# Questions tagged [climate-models]

Mathematical models used for studying the dynamics of climate systems or predicting future climates.

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### How to estimate temperature based on known points in a map?

Imagine I have a map with known current temperatures measured at certain map points provided by meteorologic stations: Source here What's the most robust/accurate model to deduce the temperature to ...
1 vote
78 views

### Combining data with different future climate scenarios

I have climate data for future projection scenarios of the RCP type only (i.e., RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and land cover data for future projection scenarios of the SSP - RCP type (i.e., SSP 2 – RCP 4.5, ...
23 views

### The gravity wave and acoustic wave calculation in atmospheric models

I am wondering about the gravity wave (as well as the acoustic wave) calculation in atmospheric model. I know that the non-hydrostatic model should take the internal gravity wave and acoustic wave ...
51 views

### Large working model of water flow and cloud formation on the table, powered by infrasonic transducers - presented at UNFCCC Climate Summit

Large working model of water flow and cloud formation on the table, powered by infrasonic transducers - presented at UNFCCC Climate Summit 2019 My Dear Friends, as I recall correctly I watched large ...
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1 vote
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### conserving mass while converting sigma levels to geopotential (z-levels)

I am using a sigma-level ocean model, so that I have dh (layer thicknesses), salinity and bathymetry (bottom depth) for some area (lon-lat box). Now, I would like to calculate the amount of salt at ...
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1 vote
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### CMIP6 ts versus tos for Pontential Intensity calculation

As per the title, I am interested in computing the potential intensity (PI) and wondering what the difference between surface temperature (ts) over the ocean and sea surface temperature (tos) in CMIP6 ...
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1 vote
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### What would be effects if sun was smaller, but had same mass?

What would be the effects on Earth if the sun was half its current diameter, but retained the same mass?
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### Rough empirical formula for average temperature and pressure

Is there a rough empirical formula that approximates local average annual air temperature and pressure from geographical latitude, altitude and distance from ocean shore?
1 vote
107 views

### Do tropical cyclones impact climate?

Do tropical cyclones (TCs) have a global impact on climate? Maybe in terms of their impact on air-sea heat or gas fluxes? For example cooling the surface ocean, or enhancing CO2 fluxes? The motivation ...
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### If salinity affects density more than temperature, why is there a surface current in the N. Atlantic by equatorial regions where the water is saltier?

I am looking at Stommel's Two-Box model of ocean circulation. I get that deep water formation occurs in the polar regions due to cooling of the water and sinking to the bottom. However, just looking ...
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1 vote
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### Water and Atmospheric Conditions in Earth prehistory

I pose this question as a curious enthusiast lacking formal education in chemistry or Earth sciences. My intrigue has been kindled by various articles and discussions and while I may not be certain of ...
28 views

### Calculating the forcing factor for CH4, O3L and O3S

I have estimated the emissions (NOx, CO and HC) from a certain route, hence this is a list with emissions in grams per minute. Now I want to give some idea on the climate impact, so use the thesis ...
1 vote
77 views

### Global Ocean Models not dissipative?

I keep hearing that the models used for global ocean simulations are not actually dissipative, even though they clearly have dissipative terms and we couldn't solve them if they didn't (here, "...
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### Bias correction of CMIP6 projections

Is it always mandatory to perform a bias correction when working with CMIP6 climate projections? I am working with multiple climate projections from CMPI6 and I'm not sure if this step is necessary, ...
86 views

### Effective Radiative Forcing of Aviation Soot: Time Period Considered

I am trying to understand how athmospheric scientists are quantifying effective radiative forcing of different aviation-related warming/cooling effects as a function of total emissions over time. For ...
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1 vote
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### Faulty dataset on Worldclim.org

I am currently working on a research project regarding climate sensitivities of plant species and I need to analyze future climate data. Worldclim.org has a broad spectrum of climate data based on ...
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1 vote
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### What are the differences between 'Amon' and 'Emon' Table IDs in CMIP6?

While looking for atmospheric data in CMIP6, I came across two Table entries: Amon and Emon, both seem to contain monthly-mean ...
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### Climate change impact on the geography

Wildfires seem to be more frequent in the southern Europe, meantime as the Arctic melts, there are speculations that the Gulf Stream might collapse, would lower the temperature 10-15 degrees in Europe....
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### What is the highest evaporation rate in the world? I know evaporation rates for Australia

I have been searching for the above answer for more than 25 years. I am providing a map of Australia for comparison http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/maps/averages/evaporation/ Is evaporation rate 4000 ...
56 views

### Why does OISST trend for this year appear to be increasingly diverging from the mean since early March?

With recent news about hottest global daily temps on record, I came across climatereanalyzer.org from the University of Maine. I ended up looking at their data for daily sea surface temperature and ...
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1 vote
160 views

### How to convert hourly measured GPP from µmol m-2 s-1 to daily data with unit of gC/m2/day?

I have hourly-observed gross primary production data with the unit as µmol m-2 s-1, how can I convert it to daily data with unit of gC/m2/day? The data is like this: ...
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### What is technically wrong with Wijngaarden & Happer's paper claiming to show that CO2's contribution to surface warming is saturated?

The paper, Dependence of Earth’s Thermal Radiation on Five Most Abundant Greenhouse Gases1, has been reportedly rejected from several major journals. By analysing absorption spectra of greenhouse ...
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### What is the climate footprint of burning lignite coal - once you account for the athmosheric cooling effect of sulfur dioxide?

Sulfur oxides have a strong but short lasting athmosheric cooling effect. Vulcanic eruptions provide test of that. Lignite or "brown coal" has a reputaion as a paricularly "dirty" ...
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### Understanding Temperature's Effect on Glen's Flow Rate Factor A = A(T) and Why we Take A = Constant

I'm trying to better understand why I see so many people pick a fixed value of $A$ in Glen's Flow law when doing glacier modeling. I found that using a simple Arrhenius relationship we get the formula ...
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### Planetary surface temperature from first principles

How can you calculate planetary surface temperatures from first principles? The obvious application is for Earth, with a surface temperature of $288$K. I want a calculation with no fudge factors (i.e.,...
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### Why do clouds have positive climate feedback although they have a cooling net effect?

In a lecture we learned that instantaneously removing all clouds from earth would give radiation forcing of about 18W/m² [1], leading to significant warming. So clouds, in simple words, cool the earth ...
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### is there any site a layman can understand excess rain (floods) and earth warming

I am not a scientist but I am interested in the effects of global warming on the envirand would like to read more in a layman form. I have read where global warming - hotter earth surface temperature ...
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### How can carbon flows be modeled mathematically?

In this video Earth's carbon cycle is investigated with a bit of maths. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIOrF0-R33o It is in German, but the idea behind I can describe easily: There are reservoirs of ...
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1 vote
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### Which metric to use for estimating accuracy of a climate model?

Let's assume I have 3 different climate models for a specific region that project the temperature. I also have the observations of that region for the same time frame(the real temperatures). My ...
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### Where can I find detailed description of different VARIANT-IDs in CMIP6 metadata?

Where do I find the documentation of different VARIANT-IDs for the CMIP6 dataset? A VARIANT-ID is of the format ...
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### Change in thermohaline circulation due to climate change

The melting of the North Polar ice masses removes a driving factor from the thermohaline circulation, known as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic. I wonder how much the thermohaline circulation has ...
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1 vote
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### Describe changes in atmosphere data - mathematical solutions

I interpolated isotopic data (2H or 18O) from 1970 and plotted it on a map. I did the same with data from 2010. The interpolated data are gridded data which have changed over time. Up to now I have ...
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### What does the "strength" of a circulation cell refer to?

I'm reading articles about climate models for possible exoplanets, and I'm confused as to what the "strength" of a Hadley or Ferrell cell refers to. Does it refer to wind speed? Wind force?
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### Geotiff for Elevation Data or NetCDF

I need elevation data with lat and long for a project worldwide. By intuition I would say that a GeoTiff would be suitable, e.g. the one from https://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gdem.asp. Are there better ...
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### How quickly climate zones are shifting due to climate change!

Hi I was wondering how fast the climate zones (according to W. Köppen) have shifted in the last 22 years. It is well known that the zones shift about 100-200 km to the north or south for each degree ...
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### Universal or Ordinary Kriging?

Hi I am creating an isoscape model in which I am plotting 2H and 18O of precipitation. Until now I have always used ordinary kriging for the interpolation, but I am somewhat dissatisfied with the ...
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### Algorithm for the interpolation?

I have managed to plot various points on a map and interpolate with ordinary kriging. However, my data does not look anything like it should. Do I need to use an algorithm to fill in the missing data? ...
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### Problems when interpolating time series data (average problem)

Hi I want to create two isotope data (1970-1980) and (2010-2020). As you can mention, the interpolation for the two maps is based on the average value measured at different stations in each time ...
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1 vote
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### Python, R or etc.? [closed]

I was wondering which programming language is most used in the geosciences? I have now started programming with Python but I am reading more and more about R! I would like to ask the experienced ...
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1 vote
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### Complex interpolation for Isotopic data

I have another question, is there a package that interpolates precipitation data taking into account mountains and oceans? I have so far used Numpy and Basemap but as you can see in the code, the data ...
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### What is the best way to interpolate isotopic data and display them?

I want to interpolate isotope data of precipitation and display it on a map. The data are available as a CSV file. ...
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1 vote
112 views

### Urban heat island effect during winter time?

Say a given populated area is considered an "urban heat island", this would mean that during summer, temperatures will be higher in that area. But what about winter? One could argue that ...
78 views

### Empirical quantile mapping

I'm not sure if this is the right section to post this, but since it's about weather and statistics I am posting it here first. I tried using R's qmap package to do a simple experiment using this ...
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1 vote
83 views

### What are some reasons for Aridification

I an working on a Si-Fi world, and am looking for ways that an area would, over a long timescale, lose the majority of its water. I understand how the lose of vegetative cover due to climate changes ...
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### Modelling atmospheric temperature as function of elevation

If I have a body that is exposed to light of intensity $I$, then its temperature should follow the ODE $$\dot{T} = a I - b T^4$$ Mountains are covered with snow, yet $I$ should be the same as at sea ...
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### radar data for buoyancy measurements of cyclones

I'm sorry if I'm asking in the wrong forum. I'm a computational scientist and I do not have much physics background. I'm working on constructing machine learning models from data. Currently, I've only ...
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3k views

### Why don't errors accumulate in climate models when the time horizon increases?

First of all, I want to add the disclaimer that I am not a climate sceptic or anything. I honestly want to understand this phenomenon. Hopefully, someone can also go into the details as I do have ...
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### Can historical emissions data be used for a future WRF-Chem model run?

I am new to running the WRF-Chem model, so this question maybe a little elementary. I wanted to perform an year-long simulation of certain chemical species for 2019 and for that, is it sufficient to ...