Questions tagged [geophysics]

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment.

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4
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0answers
55 views

How do the Andes get so high?

I'm interested in the limiting factors on the height of mountains. There is a very good explanation at https://www.quora.com/How-tall-can-a-mountain-become-on-Earth-Neil-deGrasse-Tyson-says-Mount-...
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Does gravity increase the closer to the core you get?

Or does the mantle and crust above you counteract the increase at one point and it actually decreases?
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Where can I find an anisotropic PREM-like model for Earth's interior?

So, I just discovered PREM (the Preliminary reference Earth model) which models the density distribution of matter inside the Earth to any depth. The PREM is very convenient but since it only depends ...
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What would happen if the inner core bulged and moved a tiny bit?

The inner core is solid only because of the very high pressure of the outer core and mantle . Say, if the inner core moved a teeny tiny bit would some of it liquify and melt? Or does it stay solid? ...
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1answer
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Does the shear modulus of silicate minerals vary significantly with changes in P and T?

I know that the bulk modulus, K, varies with pressure and temperature for silicate minerals and liquids, but what about the shear modulus? If so, is the change drastic for changes from standard ...
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Conversion of SEG-Y relative to MSL

I am working on the conversion of CSF file from SonarWiz into SEG-Y data. However, it comes back always related to the Sensor depth/altitude and never to the MSL. I have tried changing the bytes from ...
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2answers
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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Differentiate correlation of between depth and bouguer anomaly

Assume we measure bouguer anomaly (g) and depth (H) of the certain horizon through a profile at each point. Based on data we get a correlation between H and g and express it with a polynomial equation ...
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Hypothetically, in the near future, could gas hydrate pingos erupt?

Could gas hydrate pingos erupt? If so, how quickly? And how much CH4 could they release? I'm sorry if the questions sounds silly. I'm new here and I don't know much about gas hydrates and oceanography....
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1answer
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Why are there more intense earthquakes in Iran than in Iraq?

Why are there more intense earthquakes in Iran than in Iraq, if they are so close together? I often hear news items of earthquakes in Iran that are higher on the Richter Scale than those that happen ...
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1answer
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How quickly is the Earth shrinking?

Except for ice, acetic acid, bismuth and gallium and a few other things materials generally shrink when they cool and solidify, so I'm pretty sure Earth has as well. It probably wouldn't be ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to kickstart an hypothetical frozen earth with 0.6 ice albedo to an earth with an atmosphere, with just the sun at current distance?

Phase change of water at different pressures and temperatures tell us that with no atmospheric pressure 200 Kelvin (minus 73 Celcius) is enough to turn ice into vapor directly Wouldn't that suggest ...
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Are the oceans rising or the continents going down? How can we know?

The century old sustained rising of oceans, at a rate of 2-4 mm/y, remains a unexplained phenomenon; there is no correlation with temperature variations, so it is not due to the thermal variation of ...
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How to quickly or easily prove the world is spherical?

A relative of mine has recently introduced me to the modern flat earth theory, which she believes in. Setting aside for the moment that it is ridiculous, and that sending up some balloons with cameras ...
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1answer
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SEGD and SEGY recorded data

What is the difference between a segd recorded data and a segy recorded data and can we convert from segd to segy and vice versa?
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1answer
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Would it be possible, from the earth’s creation or during its various geomorphological changes, for all the following hypotheses to be probable?

I’m designing a fictional world setting for a game, and I would like to know whether it has a relative coherence based on science. (Don’t mind if it is an almost improbable scenario). Would it be ...
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1answer
148 views

Why is the average 1 Bar temperature on planets with a thick atmosphere proportional to the distance of the sun?

The temperature of a planetary body in space varies with the fourth-root of the power incident upon it, this is derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. This is understandable when applied to a black ...
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1answer
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How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...
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1answer
113 views

Factor 1000 in mixing ratio formula

I am seeing two different formulas for the mixing ratio, which differ by a factor 1000. To be more specific: $w = 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ and $w = 1000 \cdot 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ where $e$ and $p$ are the ...
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2answers
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Can an igneous rock have a Vp of less than 1000 m/s and need blasting to excavate?

I have run a 60 m refraction seismic line on a mountain summit. The environment was noisy (wind would be the principal agent) and quite difficult to pick first arrivals. It resulted in 800 m/s. A ...
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4answers
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Will the Earth ever stop rotating?

It is well known that the Earth's rotation is slowing down and that millions of years ago there was a point in time where there was only a mere 20 hours in a day on Earth. My question is in two parts....
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1answer
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How much silicon is in the Earth's core, and how did it get there?

With some informal conversation with a peer of mine, he had suggested that there is evidence (which he couldn't find,but had remembered reading) that there was Silicon in the Earth's core. I referred ...
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Did the Three Gorges Dam shift the North Pole by 2 cm?

Numerous sources repeat that, apart from slowing down the rotation of the globe, the Three Gorges Dam caused the geographic pole to shift by 2 cm. For example: https://blog.prv-engineering.co.uk/...
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Does a mountain top have higher gravity than a nearby sea-level surface?

Regardless the latitude and centrifugial 'force' is the gravity on mountains higher or lower than at sealevel? Gravity is depending on the radius to the centre and the mass. Now if you are on a ...
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3answers
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Is it true that earthquakes are not felt in a cave?

I took a tour of a cave in northern California last weekend. The tour guide asked us, "If an earthquake occurred, what would we feel in here?" My answer was, "fear," but she said we would feel ...
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Why is the pond in my backyard not frozen when it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside?

I am in O'Fallon, Missouri and today it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside. I was taught water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F). I could understand if it was exactly 0 °C (32 °F) that the water might not be turning to ...
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1answer
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How to measure global temperature?

people always talk about global temperature (such as the global temperature goal of 1,5 K) - but how is this value achieved? It seems to me that it clearly depends on where the measuring stations are, ...
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4answers
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Does the Coriolis Effect affect a wind from East to West?

I'm studying meteorology for a pilot license and there I was taught as a rule of thumb that wind at higher altitudes is approximately turned 30° clockwise to the wind on the surface due to the ...
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1answer
32 views

Is COMSOL Multiphysics good for subduction CFD modelling? Are there alternatives?

As a beginner for CFD modelling of plate subduction, I heard comsol to be a good software. Can anybody suggests alternatives and the demerits of using COMSOL Multiphysics? Thank you.
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Change in earth mass since the time of the dinosaurs

Is there a significant difference in the mass of the Earth between now and the time of the dinosaurs (250 - 75 million years ago)? I was just wondering if the force of gravity on dinosaurs would have ...
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2answers
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How accurately can explosions be triangulated from the IRIS seismogram data?

There's a bunch of armed conflicts going on right now. What are the lower boundaries on accuracy of triangulating and timing man-made events from the IRIS datasets (accessible, for instance, with the ...
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Problem in downloading ERA5 data

it's my first time to ask question here, thank you for your answer(if any:) So I need to download the ERA5 land daily data, and as I try to download it from the website, the progress bar always shows ...
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1answer
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Variation of the atmospheric pressure

By Hydrostatical Law, $p_a = \rho gh$, at a given $h$. However density varies with altitude and with temperature. Temperature varies by altitude. $g$ constant varies with altitude. How to express the ...
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1answer
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Will California become a subduction zone in the distant future

California is one of the few places in the world that lie on a transform fault. My question is why considering the fact that North American Plate is moving westward shouldn't California be a ...
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0answers
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Is it possible for Mexico to have a magnitude 9 earthquake?

Everyone has heard of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the potential threat it poses. However, I have heard nothing about The Cocos Subduction Zone, even though it caused a devastating earthquake over ...
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How do I find the temperature measured at 350 hPa?

You are flying 2.5 km over the ground while your mates are flying up at 350 hPa. All the way between you there are clouds. If you measure that the temperature outside is 4 celsius, what temperature do ...
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1answer
7k views

How did the Ural mountains form?

A nice picture for "how mountains formed" on Earth is due to the motion of tectonic plates. As the plates crash together, mountains may get "pushed upwards". However, a quick look at a map of the ...
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1answer
48 views

How does rotating water affect turbulence?

I have been doing some DIYnamics with rotating water and non-rotating water. So I had a bucket filled with water on a rotating table, and waited for it to be in solid body rotation. I then dropped ...
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0answers
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Is there a way to convert from Dip direction to Strike direction?

I have some set of recorded data in dip direction/dip format. I wish to transform then to strike/dip. I am currently having a hard time imagining how to convert from dip direction to strike direction. ...
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2answers
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What exactly are enantiotropic and monotropic polymorphic transitions?

Recently, I've been studying the subject of polymorphism and met two important concepts, the monotropic and enantiotropic polymorphic transition types. However, I can't really seem to grasp the ...
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2answers
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How do scientists know the precise location, etc. of the earliest supercontinents? Or their configurations far, far into the future?

Obviously, we can look at where continental plates are currently moving, and extrapolate both forwards and backwards in time... But there have (allegedly) been more than supercontinent in the past... ...
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1answer
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Why does Meteorology rely on a spherical model of the earth, rather than a flat earth, to function? [closed]

I hear all the arguments one explains to a flat earther as to why the earth is Spherical and not flat. I am not a meteorologist, but I know enough Meteorology for me to fly safely as a pilot. Getting ...
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1answer
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What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave upon reflection

What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave a) when it hit the free surface b)when the free surface reflection goes down and hit a reflector and returned to the receiver placed on the ...
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2answers
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Mechanism for Pluto's young surface

According to recent reports (e.g. in Nature), Pluto is geologically active. It has some mechanism by which it has "recycled" its surface. I originally thought we had a similar case to Jupiter's moon ...
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0answers
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Broadband Albedo Conversion Scheme

I had this albedo conversion written down: $$\alpha = 0.53\alpha_{VIS}+0.47\alpha_{NIR}$$ I had on my notes that this equation was form Collins et al (2002). However, I cannot find where this came ...
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3answers
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Why do clouds have ceilings and bases?

What is the point called when water can not rise above or visually seem to have a ceiling in the atmosphere? What makes that point ideal?
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2answers
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Why doesn't the Earth's outer core dissolve into the mantle?

It is well accepted that the outer core is made out of liquid iron and nickel, and as everything else it should tend to reach chemical equilibrium with its surrounding. In particular, I would expect ...
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2answers
538 views

How do the different densities of the oceanic and continental crust affect earth's outer shape?

I am currently reading a textbook and I am slightly confused at a paragraph that deals with some general facts about earth's outer shape. It mentions that the density of the continental crust is ...
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Principal component analysis (PCA) and normalization of radiometric data?

I did some experiments with airborne radiometric data in a region in southern Brazil and I would like to know your suggestion about the following topic: I tried to classify high, medium and low ...
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1answer
1k views

Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity?

Many introductory level textbooks suggest that, as a rule of thumb, the velocity of the ocean surface is around 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters above the sea surface. For instance, Ocean ...

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