Questions tagged [geophysics]

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment.

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22 views

Differentiate correlation of between depth and bouguer anomaly

Assume we measure bouguer anomaly (g) and depth (H) of the certain horizon through a profile at each point. Based on data we get a correlation between H and g and express it with a polynomial equation ...
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Hypothetically, in the near future, could gas hydrate pingos erupt?

Could gas hydrate pingos erupt? If so, how quickly? And how much CH4 could they release? I'm sorry if the questions sounds silly. I'm new here and I don't know much about gas hydrates and oceanography....
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How ocean pockmarks are formed and how quickly?

I couldn't find much information about it on google and I don't know much about how pockmarks work.
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95 views

Is it possible to kickstart an hypothetical frozen earth with 0.6 ice albedo to an earth with an atmosphere, with just the sun at current distance?

Phase change of water at different pressures and temperatures tell us that with no atmospheric pressure 200 Kelvin (minus 73 Celcius) is enough to turn ice into vapor directly Wouldn't that suggest ...
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Would it be possible, from the earth’s creation or during its various geomorphological changes, for all the following hypotheses to be probable?

I’m designing a fictional world setting for a game, and I would like to know whether it has a relative coherence based on science. (Don’t mind if it is an almost improbable scenario). Would it be ...
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140 views

Why is the average 1 Bar temperature on planets with a thick atmosphere proportional to the distance of the sun?

The temperature of a planetary body in space varies with the fourth-root of the power incident upon it, this is derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. This is understandable when applied to a black ...
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113 views

Factor 1000 in mixing ratio formula

I am seeing two different formulas for the mixing ratio, which differ by a factor 1000. To be more specific: $w = 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ and $w = 1000 \cdot 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ where $e$ and $p$ are the ...
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Did the Three Gorges Dam shift the North Pole by 2 cm?

Numerous sources repeat that, apart from slowing down the rotation of the globe, the Three Gorges Dam caused the geographic pole to shift by 2 cm. For example: https://blog.prv-engineering.co.uk/...
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How to measure global temperature?

people always talk about global temperature (such as the global temperature goal of 1,5 K) - but how is this value achieved? It seems to me that it clearly depends on where the measuring stations are, ...
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Is COMSOL Multiphysics good for subduction CFD modelling? Are there alternatives?

As a beginner for CFD modelling of plate subduction, I heard comsol to be a good software. Can anybody suggests alternatives and the demerits of using COMSOL Multiphysics? Thank you.
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Problem in downloading ERA5 data

it's my first time to ask question here, thank you for your answer(if any:) So I need to download the ERA5 land daily data, and as I try to download it from the website, the progress bar always shows ...
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Variation of the atmospheric pressure

By Hydrostatical Law, $p_a = \rho gh$, at a given $h$. However density varies with altitude and with temperature. Temperature varies by altitude. $g$ constant varies with altitude. How to express the ...
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52 views

Will California become a subduction zone in the distant future

California is one of the few places in the world that lie on a transform fault. My question is why considering the fact that North American Plate is moving westward shouldn't California be a ...
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Is it possible for Mexico to have a magnitude 9 earthquake?

Everyone has heard of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the potential threat it poses. However, I have heard nothing about The Cocos Subduction Zone, even though it caused a devastating earthquake over ...
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How do I find the temperature measured at 350 hPa?

You are flying 2.5 km over the ground while your mates are flying up at 350 hPa. All the way between you there are clouds. If you measure that the temperature outside is 4 celsius, what temperature do ...
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How does rotating water affect turbulence?

I have been doing some DIYnamics with rotating water and non-rotating water. So I had a bucket filled with water on a rotating table, and waited for it to be in solid body rotation. I then dropped ...
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Is there a way to convert from Dip direction to Strike direction?

I have some set of recorded data in dip direction/dip format. I wish to transform then to strike/dip. I am currently having a hard time imagining how to convert from dip direction to strike direction. ...
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61 views

How do scientists know the precise location, etc. of the earliest supercontinents? Or their configurations far, far into the future?

Obviously, we can look at where continental plates are currently moving, and extrapolate both forwards and backwards in time... But there have (allegedly) been more than supercontinent in the past... ...
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Why does Meteorology rely on a spherical model of the earth, rather than a flat earth, to function? [closed]

I hear all the arguments one explains to a flat earther as to why the earth is Spherical and not flat. I am not a meteorologist, but I know enough Meteorology for me to fly safely as a pilot. Getting ...
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38 views

What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave upon reflection

What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave a) when it hit the free surface b)when the free surface reflection goes down and hit a reflector and returned to the receiver placed on the ...
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Broadband Albedo Conversion Scheme

I had this albedo conversion written down: $$\alpha = 0.53\alpha_{VIS}+0.47\alpha_{NIR}$$ I had on my notes that this equation was form Collins et al (2002). However, I cannot find where this came ...
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Principal component analysis (PCA) and normalization of radiometric data?

I did some experiments with airborne radiometric data in a region in southern Brazil and I would like to know your suggestion about the following topic: I tried to classify high, medium and low ...
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37 views

Rainbowish phenomenon outside my home

I took a photo of an amazing sight I had never seen outside my home ( southern india ) but I could not tell if it was a rainbow type thing or an aurora borealis. Also if it was to be a sun dog , ...
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Construction of a drift curve in the well tie calibration and how to interpret it?. Sonic calibration vs checkshot calibration

Good afternoon. Inside the creation of the synthetic seismogram some softwares have the option to run what is called "sonic calibration" or "checkshot calibration". I have some questions: 1)why some ...
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How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...
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Geo-Spherical shape of Earth

I know that the best possible approximation of the shape of earth is an oblate sphere. But people also call it as geo-spherical shape of the Earth. What is the meaning of geospherical shape? Does this ...
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How do you choose appropriate parameters for a lowpass filter when filtering a Bouguer anomaly?

I am trying to filter my Bouguer anomaly data to remove the short wavelength features. I have created a lowpass filter to achieve this, but I am wondering how I can more objectively choose my cutoff ...
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135 views

What is the simplest meteorological model to operate?

For teaching purposes I am looking for an atmospheric model that can be easily installed and the input data can be easily read and prepared. Preferably I would like to run a global low resolution ...
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Q factor estimation from VSP

in seismic data processing there is a step of calculating the absorption represented By Q value which is Q factor , how we can estimate it from VSP ! thank you.
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stretch phenomena after NMO application on seismic data

after the NMO application we have stretch for far offset , i read a lot of articles but i can't have a complete idea how this phenomena is really created ! any one have a rich explanation ?
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326 views

How to convert mol/m^2 to total mass ( e.g gram, kg etc )?

I want to calculate the total $\rm{NO_2}$ amount in a year using satellite Sentinel-5p NO2 dataset. But the problem is sentinel satellite data stored in $\rm\frac{mol}{m^2}$ unit. But I have to ...
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185 views

How many days has it been since the Cambrian explosion?

I want to know how to calculate the number of days since an event in Earth's past, and am using the Cambrian explosion as an example. I define a day to be one rotation of Earth with respect to the ...
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133 views

Performing time-frequency analysis (FTAN)

I am trying to do ambient noise tomography and I am quite confused on how to perform time-frequency analysis (FTAN) as shown in figure 13b and 13d of this paper by Bensen et al.. I am using Python and ...
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How quickly is the Earth shrinking?

Except for ice, acetic acid, bismuth and gallium and a few other things materials generally shrink when they cool and solidify, so I'm pretty sure Earth has as well. It probably wouldn't be ...
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How long for tectonic plates to develop from a planetary, molten planetary surface?

On Earth or an Earth-like planet, how long does it take for a molten surface to solidify into planetary crust, and how long does it take for that crust to develop into tectonic plates?
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66 views

Energy Density of Porous Rocks

It's very long, I know. But please, don't be discouraged from going through this question if you can help me. The question is at the second to the last paragraph, but you need to read through to ...
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Do northern lights (aurora borealis) show the same visual activity all along their visible latitude range?

Probability aside regarding their visibility (I did read on Neil Davies Aurora watcher's handbook that probability is highest in the middle of their latitude range called aurora oval, lowering both ...
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1answer
77 views

Waves in very thin layer

Elastic waves in the earth are described by the elastodynamic equations \begin{align} \rho \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial t^2} &= (2 \mu + \lambda) \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2} + \mu \left( ...
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69 views

If the top layer of a large river freezes, is the remainder's rate of flow affected?

This question is a hypothetical, and has to do with the notion of cheap, modular turbines that can be sunk and anchored to a specific depth in a body of water. Each would not generate much power, but ...
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Cratonization - how did the Archean cratons form?

Before the onset of modern style plate tectonics and the Wilson cycles in the late Archean, it is thought that smaller units of continental crust, called cratons, roamed the oceanic crust over a more ...
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139 views

Equatorial Bulge and its implications on the climate

How much of the variance in the climate is due to the equatorial bulge and how much sun radiation do we lose due to the equatorial bulge? I am interested in the variance both through time and ...
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2answers
127 views

Centripetal Force Perfect Ball and Water

I made a question in WolrdBuilding as I was directed to. There a user said that with a perfect ball all water would pool to the equator because of centripetal force. What I do not understand is how ...
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Rain Water vs Sprinkler Irrigation

During the rainy season, the crops like corn, cotton are found to be growing faster. Studies shows that the thermoelectric fixation of gaseous Nitrogen during rain storm accelerates the plants growth ...
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184 views

Thermal expansion of Earth

Matter tends to change its volume in response to changes in temperature--or, hot things tend to be expanded. Is the thermal expansion of Earth significant? That is, is it significant when compared ...
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630 views

Heat at High Altitudes

Why does the temperature of let’s say 85 degrees Fahrenheit in southern California feel hotter at 7,500 ft elevation than it does at sea level?
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65 views

Hydrophone/geophone sensor sensitivity - noise versus signal

Today, a student asked this question, and I was unable to answer it in a way that was understandable and accurate - even for myself. For seismic data acquisition projects, how are sensors able to '...
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Finding out actual dip and dip direction of refractor

We have two traveltive curves for first arrivals (direct and refracted) from a dipping refractor in the forward and reverse directions along a profile line. my question is: Is there a logical way (non-...
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Effects of Centrifugal Force on Gravity Vectors?

I've been asked this question twice now from our favourite science denying community, and I don't know how to parse it. I can do centrifugal force and gravity given mass, but have never tried to even ...
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170 views

What is the largest hurricane possible?

With Earth getting hotter and hurricanes also getting larger I wonder; Is there a limit on how big a hurricane can physically get?
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181 views

where are the poles of rotation of the tectonic plates located?

Euler's "fixed point" theorem ... can be stated as: The most general displacement of a rigid body over the surface of a sphere can be regarded as a rotation about a suitable axis which passes ...

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