Questions tagged [geography]

For questions that are concerned with or nested within the field of Geography; the study of lands, their features, and the relationships and complexities between and among peoples, the physical environment, and ecosystems.

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82
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6answers
33k views

What place on Earth is closest to the Sun?

What is the location on Earth that is closest to the Sun? I've seen this question asked many times, and answered in varied and contradictory ways: The most common answer is “the summit of Chimborazo ...
74
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20answers
44k views

Are there any saltwater rivers on Earth?

I'm curious if there are any saltwater rivers on Earth. These would presumably arise if a saltwater lake had a river outlet to the ocean. However, all the saltwater lakes I looked at (Caspian Sea, ...
34
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9answers
9k views

Is there any river that does not discharge into larger body of water?

Do you know any example of a river that does not flow into sea or lake? For example, if water rises from the underground spring and forms a river but water vaporises in hot climate before it reaches ...
26
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2answers
7k views

What is the line crossing the Pacific Ocean that is shown on maps?

The picture below shows an imaginary line on the globe which crosses the Pacific Ocean and works as a rough separator of the Eastern and Western hemispheres. What is this line called in English? I'm ...
25
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2answers
4k views

How do oases form in the middle of the desert?

I am wondering if there are any theories about the formation of oases, and I am also curious about why an oasis can even last for a very long period of time. I have heard that fresh water exists on ...
24
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1answer
3k views

What were the tallest mountain ranges in Earth's geological past?

There have been numerous episodes of mountain building in Earth's geological history, particularly through the super-continent cycle. Many mountains and mountain ranges have been eroded, as mentioned ...
20
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4answers
9k views

What is the deepest we have ever gone into the Earth?

I remember Journey to the Center of Earth and wonder: What is the deepest in the Earth surface or below sea level we have traveled either by foot, sub, drill or camera?
18
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8answers
6k views

How to quickly or easily prove the world is spherical?

A relative of mine has recently introduced me to the modern flat earth theory, which she believes in. Setting aside for the moment that it is ridiculous, and that sending up some balloons with cameras ...
18
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2answers
6k views

Where is the calmest place on Earth?

I have done some research online, and I've found out that Antarctica has the calmest winds (lowest maximum wind speed) recorded on Earth. However, it is uninhabitable for human life. Other very calm ...
18
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1answer
271 views

What percent of volcanoes are glaciated?

I have not been able to find an estimate of how many known volcanoes host perennial ice masses, and it would be very useful to me. Does anyone know of any attempts to do this?
16
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2answers
4k views

Percentage of dry land surface with sea level elevation lower than 1 km

Being this my first questions on this .SE I hope that the topic is appropriate. I've been told that 99% of the living species on earth live in between -200m and 800m above sea level, this made me ...
15
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1answer
363 views

Is there a freely usable map of Earth cave systems and/or density?

I am considering creating some sort of model of the Earth using real world collected data. Things like worldwide height maps certainly exist, as do many maps of minerals, rainfall, etc. Are there ...
15
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5answers
32k views

(Why) Is there more landmass on Earth's Northern hemisphere than the Southern Hemisphere?

This Question on Worldbuilding is based on the presumption that there is a greater amount of landmass on the Earth's Northern Hemisphere than there is on the Southern Hemisphere. While researching ...
14
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3answers
1k views

Why is there a line of volcanoes along the northwest coast of North America?

Mount Hood in Oregon is a dormant volcano, and in Washington Mount St. Helens and Mt. Ranier are both active volcanoes. What causes this line of volcanoes running parallel to the coastline along the ...
14
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1answer
141 views

Does Contwoyto Lake empty into both Bathurst Inlet and Chantrey Inlet?

Contwoyto Lake is a large lake in northwestern Nunavut. Descriptions of it say that its primary outlet leads to Bathurst Inlet. Does the lake also have an outlet that leads to Chantrey Inlet, ...
13
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1answer
992 views

Is there a standard definition of the term “mountain”?

Is there any standard internationally recognizable definition of the term "mountain"? If international texts describe some terrain as mountains, do they use some international definition of the term,...
13
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1answer
877 views

How big does a lake have to be to have its own Sea Breeze?

How big does a body of water need to have a sea breeze? Is there a chart on sea breezes wind speed that include lakes? Could a circular lake create enough sea breeze to create a wind vortex in the ...
12
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2answers
3k views

How much distance does $0.001^\circ$ in latitude or longitude represent?

If I'm standing at a lat of 30.000$^\circ$ and a long of 30.000$^\circ$ and I move to a lat of 30.001$^\circ$ and a long 30.000$^\circ$, how far have I gone? Is there a relationship between decimal ...
12
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3answers
14k views

In the northern hemisphere only, what percentage of the surface is land?

Across the whole Earth, about 70% of the surface is water and 30% is land. What I want, though, is to restrict the scope to the northern hemisphere (NH) only. What percentage of NH surface is land? ...
12
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1answer
776 views

Ore deposits buried under cities?

Occasionally there are news about a major ore deposit for a specific commodity being found. Some of these recent discoveries are underground, and the "geophysics" aspect of their exploration is more ...
12
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2answers
496 views

Determining the paleoelevation of mountain ranges

In New Delhi, a lot of people say that the Aravali range used to be as tall as the Himalayas. How do scientists know that some mountain range used to be a lot taller millions of years ago, and what ...
12
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1answer
1k views

How old is Casiquiare canal?

Casiquiare canal is the world's largest bifurcation. Since such a large bifurcation seems unlikely to be produced and even less likely to stay for centuries, I wonder how old it is and why all the ...
12
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2answers
849 views

How can I find the nearest point on the coast from an ocean location?

Given some location of interest $X$ in a lake or in the ocean with known lat and lon, I'd like to find the lat and lon of the coastal location that is closest to $X$, as well as distance between the ...
11
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4answers
7k views

Does gravity differ from place to place on Earth

Does a particular object have the same weight on every part of Earth or does it vary?
11
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3answers
1k views

Where to find an accurate Mercator Projection world image?

I'm sorry if this doesn't fit "Earth Science" too well. No idea where else to ask this! Can anyone help me find an accurate world map in Mercator Projection? It doesn't need political borders or too ...
11
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2answers
443 views

Is Atacama Desert cloudy or cloudless most of the year?

I saw many contradictions everywhere. For example, my geography textbook says that Atacama Desert is a desert where foggy weather is common, and it persists almost the whole year. Whereas every ...
11
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1answer
307 views

Lake outflow forming a “reverse delta”?

While rivers often form a delta when they flow into a lake, the outflow of a lake is usually a single stream. Are there lakes where the water flows off in multiple channels that merge into a single ...
11
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2answers
3k views

Standardized scale for coastline length or mapping in general?

Measuring the length of a coastline depends on the scale of the measuring tool. The smaller the scale of your tool, the longer will your measured coastline be. The reason for this is the fractal ...
10
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9answers
8k views

How to easily remember orientation of latitude and longitude?

Ever since the 3rd grade, I've been troubled by the inability to remember if Latitude runs East/West or runs North/South. I would always stress out BIG TIME during my Geography class. I'm much older ...
10
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2answers
469 views

What are the sunniest places on Earth? (including oceans)

This question did arise when thinking on offshore solar power plants, what's their potential, and how efficient would they be compared with land based counterparts. Recently, it is becoming more ...
9
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2answers
279 views

Is there a hemisphere where there's more land than ocean?

From a previous question, around 40% of the northern hemisphere is land. Would there be a plane splitting the earth into two equal parts, where in one part there are more land than ocean?
9
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1answer
7k views

How did the Ural mountains form?

A nice picture for "how mountains formed" on Earth is due to the motion of tectonic plates. As the plates crash together, mountains may get "pushed upwards". However, a quick look at a map of the ...
9
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1answer
1k views

What is this weird looking structure in Ethiopian desert?

I was surfing through Google Maps around Ethiopian desert region (close to the town of Werder/Wardheer) and I found this weird looking structure. It seems like a dried up lake bed, but I can't guess ...
9
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1answer
305 views

Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

Was discussing the terrain and rivers of Europe today with my father and it became apparent that a graph of the elevation versus course of a river would offer interesting insight, including a quick ...
9
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1answer
765 views

Is there an estimate for the length of the American Cordillera?

There was no geography site on Stack Exchange, so I thought the best place to ask about this was in Earth Science: Do we have an estimate for the length of the American Cordillera (the chain of ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Are there seamounts as close as 100 m to the water surface and not inside any Exclusive Economic Zone?

I did not find any seamounts as close as 100 m to the water surface (100m from the mean surface level at the location of the mountain) that are not part of any Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ.) Do any ...
8
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4answers
34k views

Why do we say Earth rotates from west to east?

It is said that Earth rotates from west to east. I take this as Earth's western hemisphere moves towards the Eastern hemisphere when seen from the frame of reference of pole star. Now I can also ...
8
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4answers
586 views

Round structure in southern United States

Assuming here might be someone who knows something about this, I wanted to ask what is behind this round structure I have spotted today on Google Earth: There seems to be a large (~200 km), nearly ...
8
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1answer
210 views

Identifying a desert landform

I saw this landform on Google Earth on the border of Algeria/Tunisia/Libya and wondered what it is called (so that I can read up on it and find out how it forms - I am not a geologist): Here is a 3D ...
8
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1answer
3k views

How to cite LandSat 8?

I'm wondering how to quote a Landsat mission product. I have seen many ways, but I can't decide which one is the best. Thus, I would like to know if there is a standard for the minimum information ...
8
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3answers
500 views

Why is the elevation of the Iberian Peninsula so high?

The Iberian peninsula lies more than 600 m above sea level, on average, far above similar geological regions in western Europe. Even tectonically undeformed areas in the inner basins present a ...
7
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3answers
3k views

Is there a map that displays every country at its correct relative size?

I know that the standard Mercator projection is completely wrong when it comes to the relative sizes of countries (Greenland appears relatively much larger than in reality, for example). AFAIK they do ...
7
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3answers
6k views

How do rivers last so long in dry weather?

I got caught in a downpour while climbing a mountain and was amazed to see, as I climbed down, the tiny trickles of water combine to form mini-streams, the dry rocks I had climbed up now hosted ...
7
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2answers
1k views

How do I represent wind direction on a UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) map projection?

What does it mean when I say "the wind direction is 50o" on a UTM map? Which direction is the 0o reference? For example, if I draw a wind vector V as seen in the ...
7
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1answer
175 views

What physical measurement / elevation is used to define Earth's radius?

Earth's radius is usually given as 6378137 meters (equatorial radius), its flattening is defined as 1/298.257223 (WGS84), and thus its polar radius is calculated as 6356752 meters. However, the ...
7
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2answers
649 views

What produces these distinct shapes in the Rub' al Khali seen from space?

update: Searching "Rub' al Khali Empty Quarter" found "Q2: What are sabkhas?" in https://www.geocaching.com/geocache/GC6BYQ0_rub-al-khali-the-empty-quarter which seems to be ...
7
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0answers
353 views

Is Hudson Bay part of the Arctic or the Atlantic Ocean?

Years ago I learned that the Columbia ice field was North America's triple divide point: water flowing from this ice field could drain into the Artic, the Pacific, and the Atlantic Ocean. Something I ...
6
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2answers
4k views

What is the shortest path between two points on Earth's surface?

I am a Math student and don't know about longitude and latitude. This question was asked in CSIR-NET Mathematics. Please help me to solve it. Two points $A$ and $B$ on the surface of the Earth have ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Why does NW coast of Scotland look like it does? (Similar to Norway, so different to other European coastlines)

When looking at a map of Europe, I always wonder why the North-West coast of Scotland has a very similar craggy outline to the NW coast of Norway. It is completely different to the smooth outline of ...
6
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1answer
211 views

Would more or less land be usable if global temperatures rose?

I think a large portion of the earth's land is unusable from being too cold and land that is too hot does not have enough water and dries out which could be fixed by diverging water to those areas. ...