Questions tagged [geology]

The science comprising the study of the rocks Earth is composed of, and the processes by which they change. Some subfields of geology are petrology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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What forces plays the role in order to subduct the denser tectonic plate under the lighter plate?

I am a 10th grade student and I don't know much about geology but I'm learning about subduction online. It's always mentioned that the denser plate gets subducted under the lesser denser plate. I want ...
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Is Feldspar likely to occur near iron ores, next to them, or mixed with them?

As the question probably shows, I am not really versed in geological sciences, but it is rather a worldbuilding question I have regarding a setting based on the North Carolina area of the USA. Would a ...
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Does the high pressure inside the Earth's core contribute to its high temperature?

The explanations for why the Earth's core is hot I found on the internet included: leftover energy from the Earth's formation radioactivity of the elements inside the core friction between the core ...
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Representing strike lines in rose diagrams

How can you best represent strike data on a rose diagram? Is it okay to plot only the strike?
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Which transparent mineral has the highest IOR? natural or lab made

I do apologize if this is the wrong place to ask this question. It's a rather simple question, but google gave me rather vague / random results, so I thought it might be better to ask somewhere like ...
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Could travertine buildup seal up cracks in limestone?

So after a recent freeze in Texas the following overhang collapsed. Presumably water in existent cracks froze and made the cracks even bigger as the water expanded. Combined that with an increase in ...
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Relation between highlands and tidal forces

Could the presence of mountain ranges in continental areas near to tectonic plates boundaries prevent these plates from swaying up and down as a result of vertical tidal forces and plastic ...
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Difference between Hillshading and Terrain Resource Information Management

I am picking up on remote sensing. I came across a paper where they use the shaded relief model from Terrain Resource Information Management (TRIM) for hillshading. However, is it the same as the ...
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Where can I access public sonic well-log data?

I'm doing some research and I'm in need of some well-log data from a sonic tool. I'm specifically looking for a multi-receiver tool with 6 or more receivers if possible. I've been able to find a lot ...
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Distribution of terrestrial impact craters

Recently I was looking at a map of known impact structures and I noticed that they are concentrated between the tropical and arctic latitudes, but there is very little near the equator. I can think ...
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Volcanology book to make an app for first courses students

I want to make an app for first courses geology students that include the types of volcanoes and eruptions. Can you recommend me a book (in English, French or Spanish) that could help me make the ...
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Stratigraphy book that covers all the Stratigraphic Chart ages events

I want to program an application for smartphones to help geology students to learn the eon, era, period, epoch and ages of the Stratigraphic Chart. I want to leave them the picture of the chart and ...
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Least equatorial ( and tidal) bulge consistent with modest amounts of water in polar regions

In World Building I asked a question about the climate of an hypothetical planet. There Vogon poet said that Everyone above 10° latitude will be in permanent drought Considering that there were no ...
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On defining a scale for anisotropy

My question is regarding the following statement given in this paper on page 51. It reads, Fundamental to both anisotropy and heterogeneity is the concept of scale. Whether anisotropy and ...
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What stone/crystal is it? [closed]

I found this stone/crystal when I walked down the street few days ago. I picked it up since it looks very different with other stones in the area, I am really curious about what stone/crystal it is, ...
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Why is some ocean on continental crust?

While most ocean crust is formed from oceanic plate formations there are areas of the ocean (much of the Gulf of Mexico, Eastern US coast, North Sea, Arabian coast of India) which appear to be ...
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Form Lines from Strike and Dip measurements

I am looking to draw form lines on this map based on the strike and dip measurements taken on site. From what I have gathered it is an anticline with a possible second fault to the right hand side. ...
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What are the craters and mounds in this Missouri bedrock map?

When looking at this map of bedrock geology of the Illinois and Ozark basins (sourced from Geological and Geophysical Maps of the Illinois Basin-Ozark Dome Region), I can't help but notice that ...
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Basalt sill - a contradiction in terms?

My textbook for a historical geography class mentions a couple of geological features it calls "basalt sills" (the sill of Rosh Pinah and one other). I'm a total newbie to geology, but the ...
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What other areas of the planet might be rich in Mesozoic-era fossils that have yet to be explored?

China is a region rich in sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic period and incredible discoveries about dinosaurs have been made there since the 1990s. I was wondering which other areas of the planet ...
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If the asteroid that wiped out most of the dinosaurs had impacted much closer to the poles, would the extinction event have be smaller?

The case is that, if it landed at the North Pole or the South Pole, the global after-impact effects such as gases and dust spreading through the atmosphere, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanism and ...
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Help with petrographic analysis of a complex mineral

While performing petrographic analysis in a rock composed mainly of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine, I came across the mineral shown in the photo. Do you have any clues of what it could be? The ...
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Regular-ish chipings in slate - weird weathering, hewn or a fossil?

When hiking in the Moselvalley (on the Calmont, to be precise) I found a slightly rhomboid piece of slate measuring about 10 by 11 cm, with a thickness of ca. 2 to 4 cm. As can be seen in the first ...
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What would eventually happen to untrapped petroleum?

The Stack Exchange question wondering how much of the petroleum ever formed made it into reservoir rocks got me pondering what becomes of the organic material that isn't trapped in reservoir rock. I ...
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Help me find a certain type of crystallographic notation

I was looking through wikipedia a few weeks ago while half asleep, reading articles about rocks and their chemical compositions. I then came across a certain crystallographic notation which I had not ...
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Why is silver found mainly in lead

Apparently according to the Parkes Process silver is 3000 times more soluble in zinc than in lead. So why is it that most silver is obtained from galena? Edit: “ Silver mainly occurs as a contaminant ...
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What kind of chromium is in common limestone?

I was thinking of crushing up some common limestone for microminerals because the water where I live has nearly zero calcium content. So I read about the trace elements of limestone and It says ...
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Seismic velocity relations

I do understand why the seismic velocity decreases with temperature and increases with pressure, but I am not really familiar with the relationship between the velocity with Poisson's ratio. I ...
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I perceive fuel in my bore hole water

Since I am from the Niger delta, where crude oil is mostly seen ... when we pump water and I try drinking it, it reeks of fuel ... how can I confirm it to be crude locally before alerting the oil ...
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On QAPF (Steckeisen) diagrams, should Albite be considered on the Alkali feldspar or Plagioclase side? Or in-between?

QAPF diagrams are double ternary diagrams used for magmatic rock classification based on mineralogy. Quartz and Feldspathoids are opposed on the pointy ends of the diamond, with Alkali feldspar and ...
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What is a Poisson solid and what affect does it have on p and s waves?

What is a Poisson solid and what affect does it have on p and s waves?
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What does fugacity mean in the context of geology?

I am reading about water in the Lunar mantle, however it mentions fugacity a lot. What does it mean in this context?
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How deep could an ocean trench be on Earth theoretically? [duplicate]

I was listening to a creepypasta story on YouTube about extremely deep places in the ocean deeper than the Marianas' Trench, and that makes me wonder. On Earth specifically, how deep could an ocean ...
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Is or was there oil on Sakhalin?

There are certainly oilfields under the sea floor off the coast of Sakhalin, that are being actively exploited. This map shows their locations: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Map-of-Sakhalin-...
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Is this a fossil?

Found this on open heath land close to RAF Honington, Suffolk, UK. Its about the size/shape of a cherry tomatoe cut in half. Thanks
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Will a Mohs hardness scratch pen need to be replaced or resharpened?

I am considering buying a set of Mohs hardness scratch pens (aka hardness picks). As a hobbyist the price is quite high, starting at 300 USD and upwards for a complete set. I can accept this price if ...
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Why are salt domes suitable for the final disposal of nuclear waste?

I keep reading that final storage sites for nuclear waste are being built in salt domes. In the case of the German Gorleben project, the salt domes were determined to be unsuitable after prolonged ...
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Time of day of Chicxulub impact

Is there any known evidence about what the local time of day of the Chicxulub impact was (at the very least, whether the impactor struck during day or night)? If there is not any such known evidence, ...
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Book recommendation - historical / biographrical take on geology?

I am looking for a book (and/or show) that tackles geology on a popular science level from a historical perspective with biographical components of the scientists / discoverers involved in moving the ...
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Where can I find geological maps for countries from Africa?

I am interested in geological maps for multiple African countries: Egypt, Sudan, and Ivory Coast. Is there any geoportal available for Africa, something similar to geokniga or vsegei, but for Arican ...
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Is it safe to keep volcanic sulfur at home?

Took some sulfur stones while hiking on a volcano. Keeping them at home as a piece of decore. Is it safe to store it on a shelf? Can it ignite or somehow do harm to me or to my pets?
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Where is basalt in the Goldich dissolution series?

In relation to this experiment: https://www.remineralize.org/rem_publications/action-of-microorganisms-in-basalt-powder/ It is said that applying basalt rock dust to soil can improve soil fertility ...
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Do any spike-like "cemented fillings of ancient fractures in a sedimentary rock", remotely similar to this one on Mars, occur on Earth?

The SETI Institute recently tweeted the image below, with the text: #PPOD: Here is another cool rock at Gale crater on Mars! The spikes are most likely the cemented fillings of ancient fractures in a ...
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Geology of the San Gabriel mountains in the Angeles national forest - rock types

I'm not a geologist, I am a hiker. And after many hikes in California's Sierra Nevada and Utah's red country I figured it would be great to learn some geology and I'm just posting this question to see ...
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Airborne geophysical survey in steep and undulating terrain. What is more important, energy conservation or orienting lines wrt to geology and why?

I am trying to design a cost and energy efficient aerial survey and have come up against the question, 'do we have to fly straight lines perpenducular to geology?' as not doing so could make for a ...
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How plausible is it that "a portion of the ocean's floor" could suddenly be "thrown up to the surface" as described in this Lovecraft story?

This question came to me after reading H.P. Lovecraft's "Dagon"- the protagonist has fallen asleep drifting on the ocean in a small boat. He wakes up one morning to discover he's been ...
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What is the history behind the present day geology of California? What processes took place that led to the formation of each region as shown in fig?

This is the image showing the different geomorphic provinces of California. What led to the formation of these provinces, and what events took place that resulted in the diverse geological setting of ...
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For how long can mid-oceanic islands be volcanically active?

The island of St Helena in the South Atlantic was volcanically active for 5 million years, or maybe longer. Is this period of time unusual - which other mid-oceanic islands were active for as long as ...
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Does the collision of India influence the geology and geography of some of the other mountains of Asia, or just the Himalayas and Tibet?

This here is a nice and lovely map of Asia. Note that the teardrop-shaped Tibetan Plateau dominates the map, and we have India to thank. For the last 50 million years, it has been pushing upwards, ...
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Coastal Hill Formation (Valparaíso, Chile)

This seems like a simple question, but I can't find much information on the web about this, and I haven't studied Geology or Geophysics. In Valparaíso there are a large number of "Cerros" (&...

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