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Questions tagged [earthquakes]

Questions regarding a sudden release of seismic waves into the Earth's crust. As well as the causes of earthquakes, their consequences and physics.

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5 votes
3 answers
3k views

What would happen if magma flows into a very large oil deposit?

If there were an earthquake that somehow cause a crack in the earth and allowed a significant amount of magma to flow into a very large oil deposit. With that high amount of explosive energy that ...
4 votes
2 answers
223 views

Does the moon have any effect on earthquakes being created? [duplicate]

Here, in New Zealand, we just had a 7.5 magnitude earthquake hit. A lot of people are saying that the super moon caused this. I have doubts as to the super moon actually causing it; but could it have ...
1 vote
1 answer
36 views

Mountain formation and stress release?

I have been studying mountain formation, and have some questions about how orogeny and plate stress release are related... Does orogeny contribute to the release of accumulated stress within the ...
4 votes
1 answer
65 views

What is the pitch and roll in a tiltmeter sensor?

I wonder if you could help me to understand what the pitch and roll mean for an tiltmeter sensor? I have tiltmeter data and I don´t understand at all how it works. If you can recommend literature on ...
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

Do planetary alignments affect Earth's seismic activity?

There is a widely circulated tweet by Frank Hoogerbeets where it seems he has predicted Turkey's earthquake a few days before. The tweet says: Sooner or later there will be a ~M 7.5 #earthquake in ...
2 votes
0 answers
35 views

Which position is more sensitive to feeling an earthquake?

There was an earthquake today in the NYC metro area. I know a few people that didn’t feel the earthquake while standing. Whereas everyone that was sitting felt it. Are those standing less apt to feel ...
3 votes
1 answer
103 views

How does an earthquake bend rail road rails, but not damage the surrounding structures?

In this image from the 2023 earthquake in Turkey (and many others online), the railway is badly deformed, but structures around it (e.g., the concrete wall to the right and berm to the left) seem ...
33 votes
3 answers
13k views

Is it true that earthquakes are not felt in a cave?

I took a tour of a cave in northern California last weekend. The tour guide asked us, "If an earthquake occurred, what would we feel in here?" My answer was, "fear," but she said we would feel ...
4 votes
1 answer
37 views

Which point of an earthquake wave is considered as the earthquake's time?

For example, Time for the 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquake is 2023-02-06 01:17:35 What time does this exactly represent, the start of earthquake's wave or pick of the wave or something else?
4 votes
1 answer
91 views

What's the strongest earthquake we currently can miss observing on Earth?

Reading jeffronicus' answer about how seismic stations record bomb explosions, particularly the reminder that the intensity of earthquakes drops by distance, made me start wondering what scale of ...
1 vote
0 answers
29 views

How fast and big would the waves be in the rocks from the Richter scale 10 earthquake at Chixulub

If I was near Australia and China when the 10km meteorite hit Chixulub 65 million years ago, the first thing I would have noticed is an earthquake high above magnitude 9, and the ground would shake by ...
0 votes
2 answers
74 views

Question regarding underground man-made facilities

Why is it that underground facilities (or underground military bases) are almost always built into hollowed out mountains? Examples of (publicly known ones anyway) are Cheyenne Mountain Complex and ...
5 votes
3 answers
250 views

What criteria determines whether earthquakes are classified as new or aftershocks?

I saw a recent paper where it is claimed that aftershocks can occur years, decades or centuries after the main earthquake. When seismic activity is observed, what criteria determines the ...
2 votes
1 answer
248 views

Are seismometers over the world "feeling" the small earthquakes caused by air raids and shelling on Gaza Strip?

When watching news about earthquakes, I think most people are used to hear about the Richter scale, a logarithmic scale used to measure earthquake intensity. A very strong earthquake, like the 2011 ...
2 votes
0 answers
76 views

Could humans cause an earthquake?

I saw something that mentioned how, during the 2018 World Cup, after a victory, thousand of fans jumping simultaneously caused seismologists to detect the equivalent energy release of a magnitude 2.0 ...
2 votes
0 answers
40 views

What is the maximum intensity with which an earthquake can struck Chitral city in Northern Pakistan?

I am working on a disaster response logistics case study in which I am using Mi-17 helicopters for transportation of relief to the affected areas in main Chitral city. In this regard, I want to ...
3 votes
1 answer
165 views

What is this long mark undersea

Visiting Google Maps, I came across this long, sinuous, while pretty regular mark undersea that looks like an ancient river, when the sea was way lower, or a big (big!) boulder that could have rolled ...
8 votes
2 answers
249 views

Prompt gravity signal induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake - could this really be useful for warnings?

Edit: Two new items may shed more light on this question: BBC: Gravity signals rapidly show true size of giant quakes links to: Science: Observations and modeling of the elastogravity signals ...
5 votes
2 answers
3k views

Could an earthquake on flat land still kill someone without any buildings/boulders or such near by?

Suppose you were sitting near the epicenter of an earthquake, sitting down on flat land without much else near by, maybe some grass. Is it still possible that say, a magnitude 8 or 9 earthquake would ...
5 votes
0 answers
156 views

Farallon plate subducting under North American plate: is it a factor in "the next big one"?

I am a writer, not a scientist of any kind. I live in the SW AZ desert (USA), so we get earthquakes from time to time. I grew up in southern CA, right next to the San Andreas fault, so I have a ...
2 votes
1 answer
4k views

Can large earthquakes happen few times at same place(in days)

I want to know if large earthquakes can happen twice in the same place? I live in Istanbul/Turkey. In Canakkale/Turkey too many earthquakes happen for days! I know it is normal for this region but 4.8 ...
2 votes
1 answer
47 views

How to model the travel time of tsunami waves generated by volcanic explosion?

I am trying to understand how can I model the travel time of tsunami waves generated by volcanic explosions? I want to analyze the 2022 Tonga tsunami. I have been using the UNESCO CoMIT software with ...
0 votes
1 answer
46 views

Did the 1990 Manjil-Rudbar earthquake postpone a massive earthquake in Tehran?

In this site (published on 6 November 2001) I found the following information: Historical data suggest there is a major earthquake in Tehran every 158 years and the last one there was in 1830. The ...
4 votes
5 answers
175 views

Is There a Correlation Between Earthquake Magnitude and the Deformation Observed in the Rock?

I've been doing a little geology research. One of the topics that I noticed was the existence of "deformations" that appear in the rock layers if an earthquake has occurred. Smaller ...
1 vote
0 answers
36 views

When rock cracks at tectonic plate boundaries are the number and size of cracks reflected in seismographs?

Do seismographs become more complex (waves of different frequencies superimposed on one another) for higher magnitude earthquakes where I am guessing there would be a larger variety and number of ...
1 vote
1 answer
65 views

How many people will lose their lives if a big earthquake shakes Bucharest?

Bucharest becomes a huge city. Bucharest has never seen such dense population before. from 1947 to 1990 there was a communist government in Romania. 1988 Armenia earthquake with 38,000 deaths shows us ...
1 vote
0 answers
52 views

What is the relationship between earthquake risk, magnitude, and distance from the epicenter?

I need a (rough) functional relationship between these three quantities. My initial hypothesis is that the risk $R$ (intended as the probability of a building damage), scales with the square root of ...
4 votes
1 answer
55 views

Where could I get waveform data on low-frequency earthquakes, very low-frequency earthquakes, volcanic tremor and non-volcanic earthquakes?

I am a marine geology masters student and I am writing my thesis on slow earthquakes. I will include graphs of the most common types of earthquakes: Low-frequency earthquakes Very low-frequency ...
3 votes
2 answers
155 views

Is it reasonable to approximate the swinging building (base of the building) during an earthquake to a simple harmonic motion?

I am thinking of making a model of swinging building during earthquake and study the methods to minimize the swinging. So does it even makes sense to approximate the swinging buildings (the base of ...
1 vote
0 answers
14 views

How to add more outdoor weather sensors to Software Defined Radio (Weather Station)

How to add more outdoor weather sensors to Software Defined Radio (Weather Station) ? I am looking for seismographic outdoor radio sensors to work for Software Defined Radio (Weather Station). So ...
1 vote
1 answer
134 views

How does the Richter earthquake scale translate to the amplitude of horizontal surface movement at the epicenter?

In layman's terms, how does the Richter earthquake scale translate to the amplitude of horizontal surface movement at the epicenter? For example, given an earthquake of Richter magnitude 4, what is ...
1 vote
0 answers
31 views

Can the planetary alignment actually affect earthquakes? [duplicate]

We've been hearing a lot these past few days about planes alignments and how it would affect seismology. How scientifically true is that?
7 votes
2 answers
4k views

Where are earthquakes felt more: on top of a building or on the ground floor?

I have this notion that at the top, the building will be more likely to shake than at the bottom, where it is grounded. So, how does it work with an earthquake? Who would be more likely to perceive a ...
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

Does the Moon affect earthquakes?

Does the Moon, through factors like its location (if it is at an apsis i.e closest point or furthest point in its orbit) or some changes in density, affect earthquakes on the Earth? Earthquakes are a ...
11 votes
2 answers
2k views

What impact on climate did 2011 earthquake and tsunami have?

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami was one of the biggest in modern history; the earthquake even moved Earth's axis for a very small, but measurable bit. The four years since then is not enough ...
8 votes
2 answers
523 views

Is it possible for tsunamis to occur on deep water planets?

Assume a water planet with an ocean depth of about 200-500 km. Would a very strong ground-quake happening at the very bottom of the planet's ocean floor be able to cause a large tsunami to rise up to ...
3 votes
1 answer
109 views

The longest interval between earthquake main shock & after shock

On August 21, 2022, the Western Australian town of Cadoux experienced a magnitude 4.4 earthquake. According to the report of the incident, that earthquake might be an aftershock of a magnitude 6.1 ...
4 votes
2 answers
733 views

How did they know that there was a "desert tsunami" in a Death Valley cave after a 7.6 magnitude earthquake near the southwest of Mexico?

Phys.org's story from September 23, 2022 entitled Mexico earthquake triggers 'desert tsunami' 1,500 miles away in Death Valley cave includes the following: About five minutes after the 7.6 magnitude ...
1 vote
0 answers
25 views

Earthquake impacting opening of sealed drainage pits

Can earthquake causing cracks in the ground impact opening of sealed drainage pits in the ground?
5 votes
1 answer
167 views

Is there a seismic discontinuity between the lithosphere and asthenosphere?

I've been learning about seismic discontinuities, mainly the 5 defined ones - Conorod discontinuity, Mohorovicic discontinuity, Repetti discontinuity, Gutenberg discontinuity, and Lehmann ...
13 votes
3 answers
3k views

Is it possible for Earth to experience Polar Shift?

Many accounts claim that the Magnetic Field of the Earth has been seriously degrading for the past centuries and we are currently in the process of the so called Polar Shift. How likely would it be ...
8 votes
1 answer
110 views

Are strong deep earthquakes that result in minimal impacts common?

Happened to see notice of fairly strong earthquakes near Fiji and Peru within the past few days, and thought I'd find they had been fairly damaging... only to find the impacts were quite minimal. ...
1 vote
0 answers
845 views

Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks' Susceptibility to landslide

Which is more susceptible to landslide based on lithology compared to one another? Granite, Conglomerate, Sandstone, Mudstone I've been tasked to create a hazard map and was given a Geologic Map, ...
5 votes
1 answer
8k views

What happens if a magnitude 13 earthquake occurs?

What would happen if a Richter magnitude 13 earthquake occurred? I read (at http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/Natural_Disasters/impacts.htm; about halfway down the page) that if a comet were to ever hit ...
12 votes
3 answers
14k views

If the Bennu asteroid were to hit within a 500 mile radius of Yellowstone National Park, will it trigger a super volcano at Yellowstone?

I am curious to know if it would be highly probable that if the Bennu asteroid were to hit the Earth in 2182, and the point of impact is within a 500 mile radius of Yellowstone National Park, will it ...
15 votes
1 answer
277 views

How to compute the earthquake occurrence probability under ETAS model

I have fitted an ETAS model (unmarked) with an independent exponential magnitude distribution to a set of earthquake data. However, I do not know how to calculate the probability of the earthquake ...
15 votes
3 answers
632 views

Did the Geothermal Power Plant contribute to Pahoa's Lava Fissures?

There was lava in the area near the wells that the Puna Geothermal Venture facility created. The plant has nine wells that run as deep as 8,000 feet, according to Wil Okabe, managing director for ...
9 votes
3 answers
1k views

Why do some earthquakes and volcanoes occur within plates?

I know that volcanoes and earthquakes occur on plate margins. But, do some of them also occur within plates?
20 votes
2 answers
48k views

How do seismologists locate the epicenter and focus of an earthquake?

I know the focus of an earthquake is where the earthquake originated from, but what I could never figure out is, how to scientists find out where exactly the focus (and epicenter) are located?
4 votes
0 answers
103 views

How much would the ground be displaced in a magnitude 11 earthquake?

In a magnitude 5 earthquake, the ground shakes violently and it's often impossible to stay upright. This is caused by about 50-120 cm of displacement of the ground. But how much would the ground move ...

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