Questions tagged [geophysics]

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment.

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What are the boundary conditions for Navier's Equations of motion in seismic?

Navier's equations of motion in seismic have 3 solutions, according to how it is resolved (boundary conditions): for Vp (compression waves) for Vs (shear waves) for Vr (Rayleigh waves) I know the ...
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Can Hydrocarbons be beneficial? [duplicate]

Do these “fossil fuels” underground help maintain homeostasis in microbial ecosystem or aid in the growth of flora etc? Or are these substances: coal, animal remains and natural gas detrimental even ...
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Why can't we increase cloud coverage of the Earth to reduce mean temperature by flooding basins to increase evaporation?

There are millions of square kilometers of below sea level dry land, mostly in desert areas. Reducing the mean temperature of the earth by 2 °C requires increasing cloud cover of stratus clouds by ...
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How to interperet audio magnetotelluric results?

I'm newbie in filed of Geophysics science. I will be grateful if you could help me to understand this chart what does line 12 or Line 11 mean? what about line15-14? How to identify the depths? what ...
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How long do geostrophic currents last?

My professor posed this question, without any relevant material. I suppose the currents last until the density gradient is neutralized, but I can't find any literature nor articles on this, regarding ...
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Understanding the EM survey results

I have contour maps showing conductivity and in-phase data from an electromagnetic survey done on a ground, where, supposedly, an underground sewer system is running horizontally across the survey ...
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551 views

What affects where a terrain will be rocky or grassy?

I’m working on a terrain generator and I now need to color the terrain to be rock, grass, or snow. Ignoring snow for now, at first I thought I’d make flatter areas grass and make steeper areas rock. ...
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What is the electrical conductivity of a liquid Komatiite?

I am searching for previous work that has determined the electrical conductivity range for komatiites at the surface. Does anyone have some values or references?
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How hot would days get if it were always the solstice in the northern hemisphere?

Imagine the Earth's axis of rotation were to precess in synch with the orbit of earth around the sun so the north pole always pointed towards the sun (same current axial tilt of about 23 degrees). ...
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1answer
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Why should wellbores be supported by pressure, but not mine tunnels?

I recently read about safe mud window - it states that the mud pressure in a wellbore should be high enough to prevent well collapse, and should not exceed the formation's fracture pressure. But ...
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How much would the ground be displaced in a magnitude 11 earthquake?

In a magnitude 5 earthquake, the ground shakes violently and it's often impossible to stay upright. This is caused by about 50-120 cm of displacement of the ground. But how much would the ground move ...
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When will the Earth lose its magnetic field?

Mars lost its magnetic field 4.5 billion years ago according to this article: Mars lost its global magnetic field during the time of this heightened activity. After 500 million years, the Martian ...
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Quality control in Seismic Acquisition - shot offset shift

I have a problem with seismic data where the minimum offset of the shot is not centered at the nearest receiver, this shift can be for 3 traces 2 or one and maybe more in the two sides !! So is there ...
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1answer
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IGRF -13 Geomagnetic field, Calculating Partial Derivatives of Legendre Polynomials

I have been trying to implement the IGRF-13 geomagnetic model on my own in C code. I have followed the equations from the website below and I am getting correct results for the B$_{\phi}$ and Br ...
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Can a planet be heated by the green house effect to a temperature higher than that created by its incident and net absorbed, peak external radiation?

In that the green house effect, as caused by various atmospheric gases (e.g., H2O, CO2, CH4, etc), acts as an insulating layer which only retards the escape of heat from the planet, it would seem that ...
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How much of all current energy on earth arrived as sunlight vs. as kinetic energy during formation?

For example, sunlight captured by plants would count in the "arrived as sunlight" category, whilst heat energy in the core of the earth would count in the "kinetic energy during ...
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How do the Andes get so high?

I'm interested in the limiting factors on the height of mountains. There is a very good explanation at https://www.quora.com/How-tall-can-a-mountain-become-on-Earth-Neil-deGrasse-Tyson-says-Mount-...
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Conversion of SEG-Y relative to MSL

I am working on the conversion of CSF file from SonarWiz into SEG-Y data. However, it comes back always related to the Sensor depth/altitude and never to the MSL. I have tried changing the bytes from ...
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87 views

What would happen if the inner core bulged and moved a tiny bit?

The inner core is solid only because of the very high pressure of the outer core and mantle . Say, if the inner core moved a teeny tiny bit would some of it liquify and melt? Or does it stay solid? ...
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Where can I find an anisotropic PREM-like model for Earth's interior?

So, I just discovered PREM (the Preliminary reference Earth model) which models the density distribution of matter inside the Earth to any depth. The PREM is very convenient but since it only depends ...
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Differentiate correlation of between depth and bouguer anomaly

Assume we measure bouguer anomaly (g) and depth (H) of the certain horizon through a profile at each point. Based on data we get a correlation between H and g and express it with a polynomial equation ...
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Hypothetically, in the near future, could gas hydrate pingos erupt?

Could gas hydrate pingos erupt? If so, how quickly? And how much CH4 could they release? I'm sorry if the questions sounds silly. I'm new here and I don't know much about gas hydrates and oceanography....
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104 views

Is it possible to kickstart an hypothetical frozen earth with 0.6 ice albedo to an earth with an atmosphere, with just the sun at current distance?

Phase change of water at different pressures and temperatures tell us that with no atmospheric pressure 200 Kelvin (minus 73 Celcius) is enough to turn ice into vapor directly Wouldn't that suggest ...
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48 views

Would it be possible, from the earth’s creation or during its various geomorphological changes, for all the following hypotheses to be probable?

I’m designing a fictional world setting for a game, and I would like to know whether it has a relative coherence based on science. (Don’t mind if it is an almost improbable scenario). Would it be ...
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1answer
152 views

Why is the average 1 Bar temperature on planets with a thick atmosphere proportional to the distance of the sun?

The temperature of a planetary body in space varies with the fourth-root of the power incident upon it, this is derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. This is understandable when applied to a black ...
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113 views

Factor 1000 in mixing ratio formula

I am seeing two different formulas for the mixing ratio, which differ by a factor 1000. To be more specific: $w = 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ and $w = 1000 \cdot 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ where $e$ and $p$ are the ...
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Did the Three Gorges Dam shift the North Pole by 2 cm?

Numerous sources repeat that, apart from slowing down the rotation of the globe, the Three Gorges Dam caused the geographic pole to shift by 2 cm. For example: https://blog.prv-engineering.co.uk/...
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How to measure global temperature?

people always talk about global temperature (such as the global temperature goal of 1,5 K) - but how is this value achieved? It seems to me that it clearly depends on where the measuring stations are, ...
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1answer
42 views

Is COMSOL Multiphysics good for subduction CFD modelling? Are there alternatives?

As a beginner for CFD modelling of plate subduction, I heard comsol to be a good software. Can anybody suggests alternatives and the demerits of using COMSOL Multiphysics? Thank you.
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Problem in downloading ERA5 data

it's my first time to ask question here, thank you for your answer(if any:) So I need to download the ERA5 land daily data, and as I try to download it from the website, the progress bar always shows ...
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1answer
96 views

Variation of the atmospheric pressure

By Hydrostatical Law, $p_a = \rho gh$, at a given $h$. However density varies with altitude and with temperature. Temperature varies by altitude. $g$ constant varies with altitude. How to express the ...
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Will California become a subduction zone in the distant future

California is one of the few places in the world that lie on a transform fault. My question is why considering the fact that North American Plate is moving westward shouldn't California be a ...
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Is it possible for Mexico to have a magnitude 9 earthquake?

Everyone has heard of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the potential threat it poses. However, I have heard nothing about The Cocos Subduction Zone, even though it caused a devastating earthquake over ...
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How do I find the temperature measured at 350 hPa?

You are flying 2.5 km over the ground while your mates are flying up at 350 hPa. All the way between you there are clouds. If you measure that the temperature outside is 4 celsius, what temperature do ...
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1answer
52 views

How does rotating water affect turbulence?

I have been doing some DIYnamics with rotating water and non-rotating water. So I had a bucket filled with water on a rotating table, and waited for it to be in solid body rotation. I then dropped ...
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669 views

Is there a way to convert from Dip direction to Strike direction?

I have some set of recorded data in dip direction/dip format. I wish to transform then to strike/dip. I am currently having a hard time imagining how to convert from dip direction to strike direction. ...
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2answers
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How do scientists know the precise location, etc. of the earliest supercontinents? Or their configurations far, far into the future?

Obviously, we can look at where continental plates are currently moving, and extrapolate both forwards and backwards in time... But there have (allegedly) been more than supercontinent in the past... ...
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Why does Meteorology rely on a spherical model of the earth, rather than a flat earth, to function? [closed]

I hear all the arguments one explains to a flat earther as to why the earth is Spherical and not flat. I am not a meteorologist, but I know enough Meteorology for me to fly safely as a pilot. Getting ...
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1answer
50 views

What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave upon reflection

What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave a) when it hit the free surface b)when the free surface reflection goes down and hit a reflector and returned to the receiver placed on the ...
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Broadband Albedo Conversion Scheme

I had this albedo conversion written down: $$\alpha = 0.53\alpha_{VIS}+0.47\alpha_{NIR}$$ I had on my notes that this equation was form Collins et al (2002). However, I cannot find where this came ...
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1answer
43 views

Rainbowish phenomenon outside my home

I took a photo of an amazing sight I had never seen outside my home ( southern india ) but I could not tell if it was a rainbow type thing or an aurora borealis. Also if it was to be a sun dog , ...
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Construction of a drift curve in the well tie calibration and how to interpret it?. Sonic calibration vs checkshot calibration

Good afternoon. Inside the creation of the synthetic seismogram some softwares have the option to run what is called "sonic calibration" or "checkshot calibration". I have some questions: 1)why some ...
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How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...
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341 views

Geo-Spherical shape of Earth

I know that the best possible approximation of the shape of earth is an oblate sphere. But people also call it as geo-spherical shape of the Earth. What is the meaning of geospherical shape? Does this ...
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How do you choose appropriate parameters for a lowpass filter when filtering a Bouguer anomaly?

I am trying to filter my Bouguer anomaly data to remove the short wavelength features. I have created a lowpass filter to achieve this, but I am wondering how I can more objectively choose my cutoff ...
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What is the simplest meteorological model to operate?

For teaching purposes I am looking for an atmospheric model that can be easily installed and the input data can be easily read and prepared. Preferably I would like to run a global low resolution ...
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1answer
49 views

Q factor estimation from VSP

in seismic data processing there is a step of calculating the absorption represented By Q value which is Q factor , how we can estimate it from VSP ! thank you.
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stretch phenomena after NMO application on seismic data

after the NMO application we have stretch for far offset , i read a lot of articles but i can't have a complete idea how this phenomena is really created ! any one have a rich explanation ?
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558 views

How to convert mol/m^2 to total mass ( e.g gram, kg etc )?

I want to calculate the total $\rm{NO_2}$ amount in a year using satellite Sentinel-5p NO2 dataset. But the problem is sentinel satellite data stored in $\rm\frac{mol}{m^2}$ unit. But I have to ...
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3answers
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How many days has it been since the Cambrian explosion?

I want to know how to calculate the number of days since an event in Earth's past, and am using the Cambrian explosion as an example. I define a day to be one rotation of Earth with respect to the ...

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