Questions tagged [climate]

Average weather conditions for a particular area measured over multiple years or decades. For questions on climate change use the [climate-change] tag.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
8
votes
3answers
1k views

A good book or source for climate science and meteorology basics?

I have a mainly a hydro-geological and geo-statistical background, I would like to have a basic introduction to meteorological, climatic processes and modelling techniques related to these fields. Any ...
15
votes
2answers
853 views

What factors affect the size of rain shadows?

Rain shadows are dry areas on the lee side of mountains. Due to humid air condensing and precipitating as they are lifted up and over the mountains, they lose moisture by the time they reach the lee ...
12
votes
2answers
475 views

Bifurcation Scenarios in the Atmosphere

I read that the mathematical definition of bifurcation is that, at a critical value of a parameter that governs the dynamical system, the system changes to a topologically different system than the ...
19
votes
1answer
292 views

Can large (and wet) storms really trigger large magnitude Earthquakes?

At the 2011 AGU Fall meeting, this poster claimed that the water erosion from Taiwan's wettest storms could prematurely trigger large magnitude earthquakes , $ M \ge 6.0 $. If this was true, this ...
14
votes
2answers
218 views

Ice Coverage on the Laurentian Great Lakes

Currently (April 2014), the fraction of the Great Lakes covered by ice is more than ten times the median amount for this time of year, the median amount being indicated by the green line in the below ...
12
votes
1answer
481 views

Did global warming cause the extreme cold 2013-14 winter in North America?

There have been some claims made (example) that global warming had something to do with why the 2013-2014 winter was so cold in the Midwest area of America. If this is true then how did global ...
50
votes
5answers
4k views

What started the US Dust Bowl of the 1930s, and could it happen again?

Most of us know about the Dust Bowl: the huge storms of dirt and dust that swept across America in the 1930's. But what I'm wondering is... What actually triggered the start of the Dust Bowl? Is it ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Why does the El Niño Stop?

The reason for the initiation of the El Niño is unknown, but what is well known is how it progresses once initiated. The West Pacific warm pool begins to drift East, and the strength of the trade ...
16
votes
5answers
5k views

Is the Earth's hot inner core necessary for life?

The inner core of the Earth has an enormous temperature of around 4300 degrees Celsius. Is this large inner core temperature an important factor contributing to the ideal temperature that is ...
31
votes
2answers
1k views

How much of the current global warming is due to human influence?

Approximately what proportion of the global warming seen over the the last century is attributed to anthropogenic sources?
14
votes
0answers
695 views

How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
27
votes
2answers
13k views

Why is Europe warmer than North America at similar latitudes?

Traditionally it has thought to be the Gulf Stream. But other researchers, like Richard Seager and Tapio Schneider, propose different arguments as to why. How much of a role does the Gulf Stream ...
8
votes
1answer
327 views

What are monsoons caused by?

Traditionally we think of them as being caused by differences in land-sea heating. But more recently, some researchers, like Simona Bordoni and William Boos, have argued otherwise.
17
votes
5answers
577 views

Does vegetation contribute to long-term carbon sequestration?

So we know that vegetation sequesters carbon dioxide into its leaves. Much of this carbon sequestration is temporary, since when the plant dies, much of it is released as CO2 back into the atmosphere. ...
11
votes
1answer
202 views

Why is heavy precipitation from atmospheric rivers more likely to hit the West Coasts than the East Coasts?

As an example of an atmospheric river, see http://www.wired.com/2014/03/california-atmospheric-river-rain/. These events have been known to hit areas like California and Bergen, Norway.
11
votes
3answers
4k views

How were we able to measure carbon dioxide levels in earlier climates?

It is said that carbon dioxide levels were much higher during the Cretaceous and Eocene periods: which proxies are used to determine paleo-pCO2?
8
votes
1answer
167 views

How much carbon is sequestered out of the atmosphere through marine snow?

Marine snow in the deep ocean is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. How much carbon is sequestered in this process? How does it compare ...
16
votes
1answer
493 views

How will cloud feedback effects on the climate change as the result of global warming?

So global warming will increase the tropospheric temperatures, which, in turn, would make the clouds higher than they otherwise would be. And higher clouds (especially cirrus clouds) tend to trap in ...
20
votes
2answers
4k views

What are the major differences between weather models and climate models?

Some weather models include GFS (Global Forecast System) and NAM (North American Mesoscale Model). Some climate models include CCSM (Community Climate System Model) and the NASA GISS (Goddard ...
7
votes
1answer
176 views

How have levels of outgoing longwave and incoming shortwave radiation changed over the last 20-30 years?

So as we know, climate change is associated with increased radiation flux into the Earth. In other words, the sum of (incoming shortwave radiation) - (outgoing longwave radiation) [which I will call ...
22
votes
2answers
813 views

Is climate chaotic?

The atmosphere is a highly dynamical system, and exhibits many chaotical features. An operational weather forecasting model tries to model an initial value problem, in fact one of the most famous ...