Questions tagged [geology]

The science comprising the study of the rocks Earth is composed of, and the processes by which they change. Some subfields of geology are petrology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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3
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1answer
716 views

How vertically deep do lava conduits go?

I'll preface this with the truth and hope it doesn't disqualify the question but rather give context: after reading Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne, I am amazed at the prospect of ...
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1answer
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Utah rock pattern identification - looks like small craters

This formation was found in the Capital Reef area of Southern Utah (38.2970546, -111.2979319). There wasn't just one, but several of these small crater formations all over the area. All of them had ...
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What are “x-cutting relationships”?

This tweet by Daryl Blanks asks: Day 1 VTMR trip @GeologyLeics -First stop Laxford bridge! gneiss with amphibolite and granitic pegmatite intrusions - can u spot all x-cutting relationships?! What ...
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1answer
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At what rate does Earth's atmosphere shed heat into space? [closed]

If we had a heat bank account (the atmosphere) + heat cash supply (ice) + heat debt (the oceans) could governments find a way to balance our heat economy that doesn't kill ...
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How long will it take for plate tectonics to shut down and what will the effects be? [duplicate]

As the interior of the earth cools, presumably there will come a time when the temperature gradient is insufficient to maintain the mantle plumes and hence plate tectonics. How long will this take ...
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1answer
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How old are Chile's fjords?

Do we have any knowledge about the age of Chile's fjords, more specifically, those found near the Northern Patagonian Ice Field? Is it reasonable to conclude that they were formed in Quaternary given ...
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1answer
153 views

How can I tell the difference between granite and syenite?

(I'm not a geologist, just helping my kids collect rocks).
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1answer
281 views

Is altitude of everything decreasing due to sea level rise?

We know that sea level is rising, though some people say climate change is fake. Altitude is defined as the height of something measured from sea level. Since sea level is increasing, and the ...
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0answers
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What is this dull whitish rock with ornate black patterns found in the Arkansas Crater of Diamonds?

I found this rock while wet sifting dirt brought back from the Arkansas Crater of Diamonds. It looks as if it is hand painted. It is smaller than my pinky nail. It’s dull, and makes a chalk-like mark ...
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1answer
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What is the motivation behind the choice of unglazed Porcelain as a Streak plate?

What characteristics does Porcelain possess that makes it a good choice for the Streak test? Additionally, are there any other materials that could also be used for designing a Streak plate?
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1answer
211 views

Movements of the tectonic plates - collison between Indian Plate & Eurasian Plate

I am a high school student, my question is about the collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. When this happens what happens to the area of the Asian continent. Does it increase or ...
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2answers
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How did CO₂ originate on Earth before there was life?

To start life there has to be $\ce{CO2}$. $\ce{Solar energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 (sugars) + 6O2}$ $C_6H_{12}O_{6} + O_2 \longrightarrow H_2O + {CO}_2 + \text{Energy}$ So to start this cycle, ...
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3answers
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Is this a meteor? It's very heavy for its size [closed]

Here it is. Hope this helps you best image I could take.
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2answers
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What is the identity of this heavy, smooth, shiny black and red rock? [closed]

. It's very shiny and layered. It has rough texture but spots with smooth red colored pieces.
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1answer
153 views

What are the cubic formations found inside Larimar gemstones?

I recently noticed what appears to be common cubic formations just beneath the surface of Pectolite (Larimar) gemstones. They quite resemble transparent sugar sprinkles. Each formation isn't perfectly ...
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1answer
113 views

What is the parent rock in this photo? [closed]

Please help find out what this rock formation is and where it is found in the world?
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1answer
117 views

What rock is this white stone with tendrils like an anemone? [on hold]

Could someone please help me identify what this rock is and where it came from? Thank you!
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0answers
3k views

What is this black, shiny, smooth, kind of heavy, metallic rock? [closed]

Its kind of heavy for it size, though not extreme - about two pounds. Looks like a chunk of metal, but not quite sure what it is.
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104 views

Can someone help me identify this crystal/stone? [closed]

I found this stone whilst on safari in Nairobi. Can anyone help me identify it please?
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2answers
507 views

What is this white rock with black speckles throughout?

I was wondering if you have any ideas on what kind of rock this might be? I know that it doesn't effervesce with HCl (no reaction with hydrochloric acid at all) and the size and shape of each grain is ...
6
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1answer
792 views

Volcanoes in the Alps and Himalayas and the subduction of Tethys Sea

Geologist have theorized that the Tethys Sea subducted under Eurasian plates. But where are the volcanoes that would have resulted due to this? Where are the volcanoes in the Alps and the Himalayas?
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1answer
285 views

Can a shock wave travel around the Earth's curvature?

Can an explosion be felt in the ground on the opposite side of the Earth like from an asteroid? Would planes in the air on that side of the Earth be able to survive? Does the shock waive follow the ...
8
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1answer
505 views

What kind of rock is this gray and brown weathered cylinder-shaped rock I found near a New York lake?

I found this rock on the beach of a freshwater lake in the Finger Lakes region of New York state and am interested in knowing more about it. It is about 2" tall and 2" wide at widest point. Weighs 14....
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5answers
178 views

Which Earth minerals would Moon colonists miss the most?

In my science-based novel, Moon colonists need to return to Earth to collect some rare or absent mineral(s) Ideally, something they could derive from seawater. Which minerals might they be...?
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1answer
167 views

Is this a rock or something else?

I found this on the bank of the Fraser River in BC, and at first I thought it was a piece of wood. But when I picked it up, I realized it wasn’t. Does anyone know what formed the rings? Is it even a ...
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What is this 6in Nor Cal beach boulder with waxy veins?

Nor Cal beach @ low tide. 6in, photographed wet, post acid wash. Veins look waxy.
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1answer
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How can I distinguish real from fake? (Jade Stone)

How can I be certain this is jade. I bought this rock from a thrift store for 40 bucks. I thought it was a bit pricey for what it is..does anybody have any solid tips on how to clean up the ...
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1answer
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What are the differences between alluvial, eluvial and colluvial deposits? [duplicate]

There's always confusion and disagreement when these terms are mentioned. Need to be sure of their exact meanings.
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1answer
86 views

Can anyone identify this rock?

I was working on a project at a factory that makes gypsum wall board. The gypsum comes to the factory on ships and is placed in stockpiles. During the gypsum processing unusable material is pulled ...
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1answer
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66 views

What gravitational evidence do we have to counter the idea that oceans are formed when continents sink?

Is there some evidence for this based on gravity anomalies? I think I know how to tell if a mountain or structure is compensated based on bougeur and free air anomalies, but this really has me ...
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1answer
347 views

What structures form due to the melting of subducting plates? [closed]

What structures form from the melting of subducting plates? Plutons, Accretionary wedges, Deep sea trenches, Faults?
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1answer
754 views

Which type of convergent boundary creates the tallest mountains? [closed]

Which type of convergent boundary creates the tallest mountains? Continental-Continental Ocean-Ocean Ocean-Continental
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1answer
479 views

What equation should I use in this isostasy problem?

I have this problem, and I am not sure where to start. The only Airy equation in my text is $r_1= \frac{h_1 \cdot p_u}{p_s - p_u}$. This doesn't seem to apply, or if it does it isn't obvious. Is ...
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2answers
119 views

How to graph gravity as a function of depth, given radius and density?

I need to do this for a planet that has uniform density, and a planet that has two layers. For the first part, I was given that the density was 550 kg/m³, so I made one column in an Excel spreadsheet ...
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1answer
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A red and unidentified stone… What is it?

A red stone, glows red and is hard. I have asked people about it but nobody knows. For a decade, it had been in my altar. Out of curiosity, I thought of posing a question. What it is actually and its ...
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1answer
308 views

What factors explain mountain glacier retreat variability?

It is well known that the majority of the world's mountain glaciers are retreating, but looking at a few LANDSAT images from the 1980s and today I am able to see glaciers that have retreated ...
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1answer
112 views

how much entropy is there in the shape of a rock?

If I dig up a given rock, make a 3d model of it, and compare that model with those of a large number of other rocks from the same area, what fraction of other rocks would have the same 3d model? Let'...
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576 views
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What is the metamorphic field gradient useful for?

As I understand it, the metamorphic field gradient is the PT line traced out by the maximum temperature points of a series of PTt paths of rocks from the same metamorphic event. What exactly is this ...
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1answer
506 views

Which geological processes will destroy plastic?

The geological record at the end of the Anthropocene will undoubtedly contain large volumes of plastic. However, some geological processes will completely destroy plastic (e.g. magmatic or chemical ...
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1answer
80 views

Where do riverbed stones come from? [closed]

Have they always been here since the river was formed? Are some newer than others?
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1answer
82 views

Can someone identify this stone/mineral?

Having a hard time finding out what this stone is called. The surface has been polished which revealed these "layers" with some degree of translucency.
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2answers
578 views

Megathrust earthquakes on subduction zones

I am a beginner in geology and earthquake studies, and learning about subduction zones recently. Question is: do large earthquakes (sometimes referred to as megathrust quakes) occur on any point in ...
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1answer
197 views

How much of Earth is carbon-based? [closed]

Description Carbon ($C$), makes up for the majority of our planet and everything that lives on it. Coal, gems (any gem), plants, and most sedimentary rocks also contain great deals of carbon. Fun ...
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1answer
125 views

Can anyone identify this gem or stone please? [closed]

Looking to identify, not sure if it’s precious, semi-precious, or just beautiful… Any answers will be helpful.
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1answer
1k views

What separates the Karakoram Range, the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayan Range?

In Google Maps, I don't see any boundary between the Karakoram (a.k.a. Karakorum) Range, the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayan Range. What separates these ranges?
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2answers
345 views

What is this complex reddish-brown stone with lighter spots found at a NZ beach?

I found this small stone on a beach on the east cost of the North Island in New Zealand. It's red/brown and has almost gray spots, but also has lots of white crystals coming out of it. It has a dull ...
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1answer
364 views

Can someone please identify my rock(?) found on a beach

I'm not even sure it is rock or if it's something man made. Non magnetic, weight 25g. Found on a beach in Charmouth, England.
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1answer
314 views

Help me identify these New Zealand rocks

I found these 2 at the beach on the east coast of the North Island in New Zealand. The white one is beautiful, it sparkles and glimmers and even the brown/pink veins through it sparkle, but it's ...