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Questions tagged [glaciology]

The [glaciology] tag concerns all forms of snow and ice on Earth and in space. And the marks left by ancient glaciers.

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How do you interpret Oxygen Isotope changes?

In a paper I am reading, the authors note "large (5-7%) negative shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of geologic proxy materials" (Davis 2008, pg. 102) in several regional basins. This is then ...
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Is “Chasm One” the really the name of this feature on the Brunt Ice Shelf?

The BBC News article Antarctic: No role for climate in Halley iceberg splitting says: With no-one on the ice surface, notice of any breakaway will have to come from automated in-situ ...
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What (if any) “in-situ instrumentation” is on the Brunt Ice Shelf that will detect its splitting and breaking away?

The BBC News article Antarctic: No role for climate in Halley iceberg splitting says: With no-one on the ice surface, notice of any breakaway will have to come from automated in-situ ...
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How do scientists measure paleoclimatologic variables from icecaps?

I guess the key is to know gases concentration, which should be done finally with a mass spectrometer if I am not wrong. But how does the complete process work, from drilling to the final ...
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Glen's power-law alternatives

For glacier models, there exist alternatives to the Glen's power-law? I searched on internet, but I have not found other alternatives.
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Why antarctic research stations are built above ground instead of on the ground or underground?

Many online sources stresses how much the antarctic wind is dangerous for the structures and for the personnel, yet most buildings I see are built off the ground. I suppose that is due to the ...
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Waterlevel increase calculation

So I tried to calculate the rise of waterlevel myself. But the results I have gotten seem to be pretty low: Given the earths radius, I clalculated different Events: 1) If all landice melts there is ...
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Giant Cavern the Size of Manhattan Under Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica - how was satellite and airborne radar data combined?

This is a follow-up question to Giant Cavern the Size of Manhattan Under Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica. The work is reported in an open access paper in Science: Heterogeneous retreat and ice ...
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Giant Cavern the Size of Manhattan Under Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica

Avery Thompson writes in Popular Mechanics In Thwaites’ case, that radar uncovered a gigantic cavern between the glacier itself and the bedrock below it. That cavern is likely filled with air much ...
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Are we at the beginning of a Heinrich Event?

Does our current weather trend properly reflect a Heinrich Event? It seems like the drastic weather swings are what I would expect but I realize that is not definitive. I don't see the term bandied ...
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Do icebergs have any impact on ecology?

Are icebergs neutral actors in the environment, or do they have any impact on the local ecology. Do they have any environmental impacts that might influence any part of the biosphere?
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Weather conditions to create significant glacier growth

I am fascinated at the rapid growth of Glacier Bay Glacier from 1600 to 1750, along with its rapid retreat from 1750 to 1900. I am interested in the local weather conditions during these times. What ...
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Does snow melt on ice?

I looked up nearly everywhere on the internet, but couldn't find any evidence that snow wouldn't melt because of ice. When I look it up, it instead tells me how salt can melt snow. I'm NOT looking up ...
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If ALL the ice melted, what percentage of the Earth's surface would be water?

At the present time, about 70% of the earth's surface is liquid water (perhaps that includes floating ice around Antarctica, and the Arctic Ice cap). What percentage of the Earth's surface would be ...
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Simple way to understand these narrow frequency peaks in recently published “ice shelf singing”?

The Earther.Gizmodo.com article Scientists Discover a Weird Noise Coming From Antarctic Ice Shelf links to the American Geophysical Union video (an more importantly audio) (AGU) This is what an ...
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How would Earth map look like if all ice melts?

Is there somewhere a map which indicates which areas and cities become sea?
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Quantifying long term melt record on glacier surface

I intend to create a long term melt record on a glacier surface. What are parameters required to efficiently calculate the same using satellite, weather station observations & reanalysis datasets (...
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Help understanding radar data in subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap

The BBC News article Isolated lakes found beneath Canadian ice sheet links to the open access Science Advances article Discovery of a hypersaline subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap, ...
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How does ice-penetrating radar “see” through kilometers of ice without being absorbed?

The BBC News article Isolated lakes found beneath Canadian ice sheet links to the open access Science Advances article Discovery of a hypersaline subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap, ...
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How many extreme shifts in climate has Earth gone through in its existence?

As the Earth formed, it went through cycles of essentially hotter and colder periods. Extremely volcanic times and ice ages, in feedback loops contributing to one another. CO2 swinging from high to ...
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How old are Chile's fjords?

Do we have any knowledge about the age of Chile's fjords, more specifically, those found near the Northern Patagonian Ice Field? Is it reasonable to conclude that they were formed in Quaternary given ...
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Nonlinear Stokes equations for glacier modeling

What is the difference between $$\operatorname{div}(-\mu(u)\nabla u+pI)=f\tag{1}$$ and $$\operatorname{div}(-\mu(u)(\nabla u\color{red}{+(\nabla u)^\mathsf{T}})+pI)=f\tag{2}$$ from the physical ...
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Simple and realistic data for glacier modeling

I'm programming the nonlinear Stokes problem (with a finite element method), $$\operatorname{div}(\mu(u)\nabla u+pI)=f$$ where $\mu(u)$ is the Glen's power flow law (typical for glaciers). I want to ...
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What factors explain mountain glacier retreat variability?

It is well known that the majority of the world's mountain glaciers are retreating, but looking at a few LANDSAT images from the 1980s and today I am able to see glaciers that have retreated ...
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Status of overdue glaciation hypothesis

What is the status of the Early Anthropocene hypothesis, in the specific meaning that the climate would be projected to be significantly cooler (such as, on the order of by 0.8 degrees in the planet ...
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Why does glacier ice look blue?

The color of the ice observed in glaciers, icebergs and crevasses is often blue. However, ice cubes and industrial ice blocks are perfectly transparent or white if not. So. Why does glacier ice look ...
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If there's more water in the atmosphere due to global warming, how are there fewer mountain glaciers?

As I understand it, moisture condenses at mountain tops to form the mountain glaciers that provide water. The mountain topography doesn't change much in the span of a few decades, so if there's more ...
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What would it be like to live in an ice age?

If you were born in the most recent ice age, how different would your life be compared to how you live it today? Furthermore, if humans currently lived in an ice age, how would it affect life today?
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Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather?

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather? As an example, NASA estimated the annual loss of the Greenland ice field 2002-2013 as more than ...
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Is 2,000 years from now a credible figure for return to glaciation?

I read this article, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/416786/global-warming-vs-the-next-ice-age/ "In about 300 years, all available fossil fuels may well have been consumed.Over the following ...
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Polar Ice caps are melting? Questions on enviromental impact

The polar ice caps are melting at a significant rate partly due to the albedo effect, releasing greenhouse gas-methane into earth’s atmosphere. At the same time we are logging our forests for ...
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What caused the Carbon Dioxide Variations observed in the 800,000-year polar ice record?

I have seen several graphs showing the prehistoric temperatures and CO2 concentrations derived from ice-core data. My understanding is that CO2 and temperature correlate. I assume that Milankovich ...
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Estimated volume, daily or annually, of sea level rise due to melting ice?

Its a big number, difficult to estimate I assume. But is there a peer reviewed estimation (at current conditions) of the volume of daily or annual increase of water?
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Is a glacier advancing or retreating? How to tell?

What are the most common ways you would use to tell whether a given mountain glacier is advancing or retreating, judging only by its present state by looking at it? Please list anything you can think ...
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How could this pyramidal Mountain have been formed?

How could this pyramidal peak have been formed in Antarctica? Little is known about it as far as I know but what is known is that its miles away from any existing plate boundary and its shape is also ...
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How will sea level rise be distributed across the globe?

Sea level rise from melting glaciers will not be uniformly distributed across the globe. However, it isn't clear to me what places will have the most and least extreme changes in sea level rise. I ...
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How do glaciers move? Could Antarctica be separated?

Consider the example of the Larsen Ice Shelf. Ice platforms are attached to glaciers such that they prevent surrounding warm air from directly melting the glaciers. This is an important aspect of ice ...
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The giant 6,000 km$^2$ iceberg A-68; will ground-truth telemetry supplement satellite tracking data?

update 2: FIRST images of A-68 iceberg not taken from a satellite in space but from the air are out. On this NASA Earth Observatory web page are areal images from NASA's Operation IceBridge taken from ...
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How are 'road-like passages' between Himalayan mountains formed?

If you take a look at this picture you can see what looks like almost nicely cut out 'roads' between the mountains. What forces are responsible for this?
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If an asteroid strikes a glacier, does it make a print on the land below?

If an asteroid strikes a glacier, does it make a print on the land below? For example, a 10 km wide asteroid on a 2 km thick glacier, or a 2 km wide asteroid on a 2 km thick glacier.
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Considering how old the Antarctic ice cover is, why isn't it much thicker?

The Wikipedia article on the subject of the "Antarctic ice sheet" says that: The icing of Antarctica began in the middle Eocene about 45.5 million years ago and escalated during the Eocene–...
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Can ice caps reform if they disappear?

Excuse my ignorance. I'm under the impression that there are various types of ice at the poles, but I don't know the difference or the significance of each type, so, in terms of whatever is actually ...
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Why do fjords have sills?

I have read about some of the geologic processes that are related to the formation of fjords. Is the presence of sills in fjords related to the deposition of glacial moraine?
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Esker vs. Kame vs. Drumlin - what's the difference?

In researching glacial features, I came across the terms esker, drumlin, and kame. I know that they are all depositional features that are shaped like a mound. My impression is that an esker is longer ...