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How much water does the Earth contain?

I am curious about how various estimates can divert. The first picture is taken from a recent publication of VisualCapitalist https://www.visualcapitalist.com/sp/hf01-visualizing-all-of-the-worlds-...
Jimmy Bionic's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
155 views

Why the groundwater depth is different in same area

I recently measured groundwater levels using a tape in three different boreholes for where the holes are in same area. Each hole had a different level of water. Holes A and B are just 4 meters apart ...
Sagar Rawal's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
106 views

How far should a Manganese processing plant be built from a city?

Land that is currently zoned as agriculture with houses and businesses surrounding it is being proposed to be changed to commercial/industrial. The purpose is to build a Manganese processing plant. ...
Mona Manquero's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
25 views

Can single point value for potential water-logging be calculated using soil particle size, organic matter and bulk density

I am studying the recent paludification (e.g. mineral soil forests turning to peatlands) in a boreal regime. I have collected peat samples from the peat/mineral subsoil contact that have been 14C ...
Teemu Juselius's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

MIKE SHE Lateral inflow outputs and the differences between them

There are four 'Lateral inflow' related variables coming out from the .res1d file Lateral inflow SHE overland Lateral inflow SHE saturated zone Lateral inflow SHE overland drain Lateral inflow SHE ...
moinabyssinia's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
55 views

Approximating Soil Moisture level

Are there any simple models to approximate soil moisture level (%) as a function of distance from a waterbody (say a lake)? If one assigns saturation level of lake to 100% , then are there any ...
user1889930's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
32 views

Factors influencing existence of groundwater

I'm going to use RS/GIS techniques and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to identify potential groundwater zones , but first I need to identify all factors influencing the existence of groundwater. ...
MOE99's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
52 views

I perceive fuel in my bore hole water

Since I am from the Niger delta, where crude oil is mostly seen ... when we pump water and I try drinking it, it reeks of fuel ... how can I confirm it to be crude locally before alerting the oil ...
Wilson's user avatar
  • 11
4 votes
1 answer
197 views

Can pumping water into the aquifiers reverse the sinking of cities like Jakarta?

Indonesia decided to relocate the capital, in part due to environmental struggles facing Jakarta: one of the fastest sinking cities in the world due to the over extraction of groundwater Source: ...
Mars Robertson's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
130 views

What is the "healthiest" rock?

When talking about rocks, i.e. an aggregate of minerals, which type would be the "healthiest" I'm not talking about some voodoo crystal-healing stuff here, just if there is any rock ...
xashm's user avatar
  • 21
3 votes
0 answers
29 views

Water flows under the headwater and soil liquefaction has formed

A retaining wall 40 cm thick with variable height (thin-walled corner) is being built in the mountainous area. At the time of the geotechnical survey and design, there was no reservoir next to the ...
Risalat Bigachova's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
101 views

How likely is it for coastal cities to survive next 40 years? [closed]

I live in a coastal city myself and I know there are many measures taken to prevent harm for city buildings from sea waters. I'm not aware of all of them and I wonder if modern cities actually have a ...
The Dreams Wind's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
110 views

What is this geographical feature? (as seen in maps)

Can someone help me identify this peculiar geographical feature I've noticed in satellite imagery? This particular screenshot is from satellite imagery of northern Russia, however this kind of ...
ajxs's user avatar
  • 133
7 votes
2 answers
777 views

Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
Conrado's user avatar
  • 173
3 votes
1 answer
154 views

Is VLF-EM scanning for fractures a valid way to find groundwater for a well?

I posted this question on Engineering Stack Exchange as well. I'm not sure if here or there is the better place. There is no agriculture stack exchange (much as I wish there was) so I am posting there ...
Diogenes Creosote's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
80 views

How much does the weight of urban structures (buildings) affect the compaction (permeability, porosity, density) of alluvial sediments below a city?

I live in Van, Turkey. Van City is situated on an alluvial plain beside Lake Van. General geological structure of the area can be seen on pages 43-44 in this conference book. One of the images is ...
serekani's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
902 views

What is the name of this landform?

These are from the movie Insomnia. Also available in this video from 4 seconds to 8 seconds. What is the name of this landform? Are these just snow on Lapies? or These are some form of glaciated ...
Arun S R's user avatar
  • 345
6 votes
1 answer
193 views

Does Antarctica have a lot of aquifers?

I got to thinking about freshwater on Antarctica. Obviously, there is a lot of freshwater ice. However, the deeper you go underground, eventually the dirt will be warmed geothermically. So does the ...
World Outsider's user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
536 views

How is land subsidence measured?

When groundwater is pumped out of the ground by wells, and not replenished fast enough, the groundwater level sinks. With it, the surface of the area sinks also. Locally, this effect is not apparent,...
Volker Siegel's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
630 views

Estimation on how cold will my pond get - intent is to know if certain fish can survive in it

I want to get an estimate on how cold my pond will get. It is a 1 acre pond in Central Florida USA. It has an average depth of 4 feet. There is not much circulation in the pond. It gets direct ...
Bradley Nicholas's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
502 views

What does a "closed basin" mean in groundwater terms?

This answer talks about a "closed basin" that has an outflow to the sea. I had previously assumed that "closed basin" meant the same as "endorheic basin", but that is obviously not the case. What is ...
Semidiurnal Simon's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
248 views

How to recharge ground water directly from river water

I am not sure if I am asking it on a correct platform or not. A rainy river passes through my village. We suffer both in summer and in rainy seasons due to this. Could anyone explain how to recharge ...
user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

Ground water is almost every where, then how do mines and other holes are digged so that ground water doesn't drain into it

Water finds it way to the lowest point because of gravity. So if we dig a mine or something same, then how we take ground water in account, so that it doesn't fill in.
Rohit Nigam's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
74 views

Would the subsurface event leading to tree death at West Tern Lake in Yellowstone be visible in thermal imaging?

The New York Times article It’s Warm and Stealthy, and It Killed Yellowstone Trees and Turned Soil Pale describes an even that took place over the past few decades where a small and well-defined ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,070
1 vote
1 answer
283 views

What effect does concretization (paving/flooring with concrete) has on ground water table

I am a newbie for hydrology. If the question seems to have "well known answer", I appreciate if you point me to the resources. I will add details to the question based on comments. Consider a town of ...
blackpen's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
26 views

The DRASTIC groundwater vulnerability model and it's relevance today

I am reading a groundwater pollution vulnerability study by Mark Angle of the Ohio Dpet. of Natural Resources (ODNR) for my county. The model used to assess the groundwater vulnerability for the ...
Jonathan L.'s user avatar
13 votes
3 answers
4k views

How is it possible to use up the water in a region?

The Dead Sea, rivers in California and the Aral Sea are said to be shrinking due to water usage, e.g. for agriculture. Yet the water must go somewhere. After the fields are irrigated, the water ...
Joshua Fox's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

What is the cause of temporary smell and black color of underground water?

We have a well (about 1200KM away from sea and 60 meter deep), the water when taken out has slightly dark color and has smell. But strangely in about 12 hours the smell and black color vanishes and ...
XIMRX's user avatar
  • 113
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why do we consider hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure separately?

In petroleum geology, why do we consider hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure separately? Surely the pressure at any point, whether fluid or rock, at depth is simply equal the weight of all ...
Gem's user avatar
  • 31
2 votes
1 answer
60 views

Does the configuration of a confined layer change the storage?

I have a confined aquifer of sand. I will temporarily drain the aquifer, remove the top one meter of the aquifer and then replace that with a layer of gravel. After that I will restore the layer (and ...
Ashoka's user avatar
  • 21
5 votes
3 answers
167 views

Transferring water using underground channel

I heard in tv show, there are water channels in underground like rivers or small channels! So I just wondered why don't we use such underground water channels to recharge the underground water of one ...
Gowri's user avatar
  • 151
2 votes
2 answers
157 views

Searching for ground water

I would like to attempt to build a well-type structure in a woodland area. This woodland is mainly inhabited with Silver Birch and Sycamores and there is a shallow stream running down off of a ...
Charles's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
1 answer
394 views

Hydrology - Flowrate vs. radius of influence

I am using the following equation (Theim/Dupuit) to determine radius of influence for an unconfined aquifer. Assume all other variables are held constant. If Q increases, does the Radius of ...
sjp813's user avatar
  • 21
4 votes
2 answers
113 views

Does nitrate take a particular long time to percolate from surface into groundwater?

In a recent discussion with a farmer, the (at least in northwestern Germany) "popular" topic of nitrate infiltration into groundwater came up. The general view is that lots of fields receive more ...
mart's user avatar
  • 1,244
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Concept of artesian aquifers and pressure is not clear.

I do not understand how the Artesian aquifer is causing the water in the flowing well to reach a level higher than the ground surface? And what role does the piezometric surface play in it?
Faraz Gerrard Jamal's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
129 views

What controls how quickly groundwater gets recharged from rainfall?

This is a follow up question to an earlier question I asked about how groundwater gets mapped. I have read that our groundwater is getting exhausted as people drill to deeper depths and lift ...
user11377's user avatar
  • 191
7 votes
2 answers
221 views

How is ground water mapped?

This is probably a very easy question to answer but how are the USGS maps showing ground water locations mapped? Is it a guy going around taking core samples? Or is it done using satellites and ...
user11377's user avatar
  • 191
1 vote
1 answer
503 views

Can a microGPS tracker trace the path of an underwater drainage conduit?

The Devil's Kettle is a pothole in the rock where a small river disappears underground in the Judge C.R. Magney State Park in Minnesota. Would it be possible to trace the path of the drainage conduit ...
Aoi. T_015's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
93 views

Best material for Piezometer tube in water well

I have a 150M deep borehole. We want to measure ground water level using a pressure sensor. I believe that it is best practice to make use of a Piezometer tube ...
Zapnologica's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
97 views

Approaches for estimating potential evapotranspiration for non agricultural landuse classes

We are studying the water balance of a small catchment close to Jaipur, Rajasthan India in a semiarid climate. About a quarter of the landuse within the catchment is agriculture, the rest is divided ...
telegott's user avatar
  • 183
6 votes
0 answers
74 views

Chloride and evaporation

I have a layered aquifer with water that contains high concentrations of calcium and sulfate (~400 mg/L Ca2+, ~1300 mg/L SO42-), at 50 cm below ground surface (bgs), 250 cm bgs and 300 cm bgs. The ...
Henry's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
57 views

Pyrite oxidation

How much pyrite has to be oxidized to produce a sulfate concentration of 15 mM? If the solution initially has a pH of 8, roughly what would the pH drop to if there is no buffering of acidity?
chrisuw92's user avatar
  • 123
1 vote
0 answers
24 views

What models are available to estimate effect of surface water on groundwater quality?

I want to determine the effect of surface water quality or the effect of chemicals used on surface like fertilizers on groundwater. What choices do I have for predicting groundwater quality? What are ...
Ather Cheema's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
156 views

Dolomite and calcite precipitation

In an engineered wetland, there is groundwater flow from an aquifer with a chemical composition that is rich in magnesium, calcium and sulfate. We are finding that the aquifer is consistently ...
Henry's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
2 answers
424 views

Limitations on mineral precipitation from solution

If the solubility constant for a mineral is exceeded and, thermodynamically, a mineral is favored to precipitate in solution, are there any factors that may limit this from happening? Perhaps kinetics?...
chrisuw92's user avatar
  • 123
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Gypsum saturation index

I did some geochemical modelling and found groundwater samples I have are saturated with respect to the mineral gypsum. I need some help with interpretation, more information is given below. The ...
chrisuw92's user avatar
  • 123
2 votes
2 answers
151 views

Where on Earth does paleo-groundwater exist?

Where on Earth do we expect to find very old groundwater (infiltrated thousands of years ago)?
A Slow Learner's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
67 views

Modelling the unsaturated zone in FeFlow in seawater intrusion scenarios

Does anyone have experience with modelling seawater intrusion scenarios in Feflow? In my models, my mass-concentration seems to drive up into the unsaturated vadose zone, which I don't believe is ...
Coastal's user avatar
  • 146
4 votes
0 answers
3k views

Radius of Influence - groundwater pump well

What is the best method for calculating radius of influence for a pump well in an unconfined aquifer? I know the aquifer transmissivity (T), storativity (S), pump rate (Q), aquifer thickness (b), ...
rortiz's user avatar
  • 41
1 vote
1 answer
817 views

Hydrology - Depression cone VS transmissivity

My question concerns the depression cone of a pumping well in a confined aquifer: Say the transmissivity of the aquifer is 1200 m^2/day how will the cone change if the transmissivity is 600 m^2/day? ...
asher's user avatar
  • 13