaton day-1 (MtCO2 per day)?

I am working on the global CO2 emission using a model dataset. The model provides the CO2 emission in mol m-2 s-1. How to convert mol m-2 s-1 CO2 emission to Megaton day-1 (Mt per day)? Regards
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1answer
110 views

How much would weather data from ocean-going vessels improve climate research?

I would like to know how good the weather data coverage is on the surface of the world’s oceans, and how much it would improve climate research/models if weather observations from ocean-going vessels ...
3
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2answers
191 views

How to calculate the specific humidity based on the saturated specific humidity?

I am using ERA5 data to drive the land surface model. One of the forcing required by LSM is specific humidity. We want to use the 2-m specific humidity. So how can I calculate the specific humidity ...
7
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1answer
121 views

Why is it that "With higher CO2, the dry gets drier and the wet gets wetter"?

The Phys.org article CO2 dip may have helped dinosaurs walk from South America to Greenland quotes Dennis Kent, "adjunct research scientist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth ...
3
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1answer
99 views

difference between different meteorological models

I need to work with historical weather data (temperature and precipitation), we use meteoblue.com. There (https://docs.meteoblue.com/en/meteo/data-sources/data-sources#data-sources) they write about ...
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2answers
371 views

Which part of solar radiation (VIS, NIR) keeps Earth warm?

Which part of solar radiation (visible light vs. infrared radiation) plays main part in keeping Earth's surface warm?
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117 views

To what degree does historical measurement inaccuracies contribute to climate change models?

Often the graphs depicting the earth's historical temperature, the time axis extends well over couple of centuries. Also there are few that extends over thousands of years. I wonder to what degree the ...
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0answers
48 views

Has the research into the apparent "Pause" in GMSTs produced a substantially better explanation?

Zeke Hausfather tweets Just six years ago many in the scientific community were obsessing over the apparent "pause" or "hiatus" in surface temperatures. It famously made it into ...
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2answers
103 views

Seeking climate and related sciences textbook recommendations

I will be starting a Master's program in data science soon and my eventual hope/goal is to do climate-related data science work. I did an independent study for one semester in college on the ...
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2answers
167 views

Will life still be sustainable on earth when solar eclipses stop?

Estimates put the last solar eclipse at 600 million years. The question then becomes how much time is left on Earth? Stephen Hawking believes we have less then a 100 years left on Earth but that ...
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What are the most important climatic measurements to predict streamflow and water for short term, midterm and long term prediction?

From the measured values below, which ones are the most important factors that affect the amount of streamflow? (For short, mid, and long term) Which ones are more important? (Can give me some ...
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2answers
206 views

How are climate regions caused by both axial tilt and also by climate circulation cells?

So Earth has an axial tilt and that creates weather regions. For example, approximately 23 degrees north and south, approximately the same as the planet's axial tilt, will give you the tropics. This ...
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0answers
153 views

How would I simulate the effects of the Antarctic ice sheet being deleted on Earth's climate?

This is a follow-up to my question If its ice sheet were removed under modern atmospheric conditions, what climatic and ice-sheet equilibrium would be re-established over Antarctica?. As it has ...
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196 views

Providing Edgar emission using prep_chem_source for tracers (CO2-CH4)

I am working on CO2 and CH4 by WRF-CHEM, for providing my anthropogenic emission from Edgar data base, I'm going to use the Prep_chem_source App. I would like to use Edgar data emission (as my ...
4
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1answer
109 views

What would the average temperature be if there were no greenhouse effect from water vapor? [closed]

CO2, methane and other gases contribute to the greenhouse effect. But most of the greenhouse effect is caused by water vapour in the atmosphere. There is always a lot average moisture present, but it ...
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0answers
71 views

How can we best objectively quantify climate change mitigation urgency? [closed]

Quantifying climate change mitigation urgency seems to have three aspects: (1) Green House Gas reduction targets required to meet a specific goal such as 2C. The first guesstimate seems to be zero ...
4
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1answer
124 views

Where can I get hourly ambient temperature for each county in United States?

Need temperature for 24 hours for each county of United States. Average values is ok, seasonal granularity welcome. I've been looking at nClimDiv datasets
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124 views

At what distance from a location does the average monthly climate significantly start to differ?

I am almost done creating an app that allows people to create a planting calendar based on garden journals created by people who live within a certain radius of a user. In those garden journals people ...
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0answers
42 views

Climate modelling: statistical downscaling or dynamical?

I would like to assess climate change impacts on Protected Areas (e.g. natural reserves, national parks) for Mediterranean countries. I found easily future data from several Global Circulation Models ...
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3answers
1k views

How is global greenhouse gas emission calculated?

I am sure there are different methodologies to arrive at such a number. Can someone in layman terms describe some of the most widely used and trusted methods and what data are used? Sorry I am outside ...
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0answers
139 views

Equatorial Bulge and its implications on the climate

How much of the variance in the climate is due to the equatorial bulge and how much sun radiation do we lose due to the equatorial bulge? I am interested in the variance both through time and ...
4
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1answer
130 views

Are there General Circulation Models that can simulate the atmosphere of Venus?

I would like to know what would happen with the atmosphere of Venus when it gets tidally locked, i.e. when one side would perpetually face the Sun. Probably a thermal low would be at the subsolar ...
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1answer
48 views

List some common metrics to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion?

Could you give me some basic understanding of how to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion? For example, could you list some basic metrics to diagnose the vertical motion? Like divergence, vertical ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Does WRF simulation use sigma or eta vertical coordinate system?

Could you tell me what the WRF's vertical coordinate system is? Sigma or eta? According to the User WRF Guide document, uses a terrain-following hydrostatic pressure coordinate while the WRF ...
9
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2answers
275 views

What caused peak CO2 to rise, starting about 400,000 years ago?

This question assumes the accuracy of this (and similar) charts. Source of image. From the image, CO2 peaked at about 260, perhaps 265 ppm during the interglacial periods between 800,000 years ago ...
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1answer
402 views

How to better understand the RIP-nomenclature used in the CMIP5 project?

I am a statistician working on a climatological downscaling project in the Caribbean Sea. I am just starting to learn about the CMIP5 GCM data project. I plan to download CMIP5 data from 6 climate ...
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0answers
46 views

Where can I find csv or json data on absolute global average temperature

I am essentially looking for a list of raw datasets without any processing. I can find anomaly datasets, but have had no luck with 100% unprocessed (other than averaging, of course) data. This data is ...
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1answer
154 views

Is there any natural phenomenon that can account for the 100 fold faster CO2 rate increase?

"Based on the best historical data that we have available CO2 is probably increasing at a rate at of least 100 times faster than at any time in the last 800,000 years." Pieter Tans lead scientist of ...
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2answers
244 views

With so many positive feedbacks accelerating global warming, how did the earth ever re-enter ice ages after it came out of one?

We hear a lot about positive feedbacks when it comes to global warming. For example: ice reflects solar radiation, so as the ice melts more solar radiation is absorbed which accelerates warming; ...
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2answers
251 views

On what basics, can scientists predict the effects of climate change?

I don't know much about the topic of climate change to be honest. However, I've been attending a number of talks recently on the topic. As someone who studies mathematical models and uncertainty ...
2
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2answers
174 views

Why rely on climate models as opposed to paleoclimate data?

Something I hear often from climate scientists, and indeed even politicians, is that we "don't understand climate change very well". And, I'm sure this is true since the climate is a complex adaptive ...
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1answer
607 views

Could someone please validate the Holmes equation [closed]

Dr. Robert Holmes has converted the ideal gas law to T = P M / (ρ R) in this paper: (Molar Mass Version of the Ideal Gas Law Points to a Very Low Climate Sensitivity) with T = temperature P = near-...
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2answers
82 views

Is there evidence to suggest that the release of methane clathrates in permafrost regions will impact climate change?

We can see that there are large buildups of methane clathrates in permafrost regions. Climate scientist James Hansen has predicted that the release of the permafrost methane clathrates could cause ...
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0answers
62 views

What is difference between an atmospheric model and a climate model?

I am wondering the major differences been an Atmospheric model and a Climate model? For example, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) versus Regional Climate Modeling System (RegCM). I recently ...
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1answer
112 views

What would happen if I installed distributed water fountains in all of the ocean's dead zones? [closed]

As every thalassologist knows, the ocean is filled with great streches of desert with no marine photosynthetic life. What would happen if, for each of these oceanic deserts, I densely filled them with ...
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1answer
439 views

The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
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1answer
80 views

How reliable is sea-ice concentration (fraction) data in ERA-Interim?

I am using sea-ice data from the European Reanalysis from ECMWF (ERA Interim), but some grid cells over land have sea-ice information. Not a big issue so far, because spatial discretization must ...
3
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1answer
262 views

Which greenhouse gas has the most influence over global warming?

Carbon dioxide is the gas everyone talks about because of how much we emit, but it is the most influential greenhouse gas ? I know there are a lot of other gasses are way more potent to retain heat ...