Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

75 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
14
votes
0answers
730 views

How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
13
votes
0answers
164 views

Will global climate change alter the interannual and/or intraseasonal variance of temperature and/or precipitation?

A quick skim of the regional chapters in AR5 shows predicted changes to average temperature and precipitation. If I understand (in rough terms) the modelling methodologies used, a variety of models (...
10
votes
0answers
90 views

How are scatterometer observations standardised before being fed into reanalysis models?

This very basic question occurred to me during a talk on reanalysis data sets. Often we know the observations produced by a particular instrument, say rain radar, are biased from one year to the next ...
8
votes
0answers
142 views

What meteorological factors contribute to springtime Trans-Pacific air-pollution events?

The transport of tropospheric ozone, ozone precursors, carbon monoxide, etc from Asia to North America is an active area of research (see J.L. Ambrose, et al., 2011) These types of events occur ...
8
votes
0answers
142 views

Relation of El Niño to Monsoons

Scientists are forecasting a weak to moderate El Niño event to emerge in the coming months, what causes this to happen? Once developed, how will the El Niño conditions effect progressive monsoon ...
6
votes
0answers
43 views

Are there any known global effects of the Mediterranean sea evaporation and refilling?

This is a broad subject I realize, but I'm looking for specific geologically observed answers of global effects elsewhere, between about 5.96 and 5.33 million years ago when the Mediterranean sea was ...
5
votes
0answers
278 views

regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
5
votes
0answers
132 views

Will the recent findings regarding nitrogen rock weathering alter climate change projections?

I've seen a few articles lately about research published in the Journal Science that concludes that 26% of the nitrogen in the ecosystem is from rock weathering. These results seem to fill in a ...
5
votes
0answers
444 views

What is the “global mean surface temperature change estimate” an estimate of?

NASA publishes what it calls an "estimate" of the Earth's global mean surface temperature. Digging through papers I've been able to find some documentation of how these numbers are computed, but I ...
5
votes
0answers
80 views

NCEP reanalysis latitude and longitude represent center of cell?

I can't find any information regarding the lat and long in the NCEP Reanalysis. Do they represent the center of the cell?
5
votes
0answers
721 views

What would the climate be like on an Earth-like planet if it had only one convection cell per hemisphere?

Earth has three convection cells per hemisphere. These are the Polar cell, Ferrel cell and Hadley cell. These create the trade winds, westerlies and polar easterlies which control many aspects of ...
5
votes
0answers
63 views

Does the time-lagged correlation between $\ce{CO2}$ and ocean temperature have a shorter timelag than the one between $\ce{CO2}$ and air temperature?

I'm talking about evidence from both proxy records in the last 50,000 years (if possible) and the recent past (if also possible)
4
votes
0answers
183 views

Why is Somalia so dry?

Most deserts are a result of the rainshadow effect, cold currents, the subtropical ridges, or a combination of those. Knowing this, how is the Somali desert caused? It is notable since it has a desert ...
4
votes
0answers
212 views

Can the absorbtion of infrared around the 650 wavenumber in water be a substantial cause of converting that spectrum range into other spectra?

CO2 absorbs around the 15 microns wavelenght or wavenumber 650, and radiates in the same but also a somewhat wider range. However, the top layer of the oceans seem to also convert that spectrum range. ...
4
votes
0answers
98 views

Is there scientific consensus on the existence of the iris effect

Question: Is there scientific consensus on the existence of the Iris Effect and whether it is a positive or negative feedback mechanism? If so, can you refer to a recent publication? Background: In ...
4
votes
0answers
73 views

Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
4
votes
0answers
41 views

Climate modelling: statistical downscaling or dynamical?

I would like to assess climate change impacts on Protected Areas (e.g. natural reserves, national parks) for Mediterranean countries. I found easily future data from several Global Circulation Models ...
4
votes
0answers
100 views

Climate Change in the North

Why has it been so warm in Moscow, Russia the past few winters where the temperatures even overnight have been above freezing when normally it gets brutally cold?
4
votes
0answers
129 views

Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
4
votes
0answers
392 views

Are clouds more common at night?

Clouds obviously have a strong effect on surface temperatures. By blocking sunlight they can decrease the temperature by several degrees. At night they have a blanket effect that traps warm air and ...
4
votes
0answers
63 views

How is the vertical distribution of water vapor changing?

In this publication about data assimilation and observations (paywall alert) in the chapter General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics (by Andrew Charlton-Perez, William Lahoz, Richard Swinbank, ...
4
votes
0answers
164 views

How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
4
votes
0answers
41 views

Distribution of thermometric devices on earth

In complex climate models, measurements of Earth-based thermometers are used. What is their geographic distribution - historically? Does each measurement get equal weight?
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Has the research into the apparent “Pause” in GMSTs produced a substantially better explanation?

Zeke Hausfather tweets Just six years ago many in the scientific community were obsessing over the apparent "pause" or "hiatus" in surface temperatures. It famously made it into ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Why is April the driest month (by far) in the Benelux?

According to Wikipedia*, April is the driest month in the Netherlands, with only 42.3mm rainfall on average, as opposed to neighbouring months March (66.8mm) and May (61.9mm). This difference (almost ...
3
votes
0answers
43 views

Oscillating dew point throughout the year?

I was searching for the climate of Saudi Arabia and I noticed that the city of Abha (altitude of 7000 feet) has a "strange" behavior in its dew point, as numbeo suggests: https://www.numbeo.com/...
3
votes
0answers
56 views

How Warm would the Earth have to get for any crops to grow in the Antarctic Peninsula/South Orkneys

I found some little silly speculation about settling Antarctica when it warms up, and I wanted to know the minimum amount the world would have to warm up in order for just the most equator-ward ...
3
votes
0answers
137 views

Do 360 day calendars affect climate models?

I was recently reading Zach Holman's blogpost on time and remembering that I've had to work with CMIP5 output that used a 360 day calendar, rather than a 365 day or a Greogrian (or Proleptic Gregorian)...
3
votes
2answers
805 views

Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
3
votes
0answers
58 views

What will happen to the tropical rainforest when climate increases by 5°C?

Today's most likely outcome regarding climate change is between +3°C and +6°C. My guess is at least +5°C. Has anybody found some papers indicating the average increase at the equator and a prognosis ...
3
votes
0answers
128 views

Are there any energy budget diagram showing separate day/night and summer/winter values?

I particularly like the classical energy budget diagrams like that produced by Trenberth et al in 2009. They are simple to understand and show all the various heat transfer mechanisms operating on the ...
3
votes
0answers
78 views

Will the next ENSO event be of modoki type?

Where can I find free information to learn if the forecasted ENSO El Nino event for 2nd semester 2017 will be a MODOKI one? The Japan Meteo Service also publishes the EL-NINO-MODOKI Index (below), ...
3
votes
0answers
425 views

Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
3
votes
0answers
232 views

Difference between convergent precipitation and cyclone precipitation?

What exactly is the difference between convergent precipitation and cyclone precipitation, their generation and characteristics?
3
votes
0answers
119 views

Climate zone classification using the Holdridge method

I have to classify the climate zones for Western Ghats using the Holdridge method. The classifiers are temperature, rainfall, elevation. Elevation is constant. But for temperature and rainfall how ...
3
votes
1answer
238 views

What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
2
votes
0answers
71 views

What does a change in the mean pressure across 750 km indicate/signify?

Coming from the aviation site: What is the westerly index? The westerly index is: ... the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure difference between ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Is there an average year of weather across the United States?

I am interested in which year has the best representation of average weather across a large area, the contiguous USA. This is challenging since what was average in the Midwest might have been unusual ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

What if Pinatubo's eruption in 1991 had been followed by a La Niña rather than an El Niño?

If there had been a La Niña rather than an El Niño in 1991-92, would the sulfur aerosol veil caused by the release of 17-20 megatons of sulfur dioxide during the Pinatubo eruption of June 1991 have ...
2
votes
0answers
49 views

Looking for the climate classification for a particular climate

I'm looking for the climate classification among the many different climate classification systems covering my absolute favorite form of climate. If a classification for this doesn't exist, and you ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Is there a site where I could get a high resolution global annual temperature map?

I'm exploring different places on the countryside and would like to compare their different annual temperatures. The options that I've seen are either too coarse (NASA, NOAA, arcgis (free online ...
2
votes
0answers
87 views

Asian South West Monsoon - Rainfall in South East Coast of India

So Indian peninsula has v shaped mountain ranges. Western ghats and Eastern ghats as shown in the picture. During Summer Monsoon, the wind flows from Indian ocean to land mass, and due to Coriolis ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

Why are isotherms skewed to 45 degrees in the tephigram?

I have studied about tephigrams. In all the books, it has written that isotherms and dry adiabats are skewed to certain degrees. But practically I could not connect it. How is it possible that ...
2
votes
0answers
45 views

How does jetstreams lead to formation of heat waves in Europe?

Jetstreams move at an altitude of roughly 6-9km above the sea level. Since, it is moving at such a great altitude how could it have possible impacts on the land? And how will jetstreams that flow at ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Are there more meteorological catastrophic events due to climate change?

I was told by a sedimentologist there is no evidence of more climatic catastrophic events at the geological register previous to Pleistocene, when climate was warmer. My question is if meteorologists ...
2
votes
0answers
49 views

Any appreciable differences in microclimate on the shores of small mountain streams?

I have land in India (the tropics), in the hills, on a slope from 6800 feet - 5200 ft altitude (roughly). At that lowest point there's a stream of about 10-15m across. On one side is our land, on the ...
2
votes
0answers
67 views

Snow under Siberian High

The Siberian High is a very strong anticyclone present over Siberia in the winter. Cities like Irkutsk lie at its very center, yet Irkutsk has 18-20 days of snow per month in the winter. Shouldn't we ...
2
votes
0answers
55 views

How to divide timeseries into normal periods in meteorology and climatology?

When analyzing hydrological and climatological timeseries/observations it is a common practice to compare statistics made on normal periods. As WMO calls them: "WMO Climatological Normals". These ...
2
votes
0answers
1k views

Is this an accurate simulation of a further south Australia with a filled lake Eyre?

I created this climate map based on a simplified Koppen Climate Classification map (shown below). In this scenario Australia is moved 10 degrees of latitude further south and the Lake Eyre basin is ...
2
votes
0answers
69 views

Good practices and pitfalls when fitting models $y = f(weather)$ and predicting $\hat{y} = \hat{f}(GCM)$

I've got a phenomenon of interest, $y$. It is determined in large part by the weather. Naturally, one becomes interested in what climate change may do to $y$, so one fits a model of the form $y = f(\...