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Questions tagged [glaciation]

Questions about glaciations, glacial periods or ice ages. Including the evidence of their existence, the conditions during such periods and the causes.

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5 votes
3 answers
895 views

How to realistically describe the 'journey' taken by a glacial erratic?

I'm writing a piece of fiction in which I want to describe the journey taken by a large glacial erratic. Leaving the wisdom of this literary device aside, how might I realistically do that? The ...
1 vote
0 answers
38 views

How fast did Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway drain?

Lake Agassiz and Lake_Ojibway drained around the time of the 8.2 kiloyear event, perhaps in a couple of pulses, the first subglacially and the second when the glacial ice dam finally broke. Clearly ...
3 votes
2 answers
236 views

How do you estimate the depth of a lake?

Say you are on the shore of an arbitrary lake in the world, and you want to predict its likely depth. What do you consider? the height of the nearby mountains the size of the lake the average ...
3 votes
1 answer
64 views

Difference between downwasting and dynamic glacier response to climate change

The acceleration of glacier shrinkage after 1985 indicates a transition toward rapid down- wasting rather than a dynamic glacier response to a changed climate I am unable to distinguish between ...
1 vote
0 answers
15 views

What determines and confirms sensitivity of glaciers to climate change/ climate forcing?

Consider two groups of glaciers, say Group A and Group B. For simplicity, let's consider the group to fall in one size class (say 1-5 sq km), both located in the same kind of climate. We DO NOT know ...
3 votes
1 answer
77 views

Why would glaciers change its size? How to differenciate change in glacier size as a response to climate and its natural dynamics?

Glaciers flow as they deform under its own weight. But they also advance or retreat accordingly to the various climate factors. How would I differentiate a glacier that is in motion flowing down the ...
2 votes
1 answer
116 views

Effect of eccentricity and axial precession on glaciation/deglaciation

Having learned about the Milankovitch cycles, I've found two entirely separate explanations from different sources on how the combination of precession and eccentricity changes affect glaciation vs ...
2 votes
0 answers
24 views

Would it make sense to compare glacier fluctuations in New Zealand with Alps or Canadian rockies?

If I want to draw parallels between the glacier fluctuations between different glaciers, (considering similar size class, here, small) at a) New Zealand b) European Alps c) Canadian Rocky Mountains ...
6 votes
1 answer
113 views

How to judge a good journal for glaciology?

I am trying to find articles/papers related to glacier fluctuations since LIA, how do i quickly analyze if the journal is good? Is impact factor sufficient to judge the journal quickly, if so, what ...
7 votes
1 answer
326 views

How old are Chile's fjords?

Do we have any knowledge about the age of Chile's fjords, more specifically, those found near the Northern Patagonian Ice Field? Is it reasonable to conclude that they were formed in Quaternary given ...
6 votes
1 answer
76 views

Why are symmetrical three-sided pyramidal peaks so common?

High alpine pyramidal peaks formed by cirque-carving glaciers very commonly (not always) have three nearly symmetrical faces and corresponding ridges spaced roughly 120 deg. apart. This is easily ...
29 votes
4 answers
9k views

Why is relative sea-level falling in Hudson Bay?

Why is the sea level in Hudson Bay decreasing so much? Hudson Bay is pretty far up north, much closer to glaciers. Would it make sense for it to recede at this level with sources of fresh water ...
3 votes
1 answer
146 views

Can the shape and orientation of a large glacial rock deposit indicate glacial flow direction

If a rock is tapered, does the tapered point indicate the glacier direction?
4 votes
1 answer
141 views

Remote sensing of glaciers, season for data collection

I would like to understand to view the health of a glacier using optical or SAR data. What season would be the best for observation? Is the ablation season better or the accumulation season? More ...
4 votes
1 answer
205 views

Atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$ fell at a Pleistocene interglacial-glacial transition. Ocean absorption vs biosphere absorption

CO2 levels fell during the last interglacial-glacial transition until the Last Glacial Maximum in the Pleistocene. I can think of two causes for the reduction of CO2: Ocean absorption. The ...
4 votes
1 answer
112 views

When would the next glaciation appear? Worst case

Suppose that the IPCC's best estimate of climate sensitivity (3 K) is relevant and that the Keeling curve will increase as now, with a certain procent more emission next year than previous year, into ...
10 votes
3 answers
15k views

Esker vs. Kame vs. Drumlin - what's the difference?

In researching glacial features, I came across the terms esker, drumlin, and kame. I know that they are all depositional features that are shaped like a mound. My impression is that an esker is longer ...
2 votes
1 answer
121 views

Is there a mountain-shaped iceberg?

From Iceberg - Wikipedia, the closest mountain-shaped iceberg seem to be dome iceberg: Different shapes of icebergs. 1: Tabular; 2: Wedge; 3: Dome; 4: Drydock; 5: Pinnacled; 6: Blocky. However, dome ...
1 vote
1 answer
74 views

How are Quaternary alluvial deposits differentiated in subglacial latitudes?

The USGS maps of coastal California label alluvial deposits as Qyf and Qof — the “younger” and “older” fans of coarse sediments. But in areas of the earth that never saw Quaternary glaciation (like ...
1 vote
2 answers
170 views

Glacial extent variability during last glacial period?

Does anyone know an online source to illustrate glacial extent variability during last ice age, ca 120 ka BP to 10 ka BP? Most sources seem to concentrate only on the maximum, but apparently, there ...
8 votes
1 answer
4k views

What would it be like to live in an ice age?

If you were born in the most recent ice age, how different would your life be compared to how you live it today? Furthermore, if humans currently lived in an ice age, how would it affect life today?
1 vote
1 answer
96 views

Darwin theory about Japan and China

In a letter by Charles Darwin to Asa Gray, introducing to him an abstract about what would Origin of Species, he talked about migration of different forms during the glacial epoch, and the reason why ...
1 vote
0 answers
652 views

Milankovitch cycles and what?

Observe the vertical green lines in this diagram: Those events shows when temperature starts to sink when radiance is at top or even before that. If there was a simple connection between radiance and ...
1 vote
2 answers
246 views

What could cause a turn from global warming to global cooling?

Except a hypothesized orbital forcing! Ice cores shows that there are several irregular sharp temperature peaks in between of the big 100,000 years glaciations. What could cause those peaks? Almost ...
0 votes
1 answer
151 views

How to improve this prediction about the climate in future?

The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth and clean the air from carbon dioxid when rain- and snowfall, ...
1 vote
0 answers
64 views

Can extratropical cyclones force global cooling?

We are living in a historical period of global warming since about 20,000 years ago. This global warming period is one of about ten in human history. Those periods may very well be forced to start by ...
4 votes
2 answers
174 views

Why is the bedrock buried so deeply in much of northern Minnesota?

Although parts of northern Minnesota have bedrock exposed at the surface (especially in the Boundary Waters area and along the short of Lake Superior), the more usual situation here is for the bedrock ...
1 vote
1 answer
357 views

Are we at the beginning of a Heinrich Event?

Does our current weather trend properly reflect a Heinrich Event? It seems like the drastic weather swings are what I would expect but I realize that is not definitive. I don't see the term bandied ...
9 votes
1 answer
718 views

How are the thickness of ice sheets from previous glaciation periods determined?

How is the thickness/depth of ice sheets from previous glaciation periods determined? I've for instance often seen statements that the ice sheet over Scandinavia at the last glacial period maximum (i....
10 votes
1 answer
665 views

How was the Marinoan Glaciation triggered?

The Marinoan Glaciation (a.k.a. Elatina Glaciation) was a glaciation that is thought to have occurred towards the end of the aptly-named Cryogenian period at ca. 650Ma. It is particularly known as one ...
5 votes
1 answer
165 views

Is 2,000 years from now a credible figure for return to glaciation?

I read this article, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/416786/global-warming-vs-the-next-ice-age/ "In about 300 years, all available fossil fuels may well have been consumed.Over the following ...
5 votes
2 answers
7k views

How would Earth map look like if all ice melts?

Is there somewhere a map which indicates which areas and cities become sea?
28 votes
2 answers
647 views

What would it take to confirm or refute the Snowball Earth Hypothesis?

Since Harland's sedimentary work and Budyko's models in the 1960s, geologists have hypothesized that the Earth may once have been completely frozen. There are various lines of evidence for this event. ...
4 votes
1 answer
146 views

Status of overdue glaciation hypothesis

What is the status of the Early Anthropocene hypothesis, in the specific meaning that the climate would be projected to be significantly cooler (such as, on the order of by 0.8 degrees in the planet ...
6 votes
1 answer
287 views

What caused the earth's climate to stabilise ~10 thousand years ago?

We can see that the last glacial period ended 12-10K years ago. Interestingly enough, this also appears to coincide with the rise of large human civilisations. My question is: What caused the earth'...
9 votes
1 answer
127 views

Traits of invaded ecosystems? Are my compost worms a threat to New York?

I was shocked to learn that there were few native worms in the glaciated portion of North America. I use worms indoors to compost paper and kitchen scraps. I don't think there is much chance of ...
11 votes
1 answer
293 views

Is there conclusive evidence for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current developing after the glaciation of Antarctica?

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the continuous oceanic current that encircles the Antarctic continent, as is often explained in the literature as being the cause of the onset of glaciation ...
11 votes
1 answer
538 views

The river or the hills; which came first?

On the upper Mississippi in Illinois and southern Wisconsin, the river is bounded by hills and bluffs which define the outer edges of the flood plain. There are similar configurations for some of ...
9 votes
1 answer
176 views

Why are some theories as to the cause of glacation less popular among the scientific community?

There are a few theories as to the causes of glaciation. There's the Milankovitch Theory, which says that there are cyclical changes in Earth's orbit and in the tilt of Earth's axis that occur over ...