Questions tagged [geology]

The science comprising the study of the rocks Earth is composed of, and the processes by which they change. Some subfields of geology are petrology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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Is sterescope still used to do cartography with orthophotography?

I used this tool at my degree a couple of lusters ago to do cartography with aerial orthophotos. We used it on cartography and geomorphology subjets. Source: gumtree.com The method consists ...
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Is this a geode? [closed]

So just having issues with identification looks like a outer line of rock a bit transparent but the inside polished looks waxy other side of stone a bit more foggy but still blue visible Edit - ...
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If the Kola Superdeep Borehole were opened today, what would come out of it?

The BBC News article The Deepest Hole we have Ever dug says: This is the Kola Superdeep Borehole, the deepest man made hole on Earth and deepest artificial point on Earth. The 40,230ft-deep (12.2km) ...
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How much hydrogen can be extracted from the deep continental crust?

Far below the earth's surface, hydrogen gas is continuously produced through serpentinization. At least some fraction of this hydrogen remains trapped in the deep continental crust; indeed, Soviet ...
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Which ocean is going to be swallowed by the Supercontinent Cycle, Atlantic or Pacific?

The register shows several supercontinents have been formed on Earth's History: "The most recent supercontinent, Pangaea, formed about 300 million years ago (0.3 Ga). There are two different ...
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could a rhyolitic magma melt a ferromagnesian mineral like olivine?

if the temperature of a felsic magma is about 800-650 °C and olivine melting point oscillates between end members forsterite and fayalite near 1900-1200 °C, Does this mean that an olivine crystal in ...
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Why doesn't Earth absorb our carbon emissions?

If we look at the carbon cycle, we see that man-made carbon emission only account for a tiny fraction of all $\text{CO}_2$ emissions. However, we see a steady rise in atmospheric $\text{CO}_2$-levels....
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Is there a name for subduction boundaries at the North of Australia?

I know the ridge at the South of Australia is named Southeast Indian Ridge. I would like to know if there is a geological name for the three subduction branches that cross indonesian zone, at the ...
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What are the farthest Time Zone locations? [closed]

What place in the world has the farthest time zone? I heard it was Kiribati but then I found that Apia (Samoa) is further. So, is there anyplace that is the farthest in time than these two? What about ...
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How can I identify "tough" (mixed) granites?

I am trying to parse an old geologic description of stone suitable for use as road metal: Care must be taken to distinguish the difference between the hardness of a stone and its toughness......
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Can gemstones be cut into sheets? [closed]

TL;DR: Without lasers, electricity, or otherwise modern tools, could large transparent gems be sliced (like glass window)? So I’m world building. On this planet they have caves with enormous gemstone/...
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What is the basis for the Geologic Time Scale

The Geologic time scale was completed in the mid to late 1800s. What methods were used to date the various subdivisions?
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how can a asterisk/star like crack occur on a rock?

how can a asterisk/star like crack occur on a hard pyroclastic rock? Could it caused by a meteroite or by some other mechanism? You may see the shape of the rock on attached photo.
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An oblique-square-prism crystal?

Does any mineral crystallize in the shape of an oblique square prism? If so, what crystal system (monoclinic, cubic, hexagonal, etc.) would such a mineral fall under?
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Did low $\small\sf{CO_2}$ levels affected Permo-Triassic mass extinction?

After answering this question: How did plants adapt to $\small\sf{CO_2}$ levels past 400k years? Why won't they do it again? I know Permo-Triassic mass extinction is associated to a catastrophic ...
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How Big were the Siberian Traps ORIGINALLY?

252 million years ago, Siberia was subject to a mass series of flood basalt eruptions, creating a large igneous province called the Siberian Traps. Today, it measures three million square miles (7.77 ...
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What is an isolated land area of one type of rock surrounded by land of a differing rock type called?

For example, if there were a large land area with exposed basalt, in the middle of which is a smaller isolated patch of Granite, what is that isolated patch called? I came across the single-word ...
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Identification of limestone type

These are images of a stone found and used extensively in the Jammu & Kashmir region between India and Pakistan. These are called devir or devri in the local parlance. Following is the ...
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Would oceans regenerate if removed?

On Earth, there is enough Hydrogen and Oxygen to make 13,88 million km$^3$ of water (calculation below). However, oceans contain only a tenth of that. Clearly, most of the hydrogen must be stored in ...
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Are we at the beginning of a Heinrich Event?

Does our current weather trend properly reflect a Heinrich Event? It seems like the drastic weather swings are what I would expect but I realize that is not definitive. I don't see the term bandied ...
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What kind of lava tube feature is Cleopatra's Grave?

Cleopatra's Grave is a natural feature inside (warning: PDF) Catacombs Cave in Lava Beds National Monument near Modoc, California. Source: LookBeforeYouLive My apologies, as this image is somehow in ...
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What is the difference between subvolcanic rocks and plutonic rocks?

I'm studying Plutonic (Intrusive) rocks and I really don't understand the difference between Plutonic Rocks that form in Sills and Dikes from the so called subvolcanic rocks, also known as a ...
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How do you tell if smoky quartz has been irradiated?

I want to purchase a piece of smoky quartz crystal, but am not sure if it is irradiated. Is there a way to tell if it has been irradiated? Thank you.
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How do people determine initial ratio of the parent nuclide and daughter product in radiometric dating?

I understand that we have zircon crystals that prevent entering or leaving of nuclide or lead after forming. But how cand we understand what was the initial ratio?
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Geological Differentiation: variables and size requirement

Geological/Planetary differentiation is one of those topics that gets glossed over in intro Geo courses. We know that differentiation occurs over deep time (and will never end) and is a result of the ...
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Sink holes in drainage area

I live in Florida (aka the land of sink holes). Due to the flat nature of my area, it is common place for housing developments (and any developments really) to dig large drainage areas to give water ...
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How do we detect floods?

How do we know that there was a flood at a certain place at a certain time. For example if there was a flood in place A 200 years ago. How could we detect it?
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The differences on the atmospheric transportation for various trace metal in atmosphere

I have known that the atmospheric lifetimes of chemical species were highly dependent on their physicochemical properties. For example, $SO_2$ might exist for 5-8 days, while $NO_2$ could only exist ...
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Making a local geological field trip an interesting and educational event for children?

I have no expertise in geology or earth science, but I would like to do a "field trip" with my home-schooled young children (under age 10) where I could teach them about geology from a hands-on ...
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why igneous phosphate rocks contain less uranium than sedimentary rocks?

Sedimentary rock phosphates contain much higher concentrations of potentially hazardous elements (As, Cd, Cr,Pb, Se and U)than igneous rock phosphates. Why? Is it because U concentration in magmatic ...
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Need help identifying rock formation

so this is my first time here because I need help in identifying the features on this rock formation. https://www.flickr.com/gp/158064920@N05/6USrY9 Thank you in advance.
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When will the weight of melted polar ice release the (currently stuck) subduction of the oceanic plate West of the Oregon coast?

Melted polar ice water makes the oceans deeper on average. The extra water on top of the oceanic plates makes them sink relative to the continental plates. This relative vertical displacement will ...
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Why are there no deep caves in the continental US?

According to http://www.caverbob.com/wdeep.htm and http://www.caverbob.com/usadeep.htm, the only cave over 1000m deep in the US is a lava cave in Hawaii. In the continental US the deepest is 505m. On ...
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Formation of Hematite on Mars via Perchlorates as an Oxidizer

Hematite on Mars is generally thought to have formed either in pools of water or from volcanic activity. A comment to the answer to the question: How do hematite and magnetite form? states that ...
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Do there exist reasonable numbers on the density/radius/mass of the various geological layers of the Earth?

I've been doing some math on the radius of the core (inner core in particular), and I keep getting what look like nonsense results. The composition is supposedly nearly all iron, close enough to it ...
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What is diffuse plate rifting?

For example in the Philippine Sea Plate the West Marianas Ridge has formed due to diffuse rifting in the south of the Marianas trough. What does it mean?
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Which is naturally more radioactive: a tertiary or cretaceous sandstone? Why?

I've come across this question in a Petrophysics exercise regarding the Gamma Ray well logging. And I don't know how to solve it. This is the "believed" AFAIK session Natural radioactivity ...
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Is it ever possible for an continental plate to subduct under an oceanic plate?

It is well known that oceanic plates subduct under continental plates. This may be attributed to the plate's age and density, plus the water on top of it. So I was wondering if it is ever possible for ...
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how best to preserve the color of my amethyst geode?

Will bright indirect light cause an amethyst crystal to fade? How about an overhead LED light? How is best to preserve the color of my amethyst geode? Thank you!
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Where to start searching to find more radioactive minerals?

I'm pretty new to all this... I've recently purchased a Geiger counter, and am hoping to locate rocks like pitchblende and other radioactive minerals for my collection. I'm based in the North West ...
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Please explain how this rock could be shaped like this [closed]

i found this amongst some river rock. Please explain why or what happened to it.
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Using acoustics to measure the composition, density, and hardness of layers

I am an engineering student at Alfred University and some fellow classmates and I are doing a competition, but one of the tasks we need to complete is autonomously measuring the composition, density, ...
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What are these Pebbles

Found these Pebbles at a lake edge where a Serpentinite belt runs through, there are lots of serpentine pebbles along this lake in Co. Sligo Ireland. The larger pebble is 1 5/8'' a Yellowish white ...
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I found this strange spherical stone in Gillette Wyoming. I have no idea what it is. Please help. [closed]

These are recent pictures of it. It’s heavy, I see small minerals that catch the light in it, very bumpy, spherical, doesn’t seem to be magnetic, I was falling down a deep trench and kicked it up at ...
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What kind of purple stone is this? [closed]

I found this stone and I do not know what type of stone is this?
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What is this rock found in the Illinois Valley of Southern Oregon? [closed]

I found this odd shaped rock along a rocky river bed (dry) near the Illinois river in Cave Junction, Oregon. It is shaped like a Club and is super heavy. It has a distinguishable ring around the ...
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Is there a "submerged object" in Australia that causes a magnetic deviation of 20 degrees?

This answer quotes this blogpost as an example of a magnetic anomaly: Basalt formation, “Mt. Jim”, in remote north-east Victoria, Australia, has a magnetic anomaly -20 degree magnetic compass ...
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python generate 3d unstructured grid

I would like to create a 3d unstructured grid based on data points with xyz and property. Can Python do this and what tools? My question is quite generic but i can provide more details: the data has ...
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Rocks sparking under water

I have searched for an answer to this question for years, to verify if it was true. A man that lived on a river in the rugged part of the northern Washington Cascades told me an interesting story. He ...
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Historically, how did the total amount of salt / NaCl on Earth develop?

After reading this question about the origin of NaCl on Earth, I'm wondering: How did the amount of NaCl develop historically? Is it a more or less linear growth until today? Was it such a linear ...

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