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Questions tagged [geology]

The science comprising the study of the rocks Earth is composed of, and the processes by which they change. Some subfields of geology are petrology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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How are chenier ridges and strand plains formed at wave dominated coastlines?

In the attached image, we can see chenier ridges and strand plains. How are they formed and what is the involvement of rip and longshore currents in their formation?
Faraz Gerrard Jamal's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
263 views

What is the rock I found on the Delaware river yesterday? [closed]

I spotted this large striped rock found on Delaware River. Note the fossil in the first picture. What kind of rock is this?
fkltman's user avatar
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2 answers
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Recreating the rock cycle

I want to recreate the rock cycle using some item that can behave as a rock. The purpose of this is to get a point across to my students about how really there is a reason why the rock cycle is called ...
Lucian09474's user avatar
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7 votes
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Alpine schistosity

I often find the term Alpine schistosity (schistosité alpine in French, scistosità alpina in Italian) in texts about Alpine geology. Chronologically ordered phases of Alpine schistosity producing ...
Self-teaching worker's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
202 views

Volcanic Explosivity Index of Cumbre Vieja eruption

I have been following the last events of Cumbre Vieja eruption since it started last month. Trying to grasp some basic knowledge of volcanology I have seen the eruption is classified as VEI-3 in the ...
M_1's user avatar
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1 answer
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Are trends in crossplots of compositional data from different analyses valid?

Some geochemistry papers that I have read contain crossplots of compositional components that resulted from different analyses of a rock sample. For example, one is the percent volume of TiO2 versus ...
Anthony's user avatar
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7 votes
0 answers
191 views

How can we know the past height of mountains?

In Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume I, Feynman talks about the relation between Physics and Geology. He says “Mountains are no lower today, on the average, than they were in the past”. Through what ...
PineappleThursday's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
111 views

Are there any known global effects of the Mediterranean sea evaporation and refilling?

This is a broad subject I realize, but I'm looking for specific geologically observed answers of global effects elsewhere, between about 5.96 and 5.33 million years ago when the Mediterranean sea was ...
userLTK's user avatar
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High-resolution laterolog array tool

Does anybody know if it is necessary to apply corrections to the reading given by this logging tool? Corrections such as bed thickness, borehole diameter, invasion, etc.? If so, is there anywhere I ...
Nicholas J.'s user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
131 views

Did an impact crater cause the formation of the gas fields in north eastern South Australia

In the paper High Impact Reservoirs, the authors claim that impact craters have lead to both the creation and destruction of petroleum source rocks, reservoirs and traps. Recently it was announced ...
Fred's user avatar
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6 votes
3 answers
5k views

What is the average color of soil?

Where I live the soil is red. Is there a map or chart where you can see the average color of the dirt according to geographical location? What would the color be if all of the dirt on Earth was ...
Muze's user avatar
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6 votes
5 answers
382 views

Which Earth minerals would Moon colonists miss the most?

In my science-based novel, Moon colonists need to return to Earth to collect some rare or absent mineral(s) Ideally, something they could derive from seawater. Which minerals might they be...?
Bob Goddard's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
448 views

Simulating the earths crust

I would like to create a computer simulation which would fold two plane-ish surfaces into two crumpled-ish surfaces. This in order to simulate the earths crust movement and collisions resulting in ...
firelynx's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
3k views

What keeps water from sinking into earth?

I remember reading somewhere that there's evidence of water on Mars but it all sank into the Martian soil. So what prevents that happening on earth? Some people say it's because the crust is not ...
seilgu's user avatar
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6 votes
4 answers
275 views

Has there ever been a case where we have found what appears to be a prehistoric fossil but have no way of dating it?

I find that when ever I learn of a new fossil, the age of said fossil is always mentioned. This perplexes me given how intuitively rare it seems to have radioactive material to date a formation. I ...
Shannon's user avatar
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2 answers
948 views

What are these geological horizontal lines formed on this mountain called and why they are formed?

This images are of Mt. Kailash, Himalaya. Front face of Mount: Back face of Mount:
TankFishToad's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
930 views

How can a non-geologist identify a rock? [closed]

I found a rock on a beach in north-east Evia, Greece. Half is light gray, and half is dark gray. There are white (or very light gray) thin lines that form swirls throughout, crossing the light/dark ...
Sam Salisbury's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
332 views

Basalt sill - a contradiction in terms?

My textbook for a historical geography class mentions a couple of geological features it calls "basalt sills" (the sill of Rosh Pinah and one other). I'm a total newbie to geology, but the ...
qianlong's user avatar
6 votes
6 answers
31k views

Cause for round holes in stones

I picked up this stone form a beach on the south coast of England (lancing). How is it possible it has such round holes? Plenty of stones looked similar.
Nickpick's user avatar
  • 163
6 votes
2 answers
2k views

Interpreting a geological map

I have a homework question that I'm stuck on, I have attempted interpreting this map but am not sure if I have to correct interpretation. What is the youngest/oldest rock in the geological ...
Andrew Cavagnino's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
567 views

Uranium Deposits in the Ocean?

I was wondering whether there are any uranium deposits in the ocean floor, or in the rock walls of the continental shelf, etc. I was hoping to have some deep sea uranium deposits accessible from the ...
J. Doe's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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Why can't we dig deeper?

I recently read on another SE site that there's a limitation on how deep we can dig into the earth. A Google search reveals that temperature is the problem. I quote from a Popular Mechanics article, ...
William R. Ebenezer's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
9k views

What kind of data is best shown in a rose diagram?

I am looking for some geological data where presenting it in a rose diagram is desirable. I don't really know what kind of data is suitable. Any suggestion of data — preferably from the field of ...
Sayan's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
769 views

Why do ooids not grow larger than 0.5 mm?

I know ooids form in high energy water, by rolling and building layers around a nucleation site, but I don't understand what limits their size. What keeps these such a regular, small size?
Tim's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
311 views

Did geologists determine the age of rocks and fossils before the advent of modern scientific dating methods?

Did geologists determine the age of rocks and fossils before the advent of modern scientific dating methods such as radiometric, electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence? If they did, does ...
Rick's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
343 views

Do carbon dioxide hydrates exist in nature?

Do CO2 hydrates exist in nature? If so, how much carbon could they contain?
Victor1995's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
389 views

Geological evidence about climate change: has there ever been a period with a rate of climate change as great as it is today?

Most statistics about climate change are based on climate data over the last 150 year (as long as records have been kept). This seems irrelevant in terms of the geological time scale of temperature ...
acypher's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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What separates the Karakoram Range, the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayan Range?

In Google Maps, I don't see any boundary between the Karakoram (a.k.a. Karakorum) Range, the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayan Range. What separates these ranges?
Porcupine's user avatar
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1 answer
4k views

How did the terms "acidic" and "basic" come to be associated with $SiO_2$ in igneous rocks?

Students of geology are introduced to in their petrology course, (or used to be), to the terms "acidic", "basic", and the associated term "intermediate" in relation to %$SiО­­­_{2}$ in igneous rocks, ...
My Other Head's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
353 views

Methods and Software for Interpolating/Modelling of Stratigraphic Well Data in 2D/3D

I have some geologic well data. The lithologies have been interpreted, and stratigraphic columns have been drawn. The columns have been adjusted for elevation, and correlation has been done between ...
remote_geologist's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
826 views

Were all of Earth's minerals created before Earth's formation, during, or after?

I've heard that during the accretion of proto-planets that formed the earth, 60 minerals were created through the reactions of atoms and molecules in the nebula. Do these first minerals still make up ...
G. Gip's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
247 views

Why do we measure eustatic sea-level from the center of earth?

Earth is rotating so it has a ellipsoidal shape. The measurement will therefore be different from equator and pole. So why do we measure eustatic sea-level from the center of earth?
Tayyaba's user avatar
  • 61
6 votes
1 answer
215 views

What are the craters and mounds in this Missouri bedrock map?

When looking at this map of bedrock geology of the Illinois and Ozark basins (sourced from Geological and Geophysical Maps of the Illinois Basin-Ozark Dome Region), I can't help but notice that ...
SigmaX's user avatar
  • 211
6 votes
2 answers
285 views

Considering the thin piece of material on the surface of Mars in the image below, is there anything like it on Earth?

The above is a magnified part of the original image below captured by the Curiosity rover on Mars on sol 1729 (June 17, 2017). From the added information with that raw image it can be estimated that ...
Cornelis's user avatar
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6 votes
3 answers
5k views

If the Kola Superdeep Borehole were opened today, what would come out of it?

The BBC News article The Deepest Hole we have Ever dug says: This is the Kola Superdeep Borehole, the deepest man made hole on Earth and deepest artificial point on Earth. The 40,230ft-deep (12.2km) ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,070
6 votes
2 answers
855 views

What was the likely composition of Earth's early crust (how did crustal composition evolve)?

Was the first crust entirely mafic (oceanic) crust which was later distilled via volcanic arcs along subduction zones to make felsic rocks or did the earth start with bits of felsic crust? Are the ...
Inkenbrandt's user avatar
  • 1,055
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

Maps and Faults

I'm having trouble determining the type of fault represented on this map. What type of fault is represented on this map? What is the fault orientation? What does this mean?, Do I do this by working ...
Andrew Cavagnino's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
423 views

Hydrocarbon potential in Ganges Brahmaputra delta

According to Curray (1991): Total sediment thickness beneath the [Ganges–Brahmaputra delta] southeast of the hingezone exceeds 16 km... Considering a normal geothermal gradient and data for oil ...
shrey's user avatar
  • 1,489
6 votes
1 answer
120 views

Would it be wise to monitor real time human activity to anticipate earthquakes?

Documented strange behaviors of animals before an earthquake could invite us to believe that some of them anticipate tectonic activity. We also know that human complex organization makes it difficult ...
j-p's user avatar
  • 161
6 votes
1 answer
543 views

How are deposits of metals like tantalum located?

I am curious of how metal deposits are located in general, but to keep my question focused I wanted to just ask about tantalum for example. Are there people who traverse their own country drilling ...
alec's user avatar
  • 163
6 votes
1 answer
438 views

What is this geological formation in the Santa Cruz mountains that looks like a cave interior?

Stevens Canyon Road in the Santa Cruz Mountains (near Cupertino, California) passes right next to a large rock formation that, to my untrained eye, reminds me of the inside of a limestone cave. Here's ...
templatetypedef's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
118 views

How do long, thin, island chains such as North Carolina's outer banks, form?

I can't think of a possible explanation, there's no volcanic activity in the area, and it gets destroyed every time a hurricane passes through. How did it get there?
Finnegan Manthe's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
167 views

Historically, how did the total amount of salt / NaCl on Earth develop?

After reading this question about the origin of NaCl on Earth, I'm wondering: How did the amount of NaCl develop historically? Is it a more or less linear growth until today? Was it such a linear ...
Florian's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
3k views

Why are most minerals so rare?

There are 4,660 known minerals, so why are most of them so rare? Is it to do with the structure of minerals?
Kate's user avatar
  • 111
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

Looking for a complete table of minerals for a database

I am building an open source spatial geochemical/geological observational database for mineral exploration. I need to fill the mineral lookup table. Where can I find a complete list of all minerals ...
Phillip Allen's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
36 views

Suspended sediment yield

I am finding it difficult to understand the factors that affect the suspended sediment yield in an area. I was thinking of the Rouse number and how it is affected by the particle diameter, slope and ...
spongpop's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
165 views

Has a scientific consensus been reached concerning the formation of the Grand Canyon?

new student of Oceanography here! I'm studying Earth Science right now, and I found conflicting reporting re: the formation of the Grand Canyon; whether it was formed singularly by the Colorado ...
DanielC's user avatar
  • 61
6 votes
2 answers
251 views

Actual thickness of permafrost vs theoretical maximum possibly permafrost thickness

I came across a question in my notes about why the actual thickness of permafrost is much less than the theoretical maximum possible permafrost thickness value. The actual permafrost measure on sites ...
user6825's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
513 views

The geology of local landscapes and small scale features

I'm learning geology to understand the processes behind the formation of my local landscape. I understand the processes behind big features, such as mountains. But I'm struggling to understand the ...
G. Gip's user avatar
  • 772
6 votes
1 answer
101 views

Mars maar craters explosive style formation gravitational effect

"Maars usually form when magma rises within a fissure and interacts with groundwater. If groundwater ceases to interact with magma at times during the eruption, continued magma ascent to the surface ...
Lucian09474's user avatar
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