Questions tagged [geology]

The science comprising the study of the rocks Earth is composed of, and the processes by which they change. Some subfields of geology are petrology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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9
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1answer
411 views

Is it ever possible for an continental plate to subduct under an oceanic plate?

It is well known that oceanic plates subduct under continental plates. This may be attributed to the plate's age and density, plus the water on top of it. So I was wondering if it is ever possible for ...
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how best to preserve the color of my amethyst geode?

Will bright indirect light cause an amethyst crystal to fade? How about an overhead LED light? How is best to preserve the color of my amethyst geode? Thank you!
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Where to start searching to find more radioactive minerals?

I'm pretty new to all this... I've recently purchased a Geiger counter, and am hoping to locate rocks like pitchblende and other radioactive minerals for my collection. I'm based in the North West ...
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1answer
88 views

Please explain how this rock could be shaped like this [closed]

i found this amongst some river rock. Please explain why or what happened to it.
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110 views

Using acoustics to measure the composition, density, and hardness of layers

I am an engineering student at Alfred University and some fellow classmates and I are doing a competition, but one of the tasks we need to complete is autonomously measuring the composition, density, ...
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1answer
111 views

What are these Pebbles

Found these Pebbles at a lake edge where a Serpentinite belt runs through, there are lots of serpentine pebbles along this lake in Co. Sligo Ireland. The larger pebble is 1 5/8'' a Yellowish white ...
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I found this strange spherical stone in Gillette Wyoming. I have no idea what it is. Please help. [closed]

These are recent pictures of it. It’s heavy, I see small minerals that catch the light in it, very bumpy, spherical, doesn’t seem to be magnetic, I was falling down a deep trench and kicked it up at ...
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176 views

What kind of purple stone is this? [closed]

I found this stone and I do not know what type of stone is this?
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1answer
63 views

What is this rock found in the Illinois Valley of Southern Oregon? [closed]

I found this odd shaped rock along a rocky river bed (dry) near the Illinois river in Cave Junction, Oregon. It is shaped like a Club and is super heavy. It has a distinguishable ring around the ...
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Is there a “submerged object” in Australia that causes a magnetic deviation of 20 degrees?

This answer quotes this blogpost as an example of a magnetic anomaly: Basalt formation, “Mt. Jim”, in remote north-east Victoria, Australia, has a magnetic anomaly -20 degree magnetic compass ...
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python generate 3d unstructured grid

I would like to create a 3d unstructured grid based on data points with xyz and property. Can Python do this and what tools? My question is quite generic but i can provide more details: the data has ...
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1answer
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Rocks sparking under water

I have searched for an answer to this question for years, to verify if it was true. A man that lived on a river in the rugged part of the northern Washington Cascades told me an interesting story. He ...
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1answer
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Historically, how did the total amount of salt / NaCl on Earth develop?

After reading this question about the origin of NaCl on Earth, I'm wondering: How did the amount of NaCl develop historically? Is it a more or less linear growth until today? Was it such a linear ...
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How do I generate a Moho depth model from seismic refraction data?

There are several permanent seismograph stations in Eastern Canada that have been recording arrival times for over 25 years. Using refracted Pn arrival times from natural earthquakes I would like to ...
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2answers
550 views

How do the different densities of the oceanic and continental crust affect earth's outer shape?

I am currently reading a textbook and I am slightly confused at a paragraph that deals with some general facts about earth's outer shape. It mentions that the density of the continental crust is ...
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1answer
249 views

Is astrochronology a proper method?

Wikipedia's definition of astrochronology is: "Astrochronology is the dating of sedimentary units by calibration with astronomically tuned timescales, such as Milankovic cycles,1[2] or even ...
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What caused this waterfall to have rounded formations?

This is at Bua Tong Waterfalls in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Tried to find scientific information about this waterfall, but google turns up only travellers' vague guesses, suggesting calcium carbonate ...
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2answers
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Subrelluric forces in a volcanic eruption

I am listening to a song about volcanoes. It is called "Pyroclastic Annihilation" performed by a brutal deth/thrash metal band called "Demolition Hammer". It is from their album "Epidemic of Violence" ...
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2answers
111 views

What is this? A sinkhole?

Lat., long.38.47491, 43.48882, in the vicinity of Van in Turkey I saw this when hiking. I want to know what it is and what are the dangers it poses. Lots of people hike that area in spring and summer,...
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1answer
254 views

Seeming correlation between time of day and earthquakes

I live in a generally geographically active area (Southern California, near the San Andreas fault, if that matters), that has had two relatively minor earthquakes that I have felt in the last week (in ...
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Rock ID: Dark, Hard, Midland Valley Scotland [closed]

Found this in a river. The dark part is the rock still drying out. I think the smoothness is the weathering from the river. The rock is heavy and a little bit rough on the underside among the ...
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1answer
72 views

The magnetite is in which type of magma

In which type of magma can I find magnetite? Peraluminous or peralkaline? I've been looking and the peraluminous magma have a lot of oxides so I thought it would be reduced magma so it would have ...
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1answer
512 views

How does palingenetic fusion occur in rock?

As far as charnockites are concerned, granitic charnockites are formed due to palingenetic fusion and metasomatism, while granulitic charnockites are formed due to high grade metamorphism. When I ...
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1answer
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Where are these volcanos as seen in this space tweet?

In his recent tweet from the International Space Station as it's current Mission 56 Commander, NASA astronaut Andrew J. Feustel says: This is #Indonesia as viewed from the @Space_Station. With the ...
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1answer
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What is meant by Massif?

In India, Panchchuli, Kun Nun and Shilong only these mountain are claimed to be massif. Why other mountain formations are not termed as massif...? What are the characteristics of massif..? Anybody ...
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1answer
126 views

If the earth were completely smooth and covered in water, what would occur with ocean waves?

Related to this post: If the Earth were a smooth spheroid, how deep would the ocean be?
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Why do some earthquakes and volcanoes occur within plates?

I know that volcanoes and earthquakes occur on plate margins. But, do some of them also occur within plates?
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1answer
164 views

Geological evidence about climate change: has there ever been a period with a rate of climate change as great as it is today?

Most statistics about climate change are based on climate data over the last 150 year (as long as records have been kept). This seems irrelevant in terms of the geological time scale of temperature ...
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4answers
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Why are the mountains predominately grey or dark brown?

Observing many photos of mountains one can assume that most of the mountains are grey or brown. See also the mountain article at Wikipedia. There are however several ways a mountain can form, which ...
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2answers
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Is it possible to create clouds by pumping water into volcanoes?

Suddenly, there is this idea in my mind that if an important effect of global warming is rainfall reduction and drought, is it possible to use volcanoes as water vaporizers (regardless of costs)?
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What can one come to know about a mineral just by knowing name

I have been busy learning the components of various minerals for upcoming test....is there any way to predict the components or properties of a mineral just by knowing it's name? Eg: albite,augite, ...
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372 views

I found this huge rock crystal by the river have no idea what it is? [closed]

![crystal rock yelowish to red yellow to orange has 3 layers of crystal )
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How big does something have to be to cause an atmospheric event upon entry to the Earth's atmosphere?

The question is about a foreign object, ranging from an asteroid to a spaceship. How large does it have to be in order for its presence to start messing with the weather patterns, causing the like of ...
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1answer
500 views

Does crustal thickness have anything to do with how life existed and sustained on Earth? [closed]

The original question that was put on hold "If the crust were the thickest layer of Earth, what effect would its thickness have on organisms?" was actually one of those 'counterfactual question' ...
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1answer
211 views

How does this melted-wax erosion pattern form in sandstone?

How does this kind of erosion pattern that looks like melting wax form in sandstone? Can you describe the kinds of processes and kinds of rocks that are needed for this? I've seen it in Nevada, but ...
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ALOS Palsar SLC data products for geological mapping

I have some ALOS palsar SLC data products which are downloaded from ESA database and they are processed with ESA ALOS-PALSAR IPF processor which is different from JAXA. Formerly it was not possible to ...
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2answers
406 views

Is an underground mine collapse or a tunnel collapse called a sinkhole?

Imagine there's an underground man made structure e.g. a tunnel or an underground train station that collapses creating a depression in the surface. Would that technically be called a sinkhole? What ...
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3answers
4k views

What is the average color of soil?

Where I live the soil is red. Is there a map or chart where you can see the average color of the dirt according to geographical location? What would the color be if all of the dirt on Earth was ...
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2answers
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At what depth does the underground begin to warm up?

Spring water comes out colder from being underground. But if you get deeper the temperature goes up. At what depth does the underground stop getting colder and begins getting warmer? Is there a map ...
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1answer
74 views

How does the synthesis of Kaolinite (and it's by products) influence porosity in granodiorite?

I started studying the effects of weathering on granodiorite (see previous posts) and plan on referencing the link between the chemical weathering of feldspar plagioclase leading to kaolinization, a ...
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3answers
503 views

In an Earth-like planet with no history of carbon-based life forms, would there be limestone?

The extent of my understanding of limestone is about what Wikipedia says at the very top of the page: Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such ...
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1answer
218 views

Why would CaO be more finely spread than K2O in Granodiorite?

I recently interpreted some XRF data on samples of a granodiorite which were classified under three different types of physical characteristics: very little, mild and significant levels of weathering. ...
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1answer
135 views

What other graphical methods can be used to represent weathering?

Context: For one of my reports I have taken samples of a rock from an adjacent creek. I have done XRD analysis to get compositions of calcium, potassium and aluminium. My question: I know about ...
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1answer
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Ocean water coming from Mantle vs coming from meteorites

Posibly duplicate from Water on Mars and Earth I remember well a hydrology course where our teacher made some calculations of the total flux of water from Mantle ejections in Earth's history. He ...
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1answer
41 views

What's a reasonable flow rate/mass flux for a fumarole?

Obviously, there is going to be a large amount of variability, but what are some realistic values?
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99 views

Can someone identify this 'striped' stone? [closed]

The stone has a raised texture on the top where the stripes are. I'm not sure exactly where it was found. It is not magnetic.
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3answers
2k views

Why do the earth sciences use mega-annum instead of mega-year?

I've noticed that geology and related fields use mega-annum (Ma) instead of mega-year (Myr) as the unit for 1 million years. Why is that? Is an "annum" different from a "year" in geology?
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Is there a large undersea caldera in the Azores?

There looks like a large undersea circular feature (Google maps) about 120km across with its north edge on Sao Miguel Island and its south edge on Santa Maria Island. Has any work been done to say ...
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Is there sand in Antarctica?

There's a song "Blizzard's Never Seen the Desert's Sand". Given Antarctica is a desert, someone questioned the title's validity. BUT is there sand in Antarctica? I'd imagine yes as it's a pretty ...
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Need seismic data and digital well log data from the same area?

I am currently working on a project that involves the input of seismic attributes (instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous frequency etc.) to a machine learning/deep learning model (eg. A Neural ...

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