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Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

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6
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1answer
4k views

How to calculate the temperature of Earth's surface

From a dissertation, I read about the greenhouse gas's effect which make the surface warmer. It says, I quote: The greenhouse effect results in an average surface temperature of approx. $14^\...
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1answer
310 views

How does the lifetime of methane vary in the atmosphere?

When reading about methane and its effect on climate, it is clear that its lifetime in the atmosphere is important to the global warming potential. However, the lifetime does vary from 9 to 15 years, ...
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1answer
290 views

What are the relative contributions of planets to the Milankovitch Cycles?

When reading about the Milankovitch cycles here, it says: If the Earth were the only planet orbiting our Sun, the eccentricity of its orbit would not perceptibly vary even over a period of a ...
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Distribution of thermometric devices on earth

In complex climate models, measurements of Earth-based thermometers are used. What is their geographic distribution - historically? Does each measurement get equal weight?
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What caused the earth's climate to stabilise ~10 thousand years ago?

We can see that the last glacial period ended 12-10K years ago. Interestingly enough, this also appears to coincide with the rise of large human civilisations. My question is: What caused the earth'...
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1answer
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Is there a data source for annual global precipitation?

Is there a data source for cumultative global precipitation by year? Units would presumably be mass, volume, or height of water equivalent. Also, what about cumulative global precipitation over land ...
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2answers
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Next Ice age may be unavoidable

During the warm period before the most recent ice age, 120,000 years ago, roughly half of the Greenland ice sheet melted.This is thought to have been the cause of the last ice age. Question: If this ...
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4answers
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Why is the temperature *still* rising?

2015 is the hottest year on record, and the average temperature continues to rise. I don't understand why this continues, as (over the past twenty years) so much work was put into reducing Global ...
6
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1answer
349 views

What does the precessional parameter measure?

I am wondering what is measured in the plots of change of precession, e.g. when describing Milankovitch Cycles. The values typically vary between .06 and −.06. I am also wondering about what the ...
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1answer
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Is there a defined reference period for the COP21 agreement?

In December, the the vast part of the world community has agreed on the tackling of climate change. This was the result of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly abbreviated to ...
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1answer
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Why does winter get colder after the solstice?

Intuitively, it makes perfect sense to think that the coldest day of the year would be the day that gets the least sunshine, the winter solstice. In the northern hemisphere, this occurs a few days ...
4
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1answer
537 views

How is a UV Index calculated?

I have three parameters for a particular location, namely: Ozone:- A numerical value representing the columnar density of total atmospheric ozone at the given time in Dobson units Elevation: The ...
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1answer
113 views

Future super-continent

What will the earth look like when the continents recollide? What will the climate be like? Assume global warming has been taken care of.
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A Wide-Open Passage Between the Indian and the Pacific [closed]

Today, through plate tectonics, the islands of Indonesia and the Philippines stand as barriers between the Indian and Pacific oceans. In fact, there once was a warm ocean current flowing from the ...
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1answer
94 views

What is meant by Global-warming Potential (GWP)?

I was under the impression GWP (global-warming potential) is the measure of a gas' impact on global warming, in comparison with CO2. E.g. methane has a GWP of 86 over 20 years - Wikipedia Comparing ...
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Altering the Milankovitch Cycles [closed]

As I understand it, the Pleistocene ice ages were dictated by three major factors suggested by the Serbian geophysicist Milutin Milankovitch--eccentricity (orbital shape), obliquity (axial tilt) and ...
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Great Lakes Earth: The Americas [closed]

Related to If the Oceans Were Deeper The Appalachian Range, at first glance, doesn’t seem so different—low-lying hills covered in forest dominating the eastern landscape. However, they are taller—7,...
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If the Oceans Were Deeper

Back home, the average depths of the world's oceans--and the Mediterranean Sea--are as follows: Atlantic--3926 meters Pacific--4028 meters Indian--3963 meters Arctic--1205 meters Southern--4500 ...
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Correlation of El Nino and south indian monsoon

A recent article in New Scientist reports the following claim made by Wenju Cai at CSIRO Melbourne. Southern India is having a lot of rain as it goes into winter, having come out of the dry ...
6
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1answer
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What causes the counter-intuitive presence of CO2 in the atmosphere during spring and summer months?

Recently, I stumbled upon this NASA map of the Earth from the OCO-2, a satellite that measures CO2 density in the atmosphere. http://www.climatecentral.org/news/nasa-tools-co2-19681 Specifically, I'm ...
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References on hurricanes

Would anyone know of references (available online or not) that give detailed explanations and especially the physics behind violent meteorological events such as hurricanes?
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Effect on poles when Earth is not tilted [closed]

Say a Mars size object hits the Earth in such a way that it knocks the Earth in a straight 0 degree angle, and let's assume that we somehow do not go extinct. What would happen to the poles in this ...
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1answer
108 views

Quantitative mapping of air pollution Sifakis and Paronis

I am reading this paper about deriving AOT and I have found this ...
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2answers
280 views

Did the surfaces of the oceans freeze over entirely during the snowball Earth periods?

According to the snowball Earth theory, all of Earth froze over at least once (possibly twice) in the far past. However, Wikipedia says that there are opponents of the theory who state that tropical ...
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1answer
695 views

How does soil fertility differ between Scandinavia and Russia

How is climate and soil fertility different in Scandinavia comparing to Russian territory of 1500s? Did Scandinavia have more favorable climate and more of arable and higher yielding soil than Russia ...
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NCEP reanalysis latitude and longitude represent center of cell?

I can't find any information regarding the lat and long in the NCEP Reanalysis. Do they represent the center of the cell?
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2answers
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When will glaciation resume? Has global warming delayed return to global cooling?

As far as I understand, we are currently living in the Holocene, an interglacial period of the Quaternary glaciation, i.e. the current ice age that has so far lasted 2.6 million years. The Holocene ...
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1answer
242 views

Was Russia's original territory unfavorable for agriculture?

How favourable were the soil and climate in Russia's landmass of the 1500s for growing crops in comparison with Northern European countries?
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What meteorological factors contribute to springtime Trans-Pacific air-pollution events?

The transport of tropospheric ozone, ozone precursors, carbon monoxide, etc from Asia to North America is an active area of research (see J.L. Ambrose, et al., 2011) These types of events occur ...
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1answer
155 views

Confirmation of historical El Niño events

As this year's boreal summer monsoon draws to a close interest automatically centers around forecasts for next summer's monsoon and the likelihood of possibly another El Niño event. This brings about ...
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2answers
627 views

Why do winter temperatures account for most of the increase in global temperature?

If you examine the detailed temperature records that form the basis for our understanding of global warming, there are some strange anomalies (at least from a naive point of view where warming affects ...
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Why is Venezuela so dry?

I'm trying to understand why the summer (January) precipitations in Venezuela are so low in the central and southern parts of the country as well as in eastern Colombia. The most plausible explanation ...
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3answers
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Can volcanos change the climate?

I have heard politicians claiming that volcanoes are the sole cause of global warming and using so called "NASA data" to show that the Earth is actually cooling instead of warming. While the nature ...
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1answer
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Does the Sun's oscillation affect Earth's climate?

Today, discourse on climate change seemingly tends to focus on earthly elements such as pollution and human activity. While I am certainly not well-read on climate change research, after inspiration ...
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3answers
539 views

Is increase in atmospheric $\mathrm{CO}_2$ concentration affecting Earth's atmospheric pressure?

It's well known that the $\mathrm{CO}_2$ levels around the world are increasing, leading to an increase in overall surface temperature, etc. But I'm wondering, are these gases (or the effects from ...
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Where can I find data for annual high and low temperatures?

I am comparing the climates of a handful of cities and I would like to find the average of all recorded yearly high and low temperatures, but all I'm able to find is the average of all monthly ...
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What would the climate be like on an Earth-like planet if it had only one convection cell per hemisphere?

Earth has three convection cells per hemisphere. These are the Polar cell, Ferrel cell and Hadley cell. These create the trade winds, westerlies and polar easterlies which control many aspects of ...
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1answer
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How does evapotranspiration affect rainfall?

Evapotranspiration is when a plant evaporates water off the surface of its leaves in order to move water throughout its system with cohesive and adheisiveforces. My question is how will a sudden ...
6
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1answer
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What is the significance of the “super historic” rainfall for July 2015 in southern California?

On July 19, 2015 there was record rainfall over the Los Angeles and San Diego areas. This is amidst a historic drought and the rain is needed. This article: http://www.weather.com/storms/hurricane/...
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1answer
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Did the Neolithic Revolution have an effect on the earth's climate?

I imagine that human agriculture had a major effect on the composition of flora across the planet's surface. Did the transition from gathering to growing have a measurable effect on climate? If so, ...
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2answers
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Is pure “heat” harmful to the environment?

Is heat, dissipated from a hot conductor to the surrounding air harmful to the environment? If it were large-scale would it have any negative eco-effect? Is a source of heat, considered harmful to ...
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2answers
1k views

GIS Data on climate types

Where can I download GIS data delimiting global climate types? For example mediterannean climate, temperate climate, etc. Additionally, how similar are temperature profiles for various places in the ...
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4answers
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Why has CO2 decreased in the history of the Earth?

I noticed that the $\ce{CO2}$ is actually decreasing in the eon time. My guess is lush vegetation or forests began to grow which absorbed the $\ce{CO2}$ by photosynthesis? Would anyone give me any ...
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1answer
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Siberia (Beringia) during last glacier period

Today, Northern Russia is considered quite cold. It is not populated because it has low biological productivity: low light and cold. It can be below -50 at winter and 10 C at summer peak. It is low ...
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1answer
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How significant is organic cotton agriculture to the USA's total global ecological footprint?

The ecological footprint of a human activity can be measured in global hectares (gha). Cotton's ecological footprint to produce one ton of product ranges from 2.17 gha for organic cotton to 3.57 gha ...
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How to tell if a single day of weather is an anomaly or due to climate change?

I am interested in understanding how to tell if a single day of 'abnormal' weather is due to climate change or not. From my understanding, you would compare this day's weather to historical weather. ...
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How does the influence of clouds on climate vary with height?

It is generally assumed that clouds affect climate by reflecting sunlight back to space and therefore decreasing the total warming of the Earth. However, stratospheric ice clouds are said to have a ...
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1answer
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Simple Climate Models that Predict Climate Change

I have a physics/maths background, and to me the most convincing evidence of a scientific fact is often a very simple model that gives reasonable results. A simplified model, which you can fully ...
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1answer
855 views

Do forests affect local rainfall and climate significantly?

I know that forests can change the local temperature, but what about rainfall?. Do forests affect rainfall in their region? I have read that if a forest is very big, it can cause minor changes to ...
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1answer
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Wet and dry seasons - what are they and how do they form?

While asking questions on Worldbuilding, I keep hearing about wet/dry seasons. Obviously, one has rain and the other doesn't, and I've gathered that they occur with regularity on an annual basis, but ...