Questions tagged [geology]

The science comprising the study of the rocks Earth is composed of, and the processes by which they change. Some subfields of geology are petrology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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Can paleomagnetic techniques determine the exact direction of Earth's magnetic poles in the past, not just their polarity?

Since our planet's magnetic poles are not usually, precisely, lined up with the geographic poles of Earth's axis, and since they move around a lot, can paleomagneticists (is that a word?) determine ...
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Geodes that float in the ocean?

What would happen if you threw a geode into the ocean. Would it sink down to a certain altitude based on how hollow the geode is or would it float on top or sink to the bottom? And could geodes form ...
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Elevation accuracy to distinguish maximal gravity anomaly of a sphere with 50% hematite

Question: What is the accuracy required in elevation to distinguish the maximal gravity anomaly of a spherical 50% Haematite (Iron mineral) ore with a radius of <...
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Is there any mineral that survives hard degree metamorphism?

When a protolith enters in metamorphism, the minerals transform in other new stable minerals while the pressure and/or temperature increase. Is there any mineral that would not be affected by a high ...
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What characteristics are considered when distinguishing a place based on physiographic provinces?

Wikipedia describes a concept called "physiographic provinces". If I understand right, geologists simply created lines on a map, to create clusters of places that are geologically similar. ...
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What gases are in the vesicles of pumice?

Many references state that pumice is formed by gases in lava, but I have yet to find a reference of which gases they are. If a piece of pumice floats, then conceivably it still contains the original ...
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How to genetically classify a weathering mineral or a mineral formed in soil?

Coming from this question and the answer, a proposed genetic classification of minerals: Endogenic: Magmatic, Metamorphic, Hydrothermal. Exogenic: Supergene, Sedimentary. My question is how would ...
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Are carbonated stalactite deposits sedimentary deposits?

Acording to britanica.com: sedimentary rock, rock formed at or near Earth’s surface by the accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock) or by the precipitation from solution at normal ...
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What questions to ask to students from a mineral guide dataset?

I am programming an app that consist in 180 mineral sheets of interest for geology students. My database have the following fileds: Identifier Name Name 2 Type Class Formula System Environment1 ...
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If the Bennu asteroid were to hit within a 500 mile radius of Yellowstone National Park, will it trigger a super volcano at Yellowstone?

I am curious to know if it would be highly probable that if the Bennu asteroid were to hit the Earth in 2182, and the point of impact is within a 500 mile radius of Yellowstone National Park, will it ...
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Python - How to write interpolated raster to netcdf file

Currently i am dealing with a bunch of coordinates (epsg:4326 => lat/lon) and their corresponding value (temperature). The goal is to write these coordinates and their values into a simple netcdf ...
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Oil FIlled Geode

Five weeks ago my dad and I collected geodes near Bedford, Indiana, from private property with the full permission of the owner. While cutting the rocks one produced an unexpected result - oil poured ...
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Volcanic Explosivity Index of Cumbre Vieja eruption

I have been following the last events of Cumbre Vieja eruption since it started last month. Trying to grasp some basic knowledge of volcanology I have seen the eruption is classified as VEI-3 in the ...
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How can smartphones help geologists in the field?

Smartphones have incorporated many sensors and some of them can be helpful for a geologist in the field: They have GPS, so it is possible to register your route in a Google Maps map. I find this may ...
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How was the Mozambique Belt formed

I'm looking for some of the most comprehensive or significant articles on the Mozambique Belt in East Africa. If anyone can recommend some specific papers regarding the Geological history of the belt ...
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Is Radiocarbon dating flawed?

I posted this before on physics stack exchange, but it was deemed off topic, which is understandable, so I hope it won't be here. Recently, I stumbled upon an article by an individual named A.M. ...
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When did the proto-Himalayas become non-volcanic?

In the normal course of events, when continents move toward each other, at least one coast will be associated with a subduction zone and corresponding volcanic activity. When the Indian subcontinent ...
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What methods/apparatus are used to model the early Earth? What do we know of their accuracy?

A friend of mine asked our teacher but the class was over and in online mode, I can't ask my teacher until the next lecture. It sparked my curiosity, I know we use carbon dating for finding the age of ...
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Generalized Soil Unit Information on Soil Characteristics of FAO/UNESCO Soil Map

I have some doubts regarding the FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World. I have downloaded the ESRI shapefile format of Digital Soil Map of the World (3rd download link on this page). Among other files, ...
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Can geochemical anomalies of stream sediment samples be used directly for mapping targets?

We know that geochemical dispersion in stream sediment is much widespread, facilitating discovering mineral targets in a regional scale. However, we also know that there should be discrepancy in space ...
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Isotopic dating of metamorphic rocks

I read in my physical geology textbook that sedimentary rocks cannot be dated using isotopic dating, because they are formed from fragments of other rocks and minerals, which if you were the subject ...
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Why were Fe-oxides not usually used for finding skarn Fe ore deposits in geochemical exploration?

I found that Fe-oxides were usually not used for vectoring Fe mineral deposits of skarn type in geochemical exploration. As an indicator element, the common practice told us Fe-oxides should be the ...
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What are some effective approaches to enhancing fossils in amateur found rocks?

My stepson found this rock on the shore of Lake Michigan and gave it to my son who loves fossils. I'd like to really bring out those fossils. What are some techniques that I can try that won't ...
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Water flows under the headwater and soil liquefaction has formed

A retaining wall 40 cm thick with variable height (thin-walled corner) is being built in the mountainous area. At the time of the geotechnical survey and design, there was no reservoir next to the ...
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How did these holes form in the rock? [closed]

I've been trying to figure out how these holes formed in the rock. These pictures were taken in Quebec, Canada on small lake in cottage country. The strange thing is that they are almost both ...
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What affects where a terrain will be rocky or grassy?

I’m working on a terrain generator and I now need to color the terrain to be rock, grass, or snow. Ignoring snow for now, at first I thought I’d make flatter areas grass and make steeper areas rock. ...
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Did geologists determine the age of rocks and fossils before the advent of modern scientific dating methods?

Did geologists determine the age of rocks and fossils before the advent of modern scientific dating methods such as radiometric, electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence? If they did, does ...
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What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

In the question Does gravity increase the closer to the core you get?, it was determined that gravity reduces to zero at the center of the Earth. That is logical. However if pressure is proportional ...
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Rapidly rising land after rain seen in India? What can cause this?

I came across a video where a piece of land was seen rising very rapidly after rain. The land got elevated within a few minutes by atleast a meter. Can anyone suggest possible mechanisms? I am sharing ...
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At what theoretical depth of sand would pressure turn the sand into rock?

Thinking about the movie Dune (this is not a sci fi question) got me to wondering. In the theoretical situation where you had a desert of sand with an unlimited depth here on Earth. At what depth ...
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Is it incredibly unlikely that industrial societies emerge elsewhere in the galaxy due to lack of petroleum or similar substance?

Not sure where to post this question, but it struck me the other day that the major driving force behind our modern industrial society is owed nearly entirely to the harnessing of petroleum power in ...
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How can we know the past height of mountains?

In Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume I, Feynman talks about the relation between Physics and Geology. He says “Mountains are no lower today, on the average, than they were in the past”. Through what ...
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What significant factors influencing geological change are still occurring?

I am teaching a secondary school course on my state's local history. The textbook begins with the history of the first humans, yet I think it is unfair not to start back much earlier, introducing the ...
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Are we observing sedimentary rock formation today?

For instance, are we able to see the microscopic accumulation of shale or limestone? Can anyone reference me to sandstone formation observation, that would have to occur more rapidly. I’ve heard it ...
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How much would the ground be displaced in a magnitude 11 earthquake?

In a magnitude 5 earthquake, the ground shakes violently and it's often impossible to stay upright. This is caused by about 50-120 cm of displacement of the ground. But how much would the ground move ...
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What methods do geologists employ to detemine the age of a petroleum deposit?

Petroleum is not considered a rock, but it is formed by a process, so it has an age. What methods do geologists employ to determine the age of a petroleum deposit?
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How strong/hard are speleothems?

I want to know how hard or strong typical speleothems are. For example, could an average man break off a small stalactite or soda straw? If they're very hard, how do they compare to bone?
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Do carbon dioxide hydrates exist in nature?

Do CO2 hydrates exist in nature? If so, how much carbon could they contain?
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Artifical Ore Genesis?

From my understanding, the formation of ores can be reduced to a simple three-step process of the removal of minerals from a source via some mechanism, the transportation of these minerals, and ...
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Can a lightning strike ionise the material it strikes?

I know lightning strikes ionise the air, but I'm looking into geology, specifically amethyst, and found that it gets its colour partially from trivalent iron, iron(III), Fe 3+, whatever you want to ...
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How fast does sand degrade into silt, and silt into clay?

I am talking to some students about how soil changes, and I've heard from soil samplers that the texture of the soil, i.e. whether it is sand, silt or clay, doesn't change in a human lifetime. It ...
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What is this geological formation in the Santa Cruz mountains that looks like a cave interior?

Stevens Canyon Road in the Santa Cruz Mountains (near Cupertino, California) passes right next to a large rock formation that, to my untrained eye, reminds me of the inside of a limestone cave. Here's ...
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Fossil ID: possible fauna fossil, from Perlis, Malaysia

I found this fossil while doing my fieldwork in limestone area. Description below may help to identify it. Location: NW Perlis, Malaysia (Setul Formation). Hilly Area. My Observation: Have a curly ...
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Why are cobalt deposits so unevenly distributed?

The Democratic Republic of the Congo's Katanga Province contains almost 40% of the world's reserves of cobalt [1]. Why are deposits concentrated so strongly in such a small portion of the earth? I ...
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Ranking volcanic rocks influence to geothermal suitability?

I am not a geologist/geology student but I want to quickly know the influence of volcanic rock type to geothermal suitability. I have read read some journals and online articles but it seems there are ...
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How do the Andes get so high?

I'm interested in the limiting factors on the height of mountains. There is a very good explanation at https://www.quora.com/How-tall-can-a-mountain-become-on-Earth-Neil-deGrasse-Tyson-says-Mount-...
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How to calculate mountain front sinuosity index using DEM?

In tectonic geomorphology the Mountain front sinuosity index is one of the morphometric indexes. Smf = Lmf/Ls I have a DEM, so how do I use it to find the value? According to this diagram do I have ...
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Extinctions and geomagnetic inversions [duplicate]

The article Did the Earth’s magnetic field affect our evolution? on Pledge Times cite this Science paper to assert: These authors speculate that, in the Pleistocene, large mammals could have reached ...
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Complete missing outcrop problem

Given A is upper limit of sand stone, B is the lower limit of the planes that are equal in distance and dip. Dip angle is 29 degrees. Complete the outcrop of this map. —————————————————————————- Now I ...
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What kind of rock is this? [closed]

A few years ago in Venezuela, parque nacional de Cainama, the tourist guide found and gave me this rocks, he told us that a geologist told him that those could be radioactive but no one believed him. ...

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