Questions tagged [geochemistry]

The science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems.

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What chemical or physical parameters altered during the usage of buffered versus unbuffered extractant for leachability of a soil or sediment?

Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is an extraction method to simulate a soil or sediment leaching. The method employed two extraction fluids - one is a buffered solution of acetic acid ...
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Is this kind of sediment location sampling on river acceptable?

Yesterday, we performed a sediment sampling along both sides of a river. On various research papers, it seems that they always made it successfully to perform the sampling at both left and right side ...
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Do scientists ever make rock vapor in a laboratory? If so, is it ever used to study planetary or lunar formation?

This answer to What is the nature of "rock vapor" in this description of the formation of the Moon? explains what "rock vapor" is and how scientists use the concept to understand ...
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The problem of the dissimilarity in the range of data values ​between the gridded data and the channel database in geosoft

My question is about the problem when displaying the eU radiometric map of my study area, as the range of values ​​for the eU map is much larger than the actual range values ​​of the eU channel in the ...
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How did hydrogen make its way into proto-Earth?

Background I read (what I could understand of) this article in which authors Yuan and Steinle-Neumann "...use advanced quantum mechanical simulations on silicate and metallic melts showing that ...
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Taking into account the decay products of transuranic elements, are the world's uranium reserves growing or shrinking?

I was talking to a friend of mine who is an environmentalist like me but not a big fan of nuclear power and she told me it was not a good option in the long run because of the decay of uranium. Of ...
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How should we deal with geochemical anomalies in stream sediment?

We know that geochemical anomalies in stream sediment usually distributed along the drainage. Therefore, when we use stream sediment as the sampling medium and found an anomaly, we should trace the ...
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1 answer
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Reconstructing lake level from organic and magnetic sediment data

I would like to understand why any of the following conditions in a layer of a lacustrine sediment core appear to imply that the lake level was low at the relevant time: low C/N ratio low δ13C low ...
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What are the compressive strengths of goethite and magnetite?

I am attempting to determine what the compressive strengths are of the minerals goethite and magnetite. None of the research I did has proven to be fruitful. What I have found: multiple studies ...
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2 answers
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What is the role of trace elements in magmatic crystallization?

I understand that trace element behavior in a system depends on whether they are compatible or not. But , if that question is asked in an examination , what could be the points that one should write ...
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Carbon emission from estuaries

I've heard that estuaries like Chesapeake Bay produce a lot of methane during anoxic conditions. Is there a chance of these estuaries emitting significant amounts of CH4 in the future (because of the ...
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Can geochemical anomalies of stream sediment samples be used directly for mapping targets?

We know that geochemical dispersion in stream sediment is much widespread, facilitating discovering mineral targets in a regional scale. However, we also know that there should be discrepancy in space ...
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convert mol/m2 to μg/m3 [duplicate]

Sentinel-5P satellite provides high-resolution data products on concentration levels for several atmospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, O3, and others), which are measured in mol/m2 within the total or ...
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1 answer
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Why were Fe-oxides not usually used for finding skarn Fe ore deposits in geochemical exploration?

I found that Fe-oxides were usually not used for vectoring Fe mineral deposits of skarn type in geochemical exploration. As an indicator element, the common practice told us Fe-oxides should be the ...
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What is the electrical conductivity of a liquid Komatiite?

I am searching for previous work that has determined the electrical conductivity range for komatiites at the surface. Does anyone have some values or references?
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Do lead 206 and other daughter isotopes occur naturally?

I am reading studies about the age of the earth and U-238 to Pb-206 comes up a lot. My question is: In meteorites, or really anywhere, is lead 206 natural or does it always come from radioactive decay?...
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Do carbon dioxide hydrates exist in nature?

Do CO2 hydrates exist in nature? If so, how much carbon could they contain?
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Artifical Ore Genesis?

From my understanding, the formation of ores can be reduced to a simple three-step process of the removal of minerals from a source via some mechanism, the transportation of these minerals, and ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Spatially-explicit global database of parent rock chemistry?

As the title suggests, I am looking for the most reliable database(s) of parent-or bedrock chemistry, e.g. the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and some other metals (basically plant nutrients). ...
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How are we going to handle oxygen shortage problem arising due to massive usage of current fossil fuel combustion and future Hydrogen fuel cell tech?

This question is being redirected from the Chemistry Stack Exchange community. The current corona pandemic has created a situation where in order to save lives, there is a huge huge requirement for ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Why is calcium so much more abundant in/on Earth's crust (and oceans) than it is elsewhere? (relatively speaking...)

Inside the entire Earth as a whole, and throughout our Solar System and galaxy, etc., magnesium is at least 14 times (or more) as common as calcium, atom-per-atom. But, on Earth's crust and oceans, ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Calculating/estimating volatiles based on other representative samples

I am currently working on a set of geochemical data representing calc-alkaline igneous intrusions from central Canada. The samples were analyzed in ~2013-2014. These samples have been tested for LOI ...
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Stratigraphy of limestone applied to the Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza is made from blocks of limestone quarried from the Giza plateau. The pyramid is composed up of about 200 layers, with individual blocks varying in thickness from 20 to 60 ...
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Question Concerning Meteorite Ejecta Travel

I was researching more into the studies done by Kjaer and his team ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235527/ ) concerning the hypothesis about the Younger Dryas impact crater named ...
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How much does the gravitational and magnetic fields of a planet effect the chemistry in it?

It is known that the earth has a magnetic field and gravitational field around it, I wish to ask to what degree is the chemistry on the planet is influenced by these fields? How would the chemical ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Are there any sulphides, sulphates, carbonates that cannot be dissolved by aqua regia?

I was looking into these specific minerals: arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, barite, calcite, dolomite. I investigate issues with tellurides not showing expected gold concentrations. There is gold ...
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7 votes
2 answers
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Will the sea get saltier forever?

The sea wasn't always salty. It's been getting saltier over millions of years as minerals dissolve. Is there a natural limit to this process, or the will the sea keep getting saltier forever? Is there ...
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2 answers
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How abundant is high purity silica?

Silicon is often touted as the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust. However, this can be misleading when looking at the abundance of high purity silica needed for manufacturing ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Phosphate in the oceans, does it tend to bond with sodium?

Phosphate has a major role in biology and the biosphere. In its "abiotic" form, floating around in the oceans, lets say marine oceans to be specific, does it tend to be in the Na3PO4 form? ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Relation between molecular mass and retention of a gas on a planet

An Introduction to Our Dynamic Planet under section 2.4 "The origins of the atmosphere and hydrosphere"(Page 80) says on the topic of gases escaping from our atmosphere as: Different gases ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Why is the concentration of highly siderophile elements so uniform in the mantle?

The plot above is about the concentration of siderophile elements in the terrestrial mantle. From the logarithmic plot, we can deduce that the concentration of highly siderophile elements is quite ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Are the precious metals (silver, gold, platinum) present everywhere throughout the Earth's crust at least in the trace quantities?

Do some rocks, soils, sands or waters exist that contain fewer than one atom of gold per cubic meter or tonne of their mass?
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Non-invasive techniques to find rock composition

If we had access to a totally new kind of rock (maybe a new meteorite), is it possible to tell what the rock is composed of without touching it / drilling into it? I'm thinking of something like ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is CO2 in the Pacific Ocean depleted or enriched in Carbon-13 compared to the Atlantic, and why?

Due to thermohaline circulation, the Pacific water is more 'aged' so there is a higher amount of total dissolved inorganic carbon (e.g. CO2) in the deep Pacific when compared to the Atlantic. However, ...
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MATLAB - How to plot multiple timeseries (paleoclimate) with a common x axis and multiple stacked y axes?

I'm trying to create figures in MatLab and am a reasonably new user, I'm wondering if there is a good way to make plots that use a common x-axis and then vertically stacked and alternating y-axes as ...
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14 votes
1 answer
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Why don't iron meteorites on Mars rust or oxidize? Why are they shiny?

Wikipedia's WikiNews' 2005 article Mars Rover’s Basketball-Shaped Discovery Stirs Controversy says: The surface of the meteorite was found to be remarkably free of corrosion. Researchers are as yet ...
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How to convert mol/m^2 to total mass ( e.g gram, kg etc )?

I want to calculate the total $\rm{NO_2}$ amount in a year using satellite Sentinel-5p NO2 dataset. But the problem is sentinel satellite data stored in $\rm\frac{mol}{m^2}$ unit. But I have to ...
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What are the favourable conditions for the formation of porphyry copper deposits?

Favourable condition for the formation of porphyry copper deposits is : 1. Extremely low oxygen fugacity in initial magma 2. High water content in initial magma 3. Crystallization of magama at deep ...
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The effect of CO2 concentration on the pH of the ocean

I'm confused about how increased $\ce{CO2}$ concentration in the atmosphere affects the pH of the ocean. The increase in $\ce{CO2}$ concentration means the pH of the ocean will decrease (by several ...
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8 votes
1 answer
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Most corrosive seawater areas in world

I am looking for any studies or maps detailing the average salinity and temperature for areas of the Earth's oceans. As an extra if anyone has data or maps on areas with large amounts of in-trained ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Has Earth's atmosphere lost mass throughout the geological ages due to biological $\small\sf{CO_2}$ fixation?

Stromatolites and other organisms have been storing $\small\sf{CO_2}$ in the form of $\small\sf{CaCO_3}$ throughout the geological ages, forming extensive limestone deposits scattered across Earth's ...
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6 votes
2 answers
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Considering the thin piece of material on the surface of Mars in the image below, is there anything like it on Earth?

The above is a magnified part of the original image below captured by the Curiosity rover on Mars on sol 1729 (June 17, 2017). From the added information with that raw image it can be estimated that ...
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Why is mass fraction always abbreviated wt% and not ma%?

In most geology papers, major elements chemical analyses are expressed as mass fraction of oxides, i.e. SiO$_2$ 64.2 wt%, K$_2$O 4.3 wt%, etc. The mass fraction unit is always abbreviated as "wt%". ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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What is the history of atmospheric O₂ concentration?

(This is about O₂, not CO₂) How did the concentration of oxygen change? Over geologic time frames since plants began to produce it, and during the time since the carbon dioxide increase caused by ...
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1 vote
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Why was the temperature change greater in higher latitudes than in lower latitudes during the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum?

In the "Plankton cooled a greenhouse", which is the article written by Birger Schmitz, it is stated that the subtropical regions became warmer during the PETM(Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum) but the ...
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XRF analysis - recalculating results

For TAS diagram plot, one need to recalculate Major oxide data (NaO, K2O, SiO2). Do one need to recalculate the ppms of Zr,Nb and Y and % of TiO2 for Zr/TiO2 vs Nb/Y diagram plotting for rock ...
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1 vote
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solubility of rare earth sulphides at different pH?

Will rare earth sulfides in soil be more soluble in aqueous solutions with lower pH? How can I know whether these sulfides will dissolve better at low or high pH or will it not be affected?
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5 votes
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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1 answer
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Possible and probable source of Curiosity Rover's $\small\sf{CH_4}$ detection on Mars

Past week, NASA announced Curiosity Rover measured 21 ppbv of $\small\sf{CH_4}$ on Mars. This week, NASA's Curiosity Mars rover found a surprising result: the largest amount of methane ever ...
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How is the difference in crust and mantle composition explained?

We know that the composition of the crust is SiAl and SiMa and the one of mantle is mostly ophiolites, but why? Which are the geological processes that make this difference exist?
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