Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

57 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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14
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0answers
695 views

How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
13
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150 views

Will global climate change alter the interannual and/or intraseasonal variance of temperature and/or precipitation?

A quick skim of the regional chapters in AR5 shows predicted changes to average temperature and precipitation. If I understand (in rough terms) the modelling methodologies used, a variety of models (...
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80 views

How are scatterometer observations standardised before being fed into reanalysis models?

This very basic question occurred to me during a talk on reanalysis data sets. Often we know the observations produced by a particular instrument, say rain radar, are biased from one year to the next ...
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142 views

What meteorological factors contribute to springtime Trans-Pacific air-pollution events?

The transport of tropospheric ozone, ozone precursors, carbon monoxide, etc from Asia to North America is an active area of research (see J.L. Ambrose, et al., 2011) These types of events occur ...
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141 views

Relation of El Niño to Monsoons

Scientists are forecasting a weak to moderate El Niño event to emerge in the coming months, what causes this to happen? Once developed, how will the El Niño conditions effect progressive monsoon ...
8
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1answer
327 views

What are monsoons caused by?

Traditionally we think of them as being caused by differences in land-sea heating. But more recently, some researchers, like Simona Bordoni and William Boos, have argued otherwise.
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90 views

Science behind the groundhog day myth

The myth goes that if a groundhog sees his shadow on Feb 2, six more weeks of winter are yet to come, but if he doesn't, spring is just around the corner. I am wondering if there is any science ...
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171 views

regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
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130 views

Will the recent findings regarding nitrogen rock weathering alter climate change projections?

I've seen a few articles lately about research published in the Journal Science that concludes that 26% of the nitrogen in the ecosystem is from rock weathering. These results seem to fill in a ...
5
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0answers
409 views

What is the “global mean surface temperature change estimate” an estimate of?

NASA publishes what it calls an "estimate" of the Earth's global mean surface temperature. Digging through papers I've been able to find some documentation of how these numbers are computed, but I ...
5
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41 views

Distribution of thermometric devices on earth

In complex climate models, measurements of Earth-based thermometers are used. What is their geographic distribution - historically? Does each measurement get equal weight?
5
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78 views

NCEP reanalysis latitude and longitude represent center of cell?

I can't find any information regarding the lat and long in the NCEP Reanalysis. Do they represent the center of the cell?
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531 views

What would the climate be like on an Earth-like planet if it had only one convection cell per hemisphere?

Earth has three convection cells per hemisphere. These are the Polar cell, Ferrel cell and Hadley cell. These create the trade winds, westerlies and polar easterlies which control many aspects of ...
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63 views

Does the time-lagged correlation between $\ce{CO2}$ and ocean temperature have a shorter timelag than the one between $\ce{CO2}$ and air temperature?

I'm talking about evidence from both proxy records in the last 50,000 years (if possible) and the recent past (if also possible)
4
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89 views

Climate Change in the North

Why has it been so warm in Moscow, Russia the past few winters where the temperatures even overnight have been above freezing when normally it gets brutally cold?
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59 views

Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
4
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0answers
40 views

Oscillating dew point throughout the year?

I was searching for the climate of Saudi Arabia and I noticed that the city of Abha (altitude of 7000 feet) has a "strange" behavior in its dew point, as numbeo suggests: https://www.numbeo.com/...
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77 views

Are clouds more common at night?

Clouds obviously have a strong effect on surface temperatures. By blocking sunlight they can decrease the temperature by several degrees. At night they have a blanket effect that traps warm air and ...
4
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61 views

How is the vertical distribution of water vapor changing?

In this publication about data assimilation and observations (paywall alert) in the chapter General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics (by Andrew Charlton-Perez, William Lahoz, Richard Swinbank, ...
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141 views

How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
3
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1answer
103 views

What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
3
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53 views

How Warm would the Earth have to get for any crops to grow in the Antarctic Peninsula/South Orkneys

I found some little silly speculation about settling Antarctica when it warms up, and I wanted to know the minimum amount the world would have to warm up in order for just the most equator-ward ...
3
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109 views

Do 360 day calendars affect climate models?

I was recently reading Zach Holman's blogpost on time and remembering that I've had to work with CMIP5 output that used a 360 day calendar, rather than a 365 day or a Greogrian (or Proleptic Gregorian)...
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57 views

What will happen to the tropical rainforest when climate increases by 5°C?

Today's most likely outcome regarding climate change is between +3°C and +6°C. My guess is at least +5°C. Has anybody found some papers indicating the average increase at the equator and a prognosis ...
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117 views

Are there any energy budget diagram showing separate day/night and summer/winter values?

I particularly like the classical energy budget diagrams like that produced by Trenberth et al in 2009. They are simple to understand and show all the various heat transfer mechanisms operating on the ...
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75 views

Will the next ENSO event be of modoki type?

Where can I find free information to learn if the forecasted ENSO El Nino event for 2nd semester 2017 will be a MODOKI one? The Japan Meteo Service also publishes the EL-NINO-MODOKI Index (below), ...
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409 views

Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
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197 views

Difference between convergent precipitation and cyclone precipitation?

What exactly is the difference between convergent precipitation and cyclone precipitation, their generation and characteristics?
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117 views

Climate zone classification using the Holdridge method

I have to classify the climate zones for Western Ghats using the Holdridge method. The classifiers are temperature, rainfall, elevation. Elevation is constant. But for temperature and rainfall how ...
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0answers
46 views

Why are isotherms skewed to 45 degrees in the tephigram?

I have studied about tephigrams. In all the books, it has written that isotherms and dry adiabats are skewed to certain degrees. But practically I could not connect it. How is it possible that ...
2
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0answers
45 views

How does jetstreams lead to formation of heat waves in Europe?

Jetstreams move at an altitude of roughly 6-9km above the sea level. Since, it is moving at such a great altitude how could it have possible impacts on the land? And how will jetstreams that flow at ...
2
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0answers
48 views

Are there more meteorological catastrophic events due to climate change?

I was told by a sedimentologist there is no evidence of more climatic catastrophic events at the geological register previous to Pleistocene, when climate was warmer. My question is if meteorologists ...
2
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0answers
44 views

Any appreciable differences in microclimate on the shores of small mountain streams?

I have land in India (the tropics), in the hills, on a slope from 6800 feet - 5200 ft altitude (roughly). At that lowest point there's a stream of about 10-15m across. On one side is our land, on the ...
2
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3answers
130 views

Could dust blown up by a comet impact render the air unbreathable?

In the docudrama Super Comet After the Impact, the impact is shown to have made the air within a few miles of it unbreathable, and humans need gas masks to breath in this area. How realistic is this? ...
2
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2answers
585 views

Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
2
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0answers
65 views

Snow under Siberian High

The Siberian High is a very strong anticyclone present over Siberia in the winter. Cities like Irkutsk lie at its very center, yet Irkutsk has 18-20 days of snow per month in the winter. Shouldn't we ...
2
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0answers
54 views

How to divide timeseries into normal periods in meteorology and climatology?

When analyzing hydrological and climatological timeseries/observations it is a common practice to compare statistics made on normal periods. As WMO calls them: "WMO Climatological Normals". These ...
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0answers
1k views

Is this an accurate simulation of a further south Australia with a filled lake Eyre?

I created this climate map based on a simplified Koppen Climate Classification map (shown below). In this scenario Australia is moved 10 degrees of latitude further south and the Lake Eyre basin is ...
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0answers
68 views

Good practices and pitfalls when fitting models $y = f(weather)$ and predicting $\hat{y} = \hat{f}(GCM)$

I've got a phenomenon of interest, $y$. It is determined in large part by the weather. Naturally, one becomes interested in what climate change may do to $y$, so one fits a model of the form $y = f(\...
2
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0answers
99 views

volcanic effects on the climate during Pangaea

Which influence does the constellation of the continents have on the global climate? Was the biosphere more susceptible to climatic effects a volcanic eruption may cause during the Permian than it is ...
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0answers
136 views

Correlation of El Nino and south indian monsoon

A recent article in New Scientist reports the following claim made by Wenju Cai at CSIRO Melbourne. Southern India is having a lot of rain as it goes into winter, having come out of the dry ...
2
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0answers
137 views

vegetation types and their required or suitable climate condition

I am doing a variability analysis for landcover in Western Ghats region. I have various vegetation classes such as: evergreen (needle leaf, broad leaf), decidious (needle leaf, broad leaf), ...
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0answers
135 views

Equatorial Bulge and its implications on the climate

How much of the variance in the climate is due to the equatorial bulge and how much sun radiation do we lose due to the equatorial bulge? I am interested in the variance both through time and ...
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0answers
39 views

How large were CFC emissions per year before the Montreal Protocol came into practice?

This article The China CFC dilemma states CFC emissions now might be 67,000 tonnes per year. I tried to look for how large were the emissions of it before the Montreal Protocol but I couldnt find it. ...
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2answers
93 views

A little question on climates

What is sub-tropical wet climate, semi-arid climate and semi-tropical continental climate. I encountered this while reading climate of my state Haryana. (I have no background in enviromental science)
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0answers
60 views

Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
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0answers
66 views

Can cloud seeding make a much hotter summer, at a middle latitude, at the area that receives less water than expected?

My country, Spain (40ºN), receives clouds from the Atlantic Ocean during the summer. Our most visited beaches are on the Eastern coast, which sits on the Mediterranean Sea, there is typically more dry ...
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0answers
42 views

Forecast accuracy in different climate types

Which climate is easier to be predicted. In other words. Which climate forecast results better accuracy? Is there any climate more convenient to be predicted? Is there any paper concerning this topic?...
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0answers
34 views

Where I find the info about what plants, trees can be planted in a locality

I would like to know what plants, trees can be planted in a locality. I wanted this info around the globe based on latitude and longitude or by some other means. Is there a source organisation/source ...
1
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0answers
122 views

Why is December colder than January in the western United States?

Well it seems like the coldest month in the western US should be February since it's closer to oceans than interior areas of the continent. This is called seasonal lag. It's a phenomenon where the ...