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Questions tagged [climate-models]

Mathematical models used for studying the dynamics of climate systems or predicting future climates.

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The gravity wave and acoustic wave calculation in atmospheric models

I am wondering about the gravity wave (as well as the acoustic wave) calculation in atmospheric model. I know that the non-hydrostatic model should take the internal gravity wave and acoustic wave ...
3 votes
4 answers
2k views

What is technically wrong with Wijngaarden & Happer's paper claiming to show that CO2's contribution to surface warming is saturated?

The paper, Dependence of Earth’s Thermal Radiation on Five Most Abundant Greenhouse Gases1, has been reportedly rejected from several major journals. By analysing absorption spectra of greenhouse ...
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Large working model of water flow and cloud formation on the table, powered by infrasonic transducers - presented at UNFCCC Climate Summit

Large working model of water flow and cloud formation on the table, powered by infrasonic transducers - presented at UNFCCC Climate Summit 2019 My Dear Friends, as I recall correctly I watched large ...
1 vote
1 answer
66 views

Do tropical cyclones impact climate?

Do tropical cyclones (TCs) have a global impact on climate? Maybe in terms of their impact on air-sea heat or gas fluxes? For example cooling the surface ocean, or enhancing CO2 fluxes? The motivation ...
1 vote
1 answer
61 views

What would be effects if sun was smaller, but had same mass?

What would be the effects on Earth if the sun was half its current diameter, but retained the same mass?
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18 views

conserving mass while converting sigma levels to geopotential (z-levels)

I am using a sigma-level ocean model, so that I have dh (layer thicknesses), salinity and bathymetry (bottom depth) for some area (lon-lat box). Now, I would like to calculate the amount of salt at ...
1 vote
0 answers
14 views

CMIP6 ts versus tos for Pontential Intensity calculation

As per the title, I am interested in computing the potential intensity (PI) and wondering what the difference between surface temperature (ts) over the ocean and sea surface temperature (tos) in CMIP6 ...
3 votes
1 answer
316 views

Is there any natural phenomenon that can account for the 100 fold faster CO2 rate increase?

"Based on the best historical data that we have available CO2 is probably increasing at a rate at of least 100 times faster than at any time in the last 800,000 years." Pieter Tans lead ...
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22 views

Rough empirical formula for average temperature and pressure

Is there a rough empirical formula that approximates local average annual air temperature and pressure from geographical latitude, altitude and distance from ocean shore?
3 votes
1 answer
40 views

If salinity affects density more than temperature, why is there a surface current in the N. Atlantic by equatorial regions where the water is saltier?

I am looking at Stommel's Two-Box model of ocean circulation. I get that deep water formation occurs in the polar regions due to cooling of the water and sinking to the bottom. However, just looking ...
3 votes
1 answer
114 views

What is the best way to interpolate Isotopic data and display them?

I want to interpolate isotope data of precipitation and display it on a map. The data are available as a CSV file. ...
1 vote
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42 views

Water and Atmospheric Conditions in Earth prehistory

I pose this question as a curious enthusiast lacking formal education in chemistry or Earth sciences. My intrigue has been kindled by various articles and discussions and while I may not be certain of ...
1 vote
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84 views

Faulty dataset on Worldclim.org

I am currently working on a research project regarding climate sensitivities of plant species and I need to analyze future climate data. Worldclim.org has a broad spectrum of climate data based on ...
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28 views

Calculating the forcing factor for CH4, O3L and O3S

I have estimated the emissions (NOx, CO and HC) from a certain route, hence this is a list with emissions in grams per minute. Now I want to give some idea on the climate impact, so use the thesis ...
1 vote
0 answers
75 views

Global Ocean Models not dissipative?

I keep hearing that the models used for global ocean simulations are not actually dissipative, even though they clearly have dissipative terms and we couldn't solve them if they didn't (here, "...
3 votes
1 answer
66 views

Bias correction of CMIP6 projections

Is it always mandatory to perform a bias correction when working with CMIP6 climate projections? I am working with multiple climate projections from CMPI6 and I'm not sure if this step is necessary, ...
3 votes
1 answer
81 views

Effective Radiative Forcing of Aviation Soot: Time Period Considered

I am trying to understand how athmospheric scientists are quantifying effective radiative forcing of different aviation-related warming/cooling effects as a function of total emissions over time. For ...
1 vote
1 answer
389 views

What are the differences between 'Amon' and 'Emon' Table IDs in CMIP6?

While looking for atmospheric data in CMIP6, I came across two Table entries: Amon and Emon, both seem to contain monthly-mean ...
1 vote
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70 views

Climate change impact on the geography

Wildfires seem to be more frequent in the southern Europe, meantime as the Arctic melts, there are speculations that the Gulf Stream might collapse, would lower the temperature 10-15 degrees in Europe....
2 votes
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55 views

Why does OISST trend for this year appear to be increasingly diverging from the mean since early March?

With recent news about hottest global daily temps on record, I came across climatereanalyzer.org from the University of Maine. I ended up looking at their data for daily sea surface temperature and ...
1 vote
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124 views

What is the highest evaporation rate in the world? I know evaporation rates for Australia

I have been searching for the above answer for more than 25 years. I am providing a map of Australia for comparison http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/maps/averages/evaporation/ Is evaporation rate 4000 ...
3 votes
1 answer
93 views

Change in thermohaline circulation due to climate change

The melting of the North Polar ice masses removes a driving factor from the thermohaline circulation, known as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic. I wonder how much the thermohaline circulation has ...
1 vote
0 answers
101 views

How to convert hourly measured GPP from µmol m-2 s-1 to daily data with unit of gC/m2/day?

I have hourly-observed gross primary production data with the unit as µmol m-2 s-1, how can I convert it to daily data with unit of gC/m2/day? The data is like this: ...
2 votes
1 answer
66 views

Understanding Temperature's Effect on Glen's Flow Rate Factor A = A(T) and Why we Take A = Constant

I'm trying to better understand why I see so many people pick a fixed value of $A$ in Glen's Flow law when doing glacier modeling. I found that using a simple Arrhenius relationship we get the formula ...
3 votes
1 answer
73 views

What is the climate footprint of burning lignite coal - once you account for the athmosheric cooling effect of sulfur dioxide?

Sulfur oxides have a strong but short lasting athmosheric cooling effect. Vulcanic eruptions provide test of that. Lignite or "brown coal" has a reputaion as a paricularly "dirty" ...
1 vote
0 answers
151 views

Planetary surface temperature from first principles

How can you calculate planetary surface temperatures from first principles? The obvious application is for Earth, with a surface temperature of $288$K. I want a calculation with no fudge factors (i.e.,...
1 vote
1 answer
547 views

The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
3 votes
3 answers
155 views

Why do clouds have positive climate feedback although they have a cooling net effect?

In a lecture we learned that instantaneously removing all clouds from earth would give radiation forcing of about 18W/m² [1], leading to significant warming. So clouds, in simple words, cool the earth ...
2 votes
2 answers
563 views

Looking for the mathematics so I can run climate change simulations

Sorry for the stupid question, but I have been unable to answer it even after wasting time googleing for a while... I know there are several climate-changes scenarios, and I know the several climatic ...
4 votes
0 answers
42 views

is there any site a layman can understand excess rain (floods) and earth warming

I am not a scientist but I am interested in the effects of global warming on the envirand would like to read more in a layman form. I have read where global warming - hotter earth surface temperature ...
3 votes
0 answers
46 views

How can carbon flows be modeled mathematically?

In this video Earth's carbon cycle is investigated with a bit of maths. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIOrF0-R33o It is in German, but the idea behind I can describe easily: There are reservoirs of ...
1 vote
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32 views

Which metric to use for estimating accuracy of a climate model?

Let's assume I have 3 different climate models for a specific region that project the temperature. I also have the observations of that region for the same time frame(the real temperatures). My ...
1 vote
2 answers
158 views

Seeking climate and related sciences textbook recommendations

I will be starting a Master's program in data science soon and my eventual hope/goal is to do climate-related data science work. I did an independent study for one semester in college on the ...
4 votes
3 answers
822 views

Why is a future increase in solar luminosity by 10% supposed to have disastrous consequences for life on earth when the last 30% did not?

One remarkable thing about the climate history of earth is that despite the fact that solar luminosity was fully 30% lower in the beginning, temperatures were actually quite close to today. Since then ...
6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Where can I find detailed description of different VARIANT-IDs in CMIP6 metadata?

Where do I find the documentation of different VARIANT-IDs for the CMIP6 dataset? A VARIANT-ID is of the format ...
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

Describe changes in atmosphere data - mathematical solutions

I interpolated isotopic data (2H or 18O) from 1970 and plotted it on a map. I did the same with data from 2010. The interpolated data are gridded data which have changed over time. Up to now I have ...
6 votes
1 answer
62 views

What does the "strength" of a circulation cell refer to?

I'm reading articles about climate models for possible exoplanets, and I'm confused as to what the "strength" of a Hadley or Ferrell cell refers to. Does it refer to wind speed? Wind force?
6 votes
1 answer
219 views

Geotiff for Elevation Data or NetCDF

I need elevation data with lat and long for a project worldwide. By intuition I would say that a GeoTiff would be suitable, e.g. the one from https://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gdem.asp. Are there better ...
3 votes
0 answers
93 views

How quickly climate zones are shifting due to climate change!

Hi I was wondering how fast the climate zones (according to W. Köppen) have shifted in the last 22 years. It is well known that the zones shift about 100-200 km to the north or south for each degree ...
2 votes
0 answers
45 views

Universal or Ordinary Kriging?

Hi I am creating an isoscape model in which I am plotting 2H and 18O of precipitation. Until now I have always used ordinary kriging for the interpolation, but I am somewhat dissatisfied with the ...
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87 views

Algorithm for the interpolation?

I have managed to plot various points on a map and interpolate with ordinary kriging. However, my data does not look anything like it should. Do I need to use an algorithm to fill in the missing data? ...
1 vote
3 answers
1k views

Python, R or etc.? [closed]

I was wondering which programming language is most used in the geosciences? I have now started programming with Python but I am reading more and more about R! I would like to ask the experienced ...
3 votes
2 answers
92 views

Problems when interpolating time series data (average problem)

Hi I want to create two isotope data (1970-1980) and (2010-2020). As you can mention, the interpolation for the two maps is based on the average value measured at different stations in each time ...
11 votes
2 answers
1k views

"The world will start COOLING DOWN in 2017"?

There's a story going around the low-grade news factories that one Dr. David Evans has predicted that the world will start cooling down in 2017. One source reports: He says fundamental flaws in how ...
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

Complex interpolation for Isotopic data

I have another question, is there a package that interpolates precipitation data taking into account mountains and oceans? I have so far used Numpy and Basemap but as you can see in the code, the data ...
1 vote
0 answers
108 views

Urban heat island effect during winter time?

Say a given populated area is considered an "urban heat island", this would mean that during summer, temperatures will be higher in that area. But what about winter? One could argue that ...
2 votes
0 answers
72 views

Empirical quantile mapping

I'm not sure if this is the right section to post this, but since it's about weather and statistics I am posting it here first. I tried using R's qmap package to do a simple experiment using this ...
1 vote
2 answers
75 views

What are some reasons for Aridification

I an working on a Si-Fi world, and am looking for ways that an area would, over a long timescale, lose the majority of its water. I understand how the lose of vegetative cover due to climate changes ...
3 votes
2 answers
121 views

Modelling atmospheric temperature as function of elevation

If I have a body that is exposed to light of intensity $I$, then its temperature should follow the ODE $$\dot{T} = a I - b T^4$$ Mountains are covered with snow, yet $I$ should be the same as at sea ...
3 votes
0 answers
20 views

radar data for buoyancy measurements of cyclones

I'm sorry if I'm asking in the wrong forum. I'm a computational scientist and I do not have much physics background. I'm working on constructing machine learning models from data. Currently, I've only ...