Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
2answers
87 views

How should one compare the comfort of climates?

Is there a way to measure the overall feel of the weather for a place? Suppose that: Place A has Temperature $33^o C$, Humidity $57\%$, Wind $14\;km/hr$, and Precipitation $20\%$ Place B has ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

What percentage of Earth's surface is arid?

Is there available information on how much of Earth surface is arid climate?
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Does Vietnam's highlands have both colder winters and hotter summers than lower lying areas?

In the climate section of Wikivoyage's guide to Vietnam, it's claimed that the highlands of Vietnam have both colder winters, and hotter summers: The north has four distinct seasons, with a ...
2
votes
0answers
65 views

Snow under Siberian High

The Siberian High is a very strong anticyclone present over Siberia in the winter. Cities like Irkutsk lie at its very center, yet Irkutsk has 18-20 days of snow per month in the winter. Shouldn't we ...
8
votes
3answers
390 views

Does general relativity influence climate (vs Newtonian mechanics)

That may sounds like a silly question but here it is. One of the early great successes of general relativity was to explain the discrepancy between the prehilion advance of Mercury predicted by ...
1
vote
1answer
850 views

Understanding a diagram of Earth's radiation balance

Trying to understand this image. Can someone tell me if I have the right reasoning here: Sun has 100% SW shooting to earth 30% of that 100% is reflected by clouds 70% remains Of that 70%, 45% of that ...
11
votes
2answers
373 views

Is Atacama Desert cloudy or cloudless most of the year?

I saw many contradictions everywhere. For example, my geography textbook says that Atacama Desert is a desert where foggy weather is common, and it persists almost the whole year. Whereas every ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

How much warming there was over time for a specific month?

I'm calculating warming trends in specific places and periods of time, that are related to the time a migratory bird spends in a stopover. But using different methods I got different results and I'm ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

How to divide timeseries into normal periods in meteorology and climatology?

When analyzing hydrological and climatological timeseries/observations it is a common practice to compare statistics made on normal periods. As WMO calls them: "WMO Climatological Normals". These ...
6
votes
0answers
87 views

Science behind the groundhog day myth

The myth goes that if a groundhog sees his shadow on Feb 2, six more weeks of winter are yet to come, but if he doesn't, spring is just around the corner. I am wondering if there is any science ...
18
votes
2answers
5k views

Where is the calmest place on Earth?

I have done some research online, and I've found out that Antarctica has the calmest winds (lowest maximum wind speed) recorded on Earth. However, it is uninhabitable for human life. Other very calm ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, can it be shown as ensemble average?

Let’s say I have got 15 CMIP5 models’ outputs of a given variable e.g. temperature, for RCP6.5 (2020-2100) run. I want to plot how the temperature will change in the future 2020-2100 (scatter plot, x ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

CMIP5 Historical experiments, what do they mean?

What are the main characteristics of CMIP5 Historical experiments? e.g. Initial conditions? Greenhouse gases forcing? How they differ from RCPs? And how they are similar to Observed reanalysis data?...
5
votes
2answers
123 views

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather?

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather? As an example, NASA estimated the annual loss of the Greenland ice field 2002-2013 as more than ...
4
votes
1answer
164 views

How averaging works in GFS model from NOAA?

We have downloaded grib2 files for GFS model from NOAA and extracted irradiance (Downwards shortwave radiation flux) data. Following is a sample output for cordinates at [52.0,4.0]: ...
3
votes
0answers
57 views

What will happen to the tropical rainforest when climate increases by 5°C?

Today's most likely outcome regarding climate change is between +3°C and +6°C. My guess is at least +5°C. Has anybody found some papers indicating the average increase at the equator and a prognosis ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Building massive seawall around endangered Islands like Mauritius to save from climate change [closed]

Would it be possible to build a massive seawall, say maybe even made from metal that could rise as the sea level rises to prevent being erased? I am not considering costs here, nor beauty, only if ...
8
votes
1answer
161 views

What controls the acidity of the ocean?

I have learned that: coral reefs are made up mostly of calcium carbonate coral reefs are mainly distributed in the tropical zone The calcium carbonate will be decomposed in the reaction as ...
1
vote
2answers
693 views

Polar Ice caps are melting? Questions on enviromental impact

The polar ice caps are melting at a significant rate partly due to the albedo effect, releasing greenhouse gas-methane into earth’s atmosphere. At the same time we are logging our forests for ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

Defining dry/wet season in Europe

I am developing a remote sensing model and I also want to consider the climate data. My question is, how can I define a dry/wet season for a country like e.g. Austria? I have the weather data for ...
2
votes
2answers
541 views

Colder winters along the North American Atlantic northeast

Why are winters along the North American Atlantic northeast coast colder than winters along the North American Pacific Northwest coast?
8
votes
1answer
891 views

What is the consensus among geologists about climate change being caused by humans?

I'm terribly frustrated with the way that climate change has been debated in Europe. I live in the Netherlands and members of one of the biggest parties here, the Party for Freedom (PVV), frequently ...
4
votes
0answers
141 views

How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

Is evapotransporation accounted for in climate models?

Is evapotransporation accounted for in climate models, or is it considered so insignificant that it's not considered? Could additional crops being planted within the last 100 to 50 years account ...
2
votes
0answers
1k views

Is this an accurate simulation of a further south Australia with a filled lake Eyre?

I created this climate map based on a simplified Koppen Climate Classification map (shown below). In this scenario Australia is moved 10 degrees of latitude further south and the Lake Eyre basin is ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How different can microclimates be than their surrounding areas?

How much different in temperature and pressure can a microclimate be than the surrounding region? In other words, if you had a dry region but then a valley within a ring of mountains that isolated ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Why do human populations concentrate near fault lines, volcanoes, etc.?

I've noticed that many places with large populations tend to be prime zones for natural disaster. Examples: Silicon Valley = earthquakes, Houston = hurricanes and floods, Japan = tsunamis and ...
2
votes
1answer
681 views

How to prepare GrADS's .ctl file to convert grd file into .nc file in batch mode?

I have lots of grd (GrADS) file and I want to convert those data into netCDF file using cdo. The operation needs all the corresponding ctl file and I will have to prepare all these. So, my question is ...
8
votes
2answers
96 views

Is the impact of carbon emision dependent on the location on the earth?

While I was reading how the EU taxes aviation companies based on carbon emissions it occurred to me that the effect of carbon emissions on global temperature etc. may depend on where the carbon is ...
0
votes
1answer
143 views

Is the Mauna Loa CO$_\mathsf{2}$ record affected by the nearby mantle plume?

How is it possible that Mauna Loa Observatory is the International Reference Observatory for CO2 Global Measurements if it is placed above the most important earth thermal plume that is heating the ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Are Earth´s interannual global climate variations affected by other bodies in the solar system and their evolution?

Are fluctuations like El Niño and La Niña entirely independent of outside influences such as the gravitational effects from other planets, variation in solar output, etc?
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Why has the average low for the hottest months in Clearwater Florida about 5 degrees higher than the historical average?

Look up Clearwater Florida on Wikipedia and it gives you the average low for the Months of July and August as being 74.2F. About 3-4 years ago I picked up running as a main hobby and the temperature ...
8
votes
3answers
7k views

Does the elliptical orbit of the Earth have effect on Earth's climate?

I know the Earth is nearest to Sun during the summers of the southern hemisphere. Does the orbit affect the climate actually? For example, would there be any difference if the Earth had a perfectly ...
4
votes
1answer
172 views

Single-layer water content variables

In different reanalysis products (ERA 20C and NOAA/OAR/ESRL/PSD 20th Century daily data specifically) one can find the following variables: Total column water (ERA) Total column rain water (ERA) ...
2
votes
0answers
68 views

Good practices and pitfalls when fitting models $y = f(weather)$ and predicting $\hat{y} = \hat{f}(GCM)$

I've got a phenomenon of interest, $y$. It is determined in large part by the weather. Naturally, one becomes interested in what climate change may do to $y$, so one fits a model of the form $y = f(\...
5
votes
0answers
409 views

What is the “global mean surface temperature change estimate” an estimate of?

NASA publishes what it calls an "estimate" of the Earth's global mean surface temperature. Digging through papers I've been able to find some documentation of how these numbers are computed, but I ...
6
votes
2answers
98 views

ERA Interim problem with Waves

Has anyone had a problem with significant wave height (swh) and mean wave period (mwp) from ERA-Interim not matching very well with either a time series of measurements or a different model? Or does ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

Are there datasets like the global land-ocean temperature index for land surface temperature only?

I have no background in climate science, but I've become interested in explanations of the so-called "global warming hiatus" from 1998-2013. One explanation that people seem to think is convincing ...
10
votes
0answers
80 views

How are scatterometer observations standardised before being fed into reanalysis models?

This very basic question occurred to me during a talk on reanalysis data sets. Often we know the observations produced by a particular instrument, say rain radar, are biased from one year to the next ...
5
votes
3answers
3k views

Is the Unified Theory of Climate (Nikolov & Zeller) compatible with the AGW/GHG theory in any respect?

Nikolov & Zeller have published a paper concerning what they call The Unified Theory of Climate. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/New-Insights-on-the-Physical-Nature-of-the-Atmospheric-...
1
vote
2answers
168 views

Why is it good scientific practice to 'build' a 'control Earth' from models, and where else do we 'build' controls? [closed]

Usually, when data is collected in an experiment, scientists have a control. Experiments are seen as flawed without controls. I am just curious as to where else scientists have 'built' controls using ...
3
votes
1answer
597 views

How to calculate 3-hour flux values in ERA-Interim?

Referring to the post: https://www.myroms.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=3003 I understood how to calculate the slhf and sshf for 03, 06, 09 and 12 time steps. But I have values for 00, 15, 18 ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

During an average winter, what part (if any) of the Mississippi River becomes unnavigable?

What part of the Mississippi River becomes unnavigable (either freezes or accumulates too much ice to navigate) during an average winter? Perplexingly I could not find this through Google. I suppose ...
0
votes
1answer
166 views

Modified blackbody model of earth. What is wrong with it? [closed]

I have made a modified blackbody model that predict earth temperature distribution with high accuracy. It doesn´t include mass or gases. It is based on the initial thought that all energy above ...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

Result of deterioration of vegetation

I had this question in my previous exam, it says: Deterioration of vegetation resulted by overgrazing results in...... 1.desert encroachment. 2.change in climate. I had to choose 1 or 2 ...
4
votes
2answers
868 views

How do we apply the Stefan-Boltzmann equation to radiative heat transfer from/to CO2 in the atmosphere?

If we can use the Stefan-Boltzman equation to quantify the radiative flux leaving a solid body due to emission of radiation and to do it properly for a solid body we need to include the emissivity ...
3
votes
1answer
126 views

Has there ever been a study done on the effect of steam/thermal pollution on climate [duplicate]

Most people are well aware of the idea of greenhouse warming. Carbon dioxide receives particular attention, do to the uncertainty of sources, sinks, and inert properties. However, combustion, which ...
-4
votes
1answer
441 views

Experimental testing to falsify the theory of the greenhouse gas effect [duplicate]

Irrespective of how accepted any scientific theory happens to be it is often worth thinking about a possible experiment to test said theory and perhaps falsify it. If we wanted to do this for the ...
0
votes
3answers
540 views

Which physical parameters can we actually measure to confirm the existence of the Greenhouse Effect (GHE)? [closed]

The theory of a GHE in a planetary atmosphere is rather well known. Many claim it is no longer a theory but actually proven as a fact. However I have been reading a lot of things Richard Feynman said ...
0
votes
3answers
171 views

How to design an experiment to quantify back radiation from atmospheric carbon dioxide?

Based on our current knowledge of CO$_2$ and current instrumental techniques, how big would a laboratory sample of air with 400ppm of CO$_2$ need to be in order to quantify the back radiation from CO$...