Questions tagged [earth-system]

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82
votes
6answers
38k views

What place on Earth is closest to the Sun?

What is the location on Earth that is closest to the Sun? I've seen this question asked many times, and answered in varied and contradictory ways: The most common answer is “the summit of Chimborazo ...
23
votes
7answers
11k views

Does human body temperature impact climate change?

The human body temperature is about 37 °C (99 °F), so as the population increases does this cause the Earth's temperature to rise?
12
votes
2answers
7k views

Is it true that distance between earth and sun is closer in winter season (January) and farther in summer season in the Northern Hemisphere?

Recently I heard that in winter season the distance between the Earth and the Sun will be closest and it is farthest in summer. If it is true then why is it hotter in summer and cooler in winter?
12
votes
2answers
845 views

Tipping point theory, historical examples

This article gives a wonderful overview of tipping point theory, where a large system can be brought into a different state by a small perturbation. Searching online I have found mostly articles on ...
10
votes
3answers
761 views

How to run earth system, land surface and climate models?

I am interested in earth system models, land surface models and climate prediction models. I found a lot of online information on different models, including CIMP5, and the Earth System Modeling ...
9
votes
2answers
23k views

How does the Sun heat the Earth?

The core of the sun has a temperature of 15,000,000 °C. The surface of the sun has temperature around 5,000 °C. The sun is around 93 million miles (150 million km) away from earth. My Question: With ...
8
votes
1answer
3k views

Changes in Earth's orbital and rotation speeds

What are the Earth's maximum and minimum orbital speeds around the Sun? Is there any way to calculate orbital speed at any point of Earth's orbit? Is there a way to relate this to the calendar? Does ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

What are the criteria that make a planet (in)habitable?

Recently, I realized a lot of factors must contribute toward making a planet habitable, other than just the ones that come to mind like having oxygen, the right temperature, and so on. What makes a ...
6
votes
1answer
563 views

How was the Earth formed?

What events took place in our Solar System which led to formation of the Earth? I have heard from sources that a big giant star exploded and the Earth was formed. Is this true ?
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Differences between hydrothermal vents on Earth and Europa

Hydrothermal vents are common in areas subject to volcanic activity at the bottom of Earth's oceans. Meanwhile, hydrothermal vents are believed to exist on Jupiter's moon Europa and maybe in other ...
6
votes
0answers
73 views

Global Land and Sea Surface Temperature Data

We are a spin-off from TU Munich and currently working on equipping a CubeSat with a thermal imager. The imager should be able to acquire thermal/ir images with resolution of about 200m/px. In the ...
5
votes
6answers
3k views

Would life on Earth survive without the Sun?

Would life on Earth survive if Sun wasn't there? My teacher told me that there are chances that it would but there would be a lack of gases and chemicals and photosynthesis that occurs with light at ...
4
votes
2answers
576 views

Half of Earth with most landmass

About 71% of the Earth's surface is covered with water and the remaining 29% is landmass*. If you could theoretically cut the planet in half, with the objective of producing a half with the most ...
4
votes
1answer
103 views

Do ocean level rise estimates account for mantle elasticity and plate mass changes?

In the mainstream media the problem of ocean level rise is presented rather... over-simplistically - ice melts -> more water flows into the oceans -> water level rises -> continents sink. But it is ...
4
votes
1answer
116 views

Luis Alvarez's K-T Impactor Calculation

I am trying to perform the calculation that Luis Alvarez used to establish the size of the K-T impactor. I used the following information: Assume that the clay layer with iridium was uniformly ...
4
votes
1answer
33 views

What are the basic rules of how light and seasons affect landscape and objects lighting?

It would probably be a strange question for here but i will shoot it. I want to modify the shaders for Prepar3d the next version of MS flight simulator game. I have ways of interfering with ambient/...
4
votes
0answers
126 views

How much does the biosphere contribute to Earth's entropy production?

Papers like 1, 2, etc. and the work of Axel Kleidon (e.g. 3) suggest that the the biosphere increases the production of entropy of Earth but I'd like to know if we could quantify this in a simple way. ...
3
votes
3answers
177 views

Is everything affecting everything on Earth?

If a single butterfly can alter the future, then can't every single action keep the future in chaos? According to the question about butterfly effects, this must be so, is it not? If this is an ...
3
votes
1answer
744 views

The free oxygen (O$_2$) in the atmosphere is largely a result of what process?

Does it come from a)atmospheric lightning and ozone dissociation. b)meteorite impacts early in the earth's geological history. c)Paleozoic volcanic activity. d)photosynthetic processes. e)...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the life-cycle of agricultural water used to grow crops/animals?

A là this Slate article: 1 gallon of water is required to grow a single almond 220 gallons to grow a large avocado 5,000 gallons to grow 1 lb of beef None of these things weighs anywhere near ...
3
votes
1answer
918 views

How much energy released by the Theia-Gaia impact?

I read somewhere that the Chicxulub impact released the energy equivalent of anywhere from 100-300 teratons of TNT. That's an impressive amount of energy. Assuming a head on collision (according to ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

Are pumps used in geothermal systems?

The water held underground in a geothermal system is under high temperature and pressure. Are pumps used to raise the very hot underground water to the surface or does the water rise under its own ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

High resolution global land use projections

I am looking for global land use projections for a large scale hydrological analysis. The most widely used datasets are the LUH (v1) Products used for CMIP5 based on Hurtt et al 2011. These products ...
3
votes
0answers
30 views

How do we know what Earth's core is made of? [duplicate]

There are many graphic representations of the Earth's core, but I would like to know how did scientists determine what the core is made of, how hot it is, rotation etc. without actually being there?
2
votes
2answers
211 views

Why doesn't the earth become superheated?

One day I was sitting in an Atlanta traffic jam wondering about all the engine exhaust heat warming the localised environment. Later that night, things will have cooled down. Where did the heat go? ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

What would happen to the earth if we removed nearly all of the air? [closed]

I wanted to know : what if someone pulled a really strong vacuum and prevented any air to enter. Would the earth be destroyed or nothing much would happen? I am not talking about the people and other ...
2
votes
1answer
174 views

Reason for rotting smell after first rain of the season?

Last day we had first rain after 3-4 months of hot&dry weather, and within 3-4 minutes a rotting smell came from nowhere. Due this smell I had running nose for a day. What might be the reason for ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Are there other divisions of Earth following beyond hemispheres? [closed]

I know it's a silly question, but it really bothers me since the word hemisphere derives from Greek ημί- (i.e. hemi-) which cannot be further expanded, while the English equivalent semi- can be ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

What is the typical chemical composition of Earth's mass gain

Consider this : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_mass#Variation To quote: The main factor in mass gain is in-falling material, cosmic dust, meteors, etc. are the most significant contributors to ...
2
votes
2answers
462 views

Water and explosive volcanoes in the Pacific ring of fire

Most volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire have an explosive nature. This is due to high concentrations of water in their magma. Obviously, this magma comes from several kilometres below the earth's ...
1
vote
1answer
149 views

Is Earth's atmosphere 1600 km thick?

Some textbooks say that atmosphere extends up to 1600 km, but exosphere is more than 9000 km thick. Where is the mistake?
1
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2answers
2k views

Earth's Internal Heat Engine

What is the internal heat engine of the Earth? Doing research, I found out that the external heat engine of the Earth is the Sun. However, when I did research on the internal heat engine of the Earth,...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

When will the Earth lose its magnetic field?

Mars lost its magnetic field 4.5 billion years ago according to this article: Mars lost its global magnetic field during the time of this heightened activity. After 500 million years, the Martian ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

How many storms are happening on Earth at a given moment? [closed]

How many different storms, thunderstorms, snow storms, hurricanes, typhoons, what have you, are happening in the Earth our planet at any given point in time. Furthermore, I imagine they are over the ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Aren’t photons the vector for energy input to earth? [closed]

As such the fuel for earth’s Carbon cycle. Wouldn’t photons be the alleged “electromagnetic” mode of energy transfer into earth? Providing energy for the endothermic photosynthetic processes and ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

How many kg $ha^-$$^1$ of exchangeable $Mg^2$$^+$ is there in the top 15cm of this field?

Soil testing from a well-drained soil sample in 0-15cm depth of a farmers field provides the following information: • Wet weight of a soil sample from a volume of 100 $cm^3$: 200 g • Moisture ...
1
vote
0answers
834 views

What is the angle between earth's axis of rotation and equator? Are they perpendicular or at 66 1/2 Degrees?

By rotational axis I mean axial tilt or Axial obliquity or 66 1/2 degrees tilt of earth to its orbital.
1
vote
0answers
70 views

Would the Gaia hypothesis have any practical use?

I recently stumbled upon the Gaia hypothesis, which briefly states that the Earth itself is a living organism. I am wondering: Would this hypothesis have any practical use? Does it make any ...
0
votes
1answer
150 views

Why are there no mountains higher than ~10 km? [duplicate]

Mars have several mountains above 10 km, with the highest being around 22 km (full list for Solar System here). Same for Io, Jupiter's moon. In contrast, the Earth has no mountain higher than 10.2 km (...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Creating regular grid for my data? [closed]

I have daily spatiotemporal data with covariates at 10 different locations. My question is is it possible to convert my data into a grid format?
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Why in different places seems directions are changed? [closed]

I'm living at place A I traveled to B and I seen like sun isn't set as in place A. Like directions are changed. Where east is in place B is north of A and south of A is west of B. Because of sun ...
0
votes
1answer
105 views

What is the importance of oxidation process?

I am asking this question, because I don't know the importance of oxidation process at all, and this question pops into my mind because currently I've been researching why apples turn into brown color ...
-1
votes
1answer
123 views

Why does Meteorology rely on a spherical model of the earth, rather than a flat earth, to function? [closed]

I hear all the arguments one explains to a flat earther as to why the earth is Spherical and not flat. I am not a meteorologist, but I know enough Meteorology for me to fly safely as a pilot. Getting ...
-3
votes
1answer
528 views

Could someone please validate the Holmes equation [closed]

Dr. Robert Holmes has converted the ideal gas law to T = P M / (ρ R) in this paper: (Molar Mass Version of the Ideal Gas Law Points to a Very Low Climate Sensitivity) with T = temperature P = near-...