Questions tagged [climatology]

In contrast to the short-term variable weather, climate describes the mean conditions of atmosphere. Thus it is the statistic of weather (mean values, extrema, etc.). Often a 30-year period is considered. When asking questions about climate, use this tag and also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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Why aren't diatoms' shells used as a temperature proxy, but foraminifera shells are?

Changes in oceanic oxygen isotope ratios (18O to 16O) are reflected in the shells of ancient foraminifera. However, I have not read of diatom shells being used, despite the fact that they were (and ...
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3 votes
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Efficient way to find spatial extrema in 2-D space time netcdf field

I have a 2-D latitude-time zonal wind netCDF dataset (such as this small sample from ERA-Interim) from which I want to find all local maxima of the zonal wind as a function of latitude, for each time ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Do "aerosol shields" protect big emitters from the impact of their own GHGs?

Green house gases typically have higher lifetimes than aerosols and their precursors (e.g. SO2) so, as I understand it, GHGs usually spread more or less evenly across continents, no matter where they ...
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3 votes
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Why does cloud cover seem to "ride" a wave that propagates westward near the equator in this video?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wVRbeGc_6zM Notice that the cloud cover over Africa and South America is correlated in a way that seems to be highlighting some kind of large-scale easterly wave ...
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3 votes
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Do greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit photons or reflect them diffusely? Or both? (CO2, CH4, H2O, N20, HFC-134a, etc.)

Also, would it matter if a particular type of greenhouse gas molecule reflected rather than absorbed and then re-emitted light? Would its GWP be higher or lower? Perhaps this is more of a pure ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Does increased water vapour in atmosphere increase the risk of hypoxia?

I recently found that each degree of warming increases water vapour by 7% and I've also learned that the atmosphere contains (on average) between 1-5% water vapour when saturated, this confused me a ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How can I calculate the relative change in Precipitation using CMIP models without producing unrealistic results in Dry areas?

I am calculating changes in precipitation using the Delta method, wherein the relative changes are calculated thus: Delta change = (modelled Future climatology (2050s) - modelled historical ...
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When would the next glaciation appear? Worst case

Suppose that the IPCC's best estimate of climate sensitivity (3 K) is relevant and that the Keeling curve will increase as now, with a certain procent more emission next year than previous year, into ...
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3 votes
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Does deforestation increase global temperatures or just local temperatures?

Did human-caused deforestation impacted climate and rainfall patterns in the past? I'm asking this because I don't know much about the impact of forest cover loss and evapotranspiration on global ...
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1 vote
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How to Distribute Soil moisture output of Thornthwaite and Mather (1954) Soil Water Balance Model into different layers?

in Thornthwaite & Mather (1954) Soil Water Balance Approach The soil moisture output is generated for the whole soil profile, i.e whatever depth we take for the ...
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1 vote
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From ice core analysis to temperature curves

In ice cores a lot of data are measured and analyzed and can be plotted versus depth, for example age of layers thickness of layers concentration of spurious gases concentration of solids delta ...
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3 votes
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Climate on Venus after it becomes tidally locked

Suppose, Venus becomes tidally locked. Will its dark side cool enough so that the CO2 from atmosphere to precipitate in liquid form to make an ocean?
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How to convert Relative humidity (%) or Specific humidity (kg/kg) to Air humidity (mb)?

The model I use needs the data of Air humidity and unit is 'mb' (there is no other explanations about this variable), but now I only have two datasets and there are Relative humidity (%) or Specific ...
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Can the absorbtion of infrared around the 650 wavenumber in water be a substantial cause of converting that spectrum range into other spectra?

CO2 absorbs around the 15 microns wavelenght or wavenumber 650, and radiates in the same but also a somewhat wider range. However, the top layer of the oceans seem to also convert that spectrum range. ...
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1 vote
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Is it possible to kickstart an hypothetical frozen earth with 0.6 ice albedo to an earth with an atmosphere, with just the sun at current distance?

Phase change of water at different pressures and temperatures tell us that with no atmospheric pressure 200 Kelvin (minus 73 Celcius) is enough to turn ice into vapor directly Wouldn't that suggest ...
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Why has the Earth's average sea level risen 'only' by nine inches after one degree C increase in temperature?

I am only doing gross calculations here, but... If the Earth has warmed by about one degree Celsius in the last century or so, and the thermal expansion coefficient of water is about .0002085, then ...
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7 votes
2 answers
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Which part of solar radiation (VIS, NIR) keeps Earth warm?

Which part of solar radiation (visible light vs. infrared radiation) plays main part in keeping Earth's surface warm?
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difference between climatology and meteorology only [duplicate]

Some basic differences are needed for children to understand only. The language should be simple enough so that any age understands for 5 to 99 or maybe 100.
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5 votes
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Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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"steep slope" when cold fronts encounter warm fronts: Confusing sentence in textbook

I'm currently reading a university textbook on processes that result in rainfall events. In the current processes, I'm reading there is a cold front that basically pushes warm air upwards which ...
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How can we best objectively quantify climate change mitigation urgency? [closed]

Quantifying climate change mitigation urgency seems to have three aspects: (1) Green House Gas reduction targets required to meet a specific goal such as 2C. The first guesstimate seems to be zero ...
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4 answers
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What exactly is a published climatologist?

I am trying to get Gallup to do a scientific poll of published climatologists to greatly strengthen the credibility of the 97% consensus. This must start with very excellent formal definitions of ...
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Author's Name Of A Book On Bill Maher's Shelf [closed]

Could any of you, please, tell me who is the author of this book on Bill Maher's shelf? The book name is "Climate Science" and the cover color seems to be green. I looked for it on the Amazon website ...
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Are Ice Ages Affected by the Freezing Out of CO2 in Antarctica?

The freezing point of carbon dioxide is -78.5 $\small\mathsf{^o}$C. Occasionally this low is exceeded in Antarctica, and small quantities of CO2 are frozen out, but are returned soon after to the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Increase Evaporation from oceans

I would like to ask you about evaporation from sea water. Can you increase evaporation by spraying seawater to the air? Is there any difference compared to freshwater spraying (aerosol particles)?
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2 votes
3 answers
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How to calculate maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures?

A quite simple question that I hope someone can help me with. I have a massive database of hourly minimum and maximum temperatures, from many automatic weather stations. I need to estimate the average ...
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6 votes
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Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Can we see the circulation cells in wind maps?

Earth famously possesses three distinct circulation cells per hemisphere. Now out of curiosity one could use a weather app, like windy, to display the wind structures at ground level globally, and ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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If today's Earth becomes warmer, how will it compare to the Earth of the Cretaceous period?

Most pessimistic scenarios about climate change predicts a global rise of temperature of several Celsius degrees over the course of the 21st century if no action is taken. While such a shift in ...
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1 vote
1 answer
461 views

The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
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1 vote
1 answer
740 views

Do cloud formations change depending on the season?

I'm currently working on some software for cloud masking, and thus far I have only been using satellite data as recent as spring (northern hemisphere). However, I'm wondering if cloud coverage or ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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How to improve this prediction about the climate in future?

The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth and clean the air from carbon dioxid when rain- and snowfall, ...
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Which are the mechanisms of the correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxid and global warming/cooling?

In the end of glacial periods there seems to be an increasing release of carbon dioxide as the global warming increase and at the end of these global warming periods the content of carbon dioxide in ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What are the hottest temperatures ocean life can survive at [closed]

What are the hottest average annual temperature for life in the ocean to withstand? Particularly algae This could include life from all points in earth history.
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2 votes
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Is there a collective name given to regions in the ocean which have been studied to affect climate? [closed]

Would calling them hotspots be correct?
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4 votes
1 answer
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Is there consensus amongst climatologists that cold weather extremes are caused by global warming or human influence?

Is there consensus amongst climatologists that cold weather extremes are caused by global warming or human influence? I hear the claim a lot that the recent cold weather extremes (such as the polar ...
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4 votes
1 answer
217 views

What kind of temperature unit is "cK"?

An article about ocean temperature history/modeling has this plot: Where the units are given as cK. cK does not seem to be a ...
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5 votes
1 answer
103 views

Why is not snow melting in Ladakh at a rapid pace

I am a novice and thus would like you not to mind too much if the answer to my question seems "obvious" to you. I heard that in the cold desert of Ladakh, if you keep your face in sunlight and legs ...
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5 votes
1 answer
204 views

Technical term for percentage of CO2 remaining in the atmosphere

I have a theoretical exercise where I calculated the amount of CO2 that is released to the atmosphere per year (4.6 ppm). We assume that the relative increase of CO2 is 2 ppm, hence the percentage of ...
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How to calculate water vapor budget for a selected region in GRADS or MAT Lab

I need to calculate water vapor budget for a selected region. Can anyone suggest a specific link or code for the above mentioned tools please. I have seen a link for NCL but i am not familiar with ...
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7 votes
2 answers
586 views

What are good metrics to compare climates?

I'm interested in visualizing climate data across the conterminous U.S. to determine regions that I would be interested in living in. So far, I've pulled in NOAA data, and I've: averaged the maximum ...
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2 votes
1 answer
323 views

Interdisciplinary sciences which combine earth sciences with computer science

Are there interdisciplinary sciences which combine earth sciences (like geophysics, climatology, meteorology etc.) and computer science? or something like biotechnology which combine biology with ...
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Plotting moist static energy fluxes

I'm trying to plot Moist static energy fluxes (vectors) and their divergence like the attached Figure. I have monthly means of u, v, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential from(1000-100 hPa) ...
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1 vote
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529 views

Is mediterranean climate a type of monsoon climate

Given that monsoon climate has the primary feature of seasonal reversal of wind systems and the same happens in case of Mediterranean climate too, does that mean Mediterranean climate is a special ...
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5 votes
2 answers
2k views

What percentage of Earth's surface is arid?

Is there available information on how much of Earth surface is arid climate?
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11 votes
2 answers
529 views

Is Atacama Desert cloudy or cloudless most of the year?

I saw many contradictions everywhere. For example, my geography textbook says that Atacama Desert is a desert where foggy weather is common, and it persists almost the whole year. Whereas every ...
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5 votes
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Why would geostrophic theory be invoked in the tropics with regards to the MJO?

In this paper reviewing the Madden-Julian Oscillation, frequently geostrophic theory (or approximately geostrophic) is often invoked. However, for geostrophic theory to be invoked, $$Ro=\frac{U}{f_0L}&...
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3 votes
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Subterranean Climate System?

Do subterranean habitat have climate system(s)? Could it be placed in any or all of the known ones: tropical, subtropical, temperate etc. ? Is it unique?
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3 votes
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How to divide timeseries into normal periods in meteorology and climatology?

When analyzing hydrological and climatological timeseries/observations it is a common practice to compare statistics made on normal periods. As WMO calls them: "WMO Climatological Normals". These ...
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Where can I find climate analogs? [closed]

It is an unusual year where I'm at, I'd like to go and see similar climatological years for the north america, more particularly for average pressure, maybe 500mb or 700mb. How would I do this Edit:...
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