Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

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How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
InquilineKea's user avatar
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How are scatterometer observations standardised before being fed into reanalysis models?

This very basic question occurred to me during a talk on reanalysis data sets. Often we know the observations produced by a particular instrument, say rain radar, are biased from one year to the next ...
Ewan's user avatar
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What meteorological factors contribute to springtime Trans-Pacific air-pollution events?

The transport of tropospheric ozone, ozone precursors, carbon monoxide, etc from Asia to North America is an active area of research (see J.L. Ambrose, et al., 2011) These types of events occur ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
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Relation of El Niño to Monsoons

Scientists are forecasting a weak to moderate El Niño event to emerge in the coming months, what causes this to happen? Once developed, how will the El Niño conditions effect progressive monsoon ...
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7 votes
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Are there any known global effects of the Mediterranean sea evaporation and refilling?

This is a broad subject I realize, but I'm looking for specific geologically observed answers of global effects elsewhere, between about 5.96 and 5.33 million years ago when the Mediterranean sea was ...
userLTK's user avatar
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Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
Grant Hartlage's user avatar
6 votes
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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
vestland's user avatar
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Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
user26529's user avatar
6 votes
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regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
shamalaia's user avatar
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Will the recent findings regarding nitrogen rock weathering alter climate change projections?

I've seen a few articles lately about research published in the Journal Science that concludes that 26% of the nitrogen in the ecosystem is from rock weathering. These results seem to fill in a ...
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6 votes
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What is the "global mean surface temperature change estimate" an estimate of?

NASA publishes what it calls an "estimate" of the Earth's global mean surface temperature. Digging through papers I've been able to find some documentation of how these numbers are computed, but I ...
jacobm's user avatar
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NCEP reanalysis latitude and longitude represent center of cell?

I can't find any information regarding the lat and long in the NCEP Reanalysis. Do they represent the center of the cell?
Herman Toothrot's user avatar
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What would the climate be like on an Earth-like planet if it had only one convection cell per hemisphere?

Earth has three convection cells per hemisphere. These are the Polar cell, Ferrel cell and Hadley cell. These create the trade winds, westerlies and polar easterlies which control many aspects of ...
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Does the time-lagged correlation between $\ce{CO2}$ and ocean temperature have a shorter timelag than the one between $\ce{CO2}$ and air temperature?

I'm talking about evidence from both proxy records in the last 50,000 years (if possible) and the recent past (if also possible)
InquilineKea's user avatar
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Ocean oscillations with long time periods

I heard that some ocean oscillations act on a time scale of a millennium. Is this true, or at least argued by some oceanographers? If so, what are they and what causes them? If not, what are the ...
Peter A's user avatar
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How do higher-latitude convection cell currents (Ferrel, Polar) work?

I'm a forest ecologist and college professor who has been teaching about the Earth's convection cell circulation for many years. Explaining Hadley cells is very straightforward with differences in ...
theforestecologist's user avatar
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What was the weather like in Pangaea's equatorial regions ( i.e. 23 latitude North to 23 latitude South )?

I've been having this burning question about the tropical climate of Pangaea but not sure how to ask until now. So far I've read that the carbon dioxide levels back then were much higher than it is ...
Dennis Quan's user avatar
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Can the absorbtion of infrared around the 650 wavenumber in water be a substantial cause of converting that spectrum range into other spectra?

CO2 absorbs around the 15 microns wavelenght or wavenumber 650, and radiates in the same but also a somewhat wider range. However, the top layer of the oceans seem to also convert that spectrum range. ...
MP1's user avatar
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Is there scientific consensus on the existence of the iris effect

Question: Is there scientific consensus on the existence of the Iris Effect and whether it is a positive or negative feedback mechanism? If so, can you refer to a recent publication? Background: In ...
Joscha Fregin's user avatar
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Climate modelling: statistical downscaling or dynamical?

I would like to assess climate change impacts on Protected Areas (e.g. natural reserves, national parks) for Mediterranean countries. I found easily future data from several Global Circulation Models ...
Circus pygargus's user avatar
5 votes
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107 views

Climate Change in the North

Why has it been so warm in Moscow, Russia the past few winters where the temperatures even overnight have been above freezing when normally it gets brutally cold?
Ryan Amalfitano's user avatar
5 votes
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951 views

Are clouds more common at night?

Clouds obviously have a strong effect on surface temperatures. By blocking sunlight they can decrease the temperature by several degrees. At night they have a blanket effect that traps warm air and ...
Tom's user avatar
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How is the vertical distribution of water vapor changing?

In this publication about data assimilation and observations (paywall alert) in the chapter General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics (by Andrew Charlton-Perez, William Lahoz, Richard Swinbank, ...
Communisty's user avatar
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How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
H. Clutterbuck's user avatar
5 votes
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42 views

Distribution of thermometric devices on earth

In complex climate models, measurements of Earth-based thermometers are used. What is their geographic distribution - historically? Does each measurement get equal weight?
Dee Jay Jay's user avatar
4 votes
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is there any site a layman can understand excess rain (floods) and earth warming

I am not a scientist but I am interested in the effects of global warming on the envirand would like to read more in a layman form. I have read where global warming - hotter earth surface temperature ...
rhett's user avatar
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What is the definition for a hyper-humid area?

We can use the aridity index $\left ( ai = \dfrac{P}{PET} \right )$ to define arid areas. Hyperarid areas have $ai < 0.05$. Is there a similar threshold for hyper-humid regions? Would it be 20 (...
Pedro Alencar's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
58 views

Why do the isotherms bulge north of the Bering Strait in winter, and bulge south of the Bering Strait in summer?

My grade-7 geography textbook contains these world average temperatures for January and July. Average air temperatures in January (winter in the northern hemisphere) Average air temperatures in July ...
Rebecca J. Stones's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
35 views

Is there any place on Earth that does not have a "sub-annual" cycle/season?

I am not sure if this question makes sense, it is completely out of the blue. Over a large range of latitudes, we have 4 distinct seasons and repeat again and again the next years. Even in the poles, ...
y chung's user avatar
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Boundary between areas having frequent versus infrequent forest fires

In some parts of North America, such as California, the climax ecosystem has frequent forest fires -- that is, relatively dry forest that in absence of human intervention would burn perhaps every ...
rwallace's user avatar
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How hot would days get if it were always the solstice in the northern hemisphere?

Imagine the Earth's axis of rotation were to precess in synch with the orbit of earth around the sun so the north pole always pointed towards the sun (same current axial tilt of about 23 degrees). ...
D to the P's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
66 views

What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
K. Mooney's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
86 views

What does a change in the mean pressure across 750 km indicate/signify?

Coming from the aviation site: What is the westerly index? The westerly index is: ... the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure difference between ...
user13092's user avatar
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Has the research into the apparent "Pause" in GMSTs produced a substantially better explanation?

Zeke Hausfather tweets Just six years ago many in the scientific community were obsessing over the apparent "pause" or "hiatus" in surface temperatures. It famously made it into ...
Dikran Marsupial's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
99 views

Why is April the driest month (by far) in the Benelux?

According to Wikipedia*, April is the driest month in the Netherlands, with only 41.6mm rainfall on average, as opposed to neighbouring months March (57.8mm) and May (59.3mm). This difference (about ...
Glorfindel's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
52 views

Oscillating dew point throughout the year?

I was searching for the climate of Saudi Arabia and I noticed that the city of Abha (altitude of 7000 feet) has a "strange" behavior in its dew point, as numbeo suggests: https://www.numbeo.com/...
user17108's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
68 views

What will happen to the tropical rainforest when climate increases by 5°C?

Today's most likely outcome regarding climate change is between +3°C and +6°C. My guess is at least +5°C. Has anybody found some papers indicating the average increase at the equator and a prognosis ...
user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
55 views

Do surface temperatures at lower latitudes continue to correlate with frequency of noctilucent clouds in the arctic stratosphere?

I saw this image in this answer to the question Noctilucent clouds and anthropogenic climate change which was listed as related to the question “New” cloud types: Can they be used as markers for ...
uhoh's user avatar
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Are there any energy budget diagram showing separate day/night and summer/winter values?

I particularly like the classical energy budget diagrams like that produced by Trenberth et al in 2009. They are simple to understand and show all the various heat transfer mechanisms operating on the ...
user7733's user avatar
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Will the next ENSO event be of modoki type?

Where can I find free information to learn if the forecasted ENSO El Nino event for 2nd semester 2017 will be a MODOKI one? The Japan Meteo Service also publishes the EL-NINO-MODOKI Index (below), ...
Dan's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
445 views

Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
The Baron's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
333 views

Difference between convergent precipitation and cyclone precipitation?

What exactly is the difference between convergent precipitation and cyclone precipitation, their generation and characteristics?
Sophie's user avatar
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4 votes
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145 views

Climate zone classification using the Holdridge method

I have to classify the climate zones for Western Ghats using the Holdridge method. The classifiers are temperature, rainfall, elevation. Elevation is constant. But for temperature and rainfall how ...
Aeron Storm's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
132 views

Simple model that exhibits a climate tipping point

I am trying to understand climate tipping points better and I am looking for a place to ask the following question. If Earth Science SE isn't the right place, a recommendation of a better place would ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
23 views

How does coastal fog form on the Chilean coast?

When traveling through the northern parts of Chile (La Serena, Antofagasta) during November and December, I noticed a thin layer of coastal fog very close to the coastline. Since this fog was present ...
mu88's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
56 views

How did the Earth cool from a temperature of hundreds-of-degrees, if runaway greenhouse effects also happen?

From this article: the team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) studied what would happen if the greenhouse effect were trapped inside ...
spraff's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
49 views

Handling large-scale climate dataset in R

I am analyzing ERA5 climate data spanning from 1950 to 2023, covering 73 years. The dataset has a daily temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 0.25° (1440 x 720). Each yearly data is stored ...
Shunrei's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
74 views

Would the North Pole have a continental climate with warm summers if it was surrounded by land?

I was researching solar insolation and found that solar insolation at the poles over summer is roughly equivalent to several places on earth that have relatively warm summers. Below is a Matlab graph ...
SethToast's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
24 views

Daily data for snow water equivalent (not including rain)

Do you know a way to find daily snow water equivalent data, for just snow and not any rain that may have fallen same day? Backstory: Hi, I'm pretty new to all this. I work for a small city that wants ...
fnea's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
55 views

Approximating Soil Moisture level

Are there any simple models to approximate soil moisture level (%) as a function of distance from a waterbody (say a lake)? If one assigns saturation level of lake to 100% , then are there any ...
user1889930's user avatar