Questions tagged [geology]

The science comprising the study of the rocks Earth is composed of, and the processes by which they change. Some subfields of geology are petrology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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Difference between fold and ripple marks

I know these twos are totally different from each other but give me a exact region ,that you can write if this question comes in exam.first I was thought fold is a deformational feature and ripple ...
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What is a Poisson solid and what affect does it have on p and s waves?

What is a Poisson solid and what affect does it have on p and s waves?
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What does fugacity mean in the context of geology?

I am reading about water in the Lunar mantle, however it mentions fugacity a lot. What does it mean in this context?
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How deep could an ocean trench be on Earth theoretically? [duplicate]

I was listening to a creepypasta story on YouTube about extremely deep places in the ocean deeper than the Marianas' Trench, and that makes me wonder. On Earth specifically, how deep could an ocean ...
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Is or was there oil on Sakhalin?

There are certainly oilfields under the sea floor off the coast of Sakhalin, that are being actively exploited. This map shows their locations: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Map-of-Sakhalin-...
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Is this a fossil?

Found this on open heath land close to RAF Honington, Suffolk, UK. Its about the size/shape of a cherry tomatoe cut in half. Thanks
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Will a Mohs hardness scratch pen need to be replaced or resharpened?

I am considering buying a set of Mohs hardness scratch pens (aka hardness picks). As a hobbyist the price is quite high, starting at 300 USD and upwards for a complete set. I can accept this price if ...
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13 votes
2 answers
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Why are salt domes suitable for the final disposal of nuclear waste?

I keep reading that final storage sites for nuclear waste are being built in salt domes. In the case of the German Gorleben project, the salt domes were determined to be unsuitable after prolonged ...
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Time of day of Chicxulub impact

Is there any known evidence about what the local time of day of the Chicxulub impact was (at the very least, whether the impactor struck during day or night)? If there is not any such known evidence, ...
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Book recommendation - historical / biographrical take on geology?

I am looking for a book (and/or show) that tackles geology on a popular science level from a historical perspective with biographical components of the scientists / discoverers involved in moving the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Where can I find geological maps for countries from Africa?

I am interested in geological maps for multiple African countries: Egypt, Sudan, and Ivory Coast. Is there any geoportal available for Africa, something similar to geokniga or vsegei, but for Arican ...
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Is it safe to keep volcanic sulfur at home?

Took some sulfur stones while hiking on a volcano. Keeping them at home as a piece of decore. Is it safe to store it on a shelf? Can it ignite or somehow do harm to me or to my pets?
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Where is basalt in the Goldich dissolution series?

In relation to this experiment: https://www.remineralize.org/rem_publications/action-of-microorganisms-in-basalt-powder/ It is said that applying basalt rock dust to soil can improve soil fertility ...
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Do any spike-like "cemented fillings of ancient fractures in a sedimentary rock", remotely similar to this one on Mars, occur on Earth?

The SETI Institute recently tweeted the image below, with the text: #PPOD: Here is another cool rock at Gale crater on Mars! The spikes are most likely the cemented fillings of ancient fractures in a ...
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Geology of the San Gabriel mountains in the Angeles national forest - rock types

I'm not a geologist, I am a hiker. And after many hikes in California's Sierra Nevada and Utah's red country I figured it would be great to learn some geology and I'm just posting this question to see ...
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Airborne geophysical survey in steep and undulating terrain. What is more important, energy conservation or orienting lines wrt to geology and why?

I am trying to design a cost and energy efficient aerial survey and have come up against the question, 'do we have to fly straight lines perpenducular to geology?' as not doing so could make for a ...
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4 answers
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How plausible is it that "a portion of the ocean's floor" could suddenly be "thrown up to the surface" as described in this Lovecraft story?

This question came to me after reading H.P. Lovecraft's "Dagon"- the protagonist has fallen asleep drifting on the ocean in a small boat. He wakes up one morning to discover he's been ...
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What is the history behind the present day geology of California? What processes took place that led to the formation of each region as shown in fig?

This is the image showing the different geomorphic provinces of California. What led to the formation of these provinces, and what events took place that resulted in the diverse geological setting of ...
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3 votes
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For how long can mid-oceanic islands be volcanically active?

The island of St Helena in the South Atlantic was volcanically active for 5 million years, or maybe longer. Is this period of time unusual - which other mid-oceanic islands were active for as long as ...
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Does the collision of India influence the geology and geography of some of the other mountains of Asia, or just the Himalayas and Tibet?

This here is a nice and lovely map of Asia. Note that the teardrop-shaped Tibetan Plateau dominates the map, and we have India to thank. For the last 50 million years, it has been pushing upwards, ...
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2 votes
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Coastal Hill Formation (Valparaíso, Chile)

This seems like a simple question, but I can't find much information on the web about this, and I haven't studied Geology or Geophysics. In Valparaíso there are a large number of "Cerros" (&...
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4 votes
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Patterns on Basalt

These Basalt rocks were hand cracked and used to build the walls on my home. Many of these rocks have these semi circular pattern, made of the basalt itself. It's just a bit darker than the rest of ...
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How should we deal with geochemical anomalies in stream sediment?

We know that geochemical anomalies in stream sediment usually distributed along the drainage. Therefore, when we use stream sediment as the sampling medium and found an anomaly, we should trace the ...
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In Geology - True Dip versus Apparent Dip: When dip is estimated along a line of section, how is that dip determined in relation to true dip?

The map presents a summary example of topography and mapped units X and Y. From the information presented, can someone help me determine or estimate the actual dip along the line of section, A-A'? I ...
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How these rock features form?

I was walking on a reef in northern Italy near Genoa. (44.3230136N, 9.1462828E) The rock was composed of rocks of varying sizes, colors and shapes held together by some kind of a seemignly softer ...
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How did the Cliffs of Dover form flint in regular stripes?

The White Cliffs of Dover are mostly chalk but there are regularly spaced horizontal lines of flint. I understand how the chalk and flint layers are formed independently (from Wikipedia) but I haven'...
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What is causing the crustal extension exhibited by the Basin and Range province in western North America?

Is there any link with the subduction of the Farallon Plate and the associated spreading center?
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Would 2 continental landmasses at a divergent boundary (i.e. Africa and S/A) stop/reverse direction if a continent overrode the original rift?

Something that's been bugging me for some time now. If, for example, Antarctica started subducting in the direction of the Atlantic Ocean (I'm aware it's not and isn't predicted to), and began ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Can continental plates collide and fuse together without an orogenic band or magmatic arc or at the junction?

I have seen this diagram on Wikipedia (link below). It shows that some North American mini-plate boundaries are orogenic bands and some are magmatic arcs, and I think those correspond to continent/...
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3 votes
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Why is the Colorado Plateau so stable?

The Colorado Plateau somehow has avoided all the tectonic activity around it over hundreds of millions of years. Is it just luck, or is there something about that chunk of crust? I have toured the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What are the prerequisites for petroleum geology?

I'm in my late thirties and decided to get back to studying. I want to learn petroleum geology but it's been 10 years since I last opened any book, so I basically forgot tons of stuff that I learnt. I ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Difference between crystal and mineral

What is the exact difference between a crystal and a mineral?
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Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks' Susceptibility to landslide

Which is more susceptible to landslide based on lithology compared to one another? Granite, Conglomerate, Sandstone, Mudstone I've been tasked to create a hazard map and was given a Geologic Map, ...
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8 votes
1 answer
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What determines when the end of a volcanic eruption will happen?

The Cumbre Vieja volcano of La Palma Island, Spain, started to erupt 3 months ago. This week, the volcano stopped emitting lava and there remains only degassing processes. According to this news story,...
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5 votes
1 answer
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I am searching for a word to describe the area of a glacial valley where the sides transition into the floor?

I have been tasked with proof reading before publication a Russian paper that has been translated into basic English and am searching for a word to describe the area of a glacial valley where the ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Why is felsic (granitic) lava so much more viscous when flowing (or trying to) than mafic (basaltic) lava?

A lower average temperature is, apparently, only part of the answer.... Several sites said composition, not temperature, explains most of the difference... And the difference in viscosity can be up to ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Why is the inner core about 85% iron and the rest (mostly) nickel, while the outer is roughly 80%/20%, if nickel is denser than iron?

As stated above.... I really cannot think of a good reason, on my own, why this should be so.... Is it a mystery to geologists?
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4 votes
1 answer
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Can paleomagnetic techniques determine the exact direction of Earth's magnetic poles in the past, not just their polarity?

Since our planet's magnetic poles are not usually, precisely, lined up with the geographic poles of Earth's axis, and since they move around a lot, can paleomagneticists (is that a word?) determine ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Geodes that float in the ocean?

What would happen if you threw a geode into the ocean. Would it sink down to a certain altitude based on how hollow the geode is or would it float on top or sink to the bottom? And could geodes form ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Elevation accuracy to distinguish maximal gravity anomaly of a sphere with 50% hematite

Question: What is the accuracy required in elevation to distinguish the maximal gravity anomaly of a spherical 50% Haematite (Iron mineral) ore with a radius of <...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Is there any mineral that survives hard degree metamorphism?

When a protolith enters in metamorphism, the minerals transform in other new stable minerals while the pressure and/or temperature increase. Is there any mineral that would not be affected by a high ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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What characteristics are considered when distinguishing a place based on physiographic provinces?

Wikipedia describes a concept called "physiographic provinces". If I understand right, geologists simply created lines on a map, to create clusters of places that are geologically similar. ...
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8 votes
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What gases are in the vesicles of pumice?

Many references state that pumice is formed by gases in lava, but I have yet to find a reference of which gases they are. If a piece of pumice floats, then conceivably it still contains the original ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to genetically classify a weathering mineral or a mineral formed in soil?

Coming from this question and the answer, a proposed genetic classification of minerals: Endogenic: Magmatic, Metamorphic, Hydrothermal. Exogenic: Supergene, Sedimentary. My question is how would ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Are carbonated stalactite deposits sedimentary deposits?

Acording to britanica.com: sedimentary rock, rock formed at or near Earth’s surface by the accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock) or by the precipitation from solution at normal ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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What questions to ask to students from a mineral guide dataset?

I am programming an app that consist in 180 mineral sheets of interest for geology students. My database have the following fileds: Identifier Name Name 2 Type Class Formula System Environment1 ...
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13 votes
3 answers
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If the Bennu asteroid were to hit within a 500 mile radius of Yellowstone National Park, will it trigger a super volcano at Yellowstone?

I am curious to know if it would be highly probable that if the Bennu asteroid were to hit the Earth in 2182, and the point of impact is within a 500 mile radius of Yellowstone National Park, will it ...
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5 votes
2 answers
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Python - How to write interpolated raster to netcdf file

Currently i am dealing with a bunch of coordinates (epsg:4326 => lat/lon) and their corresponding value (temperature). The goal is to write these coordinates and their values into a simple netcdf ...
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1 vote
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Oil FIlled Geode

Five weeks ago my dad and I collected geodes near Bedford, Indiana, from private property with the full permission of the owner. While cutting the rocks one produced an unexpected result - oil poured ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Volcanic Explosivity Index of Cumbre Vieja eruption

I have been following the last events of Cumbre Vieja eruption since it started last month. Trying to grasp some basic knowledge of volcanology I have seen the eruption is classified as VEI-3 in the ...
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