Questions tagged [hydrology]

Hydrology is the study of the properties and behaviour of water. It concerns both surface as well as subsurface water, although water in the oceans and atmosphere is generally excluded. Those are studied by oceanography and meteorology, respectively.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
2answers
46 views

How are aquifers found and traced?

Recently a line from a news article about an aquifer in the path of a tunnel boring machine for Metro networks caught my attention: Ahead of tunnelling, the builders conduct hydrogeology, a study ...
3
votes
0answers
19 views

Run Hydrus-1D from the command line

Hydrus-1D, is a modeling environment for analysis of water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This program has a graphical environment which works very well, however a lot ...
2
votes
2answers
37 views

What does a “closed basin” mean in groundwater terms?

This answer talks about a "closed basin" that has an outflow to the sea. I had previously assumed that "closed basin" meant the same as "endorheic basin", but that is obviously not the case. What is ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

How to recharge ground water directly from river water

I am not sure if I am asking it on a correct platform or not. A rainy river passes through my village. We suffer both in summer and in rainy seasons due to this. Could anyone explain how to recharge ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Code for DEM based flow routing in R

I have a DEM as shown for which I have determined flow paths using D8 algorithm (My own code) in R. The resulting DEM with the flow paths is also shown. The flow paths are generated in the form of ...
5
votes
2answers
65 views

Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Flood and Statistics

A recent flood was due to combined effect of rainfall(precipitation) and reservoir storage. I have daily rainfall data and reservoir storage data. How can I correlate these two to get a statistical ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Hydrology- flow accumulation

I'm not specialist in hydrology, and I would be very grateful if you answer my question: What is flow accumulation in hydrology? Why algorithms used to calculate it over a raster DEM don't take ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

What effect does concretization (paving/flooring with concrete) has on ground water table

I am a newbie for hydrology. If the question seems to have "well known answer", I appreciate if you point me to the resources. I will add details to the question based on comments. Consider a town of ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What would be a reasonable set of thresholds for flood severity classes?

When working with extreme hydro-meteorological events, flood in particular, it is common procedure to classify each event by its return period/recurrence interval. This probabilistic measure has the ...
2
votes
0answers
97 views

Is there an approximate rate for water temperature by depth that could be modeled simply?

I know that there are a couple of questions covering latitude and longitude for water temperature, but overall I'm more interested in the rate of temperature change by depth. Thought Process: ...
13
votes
3answers
3k views

How is it possible to use up the water in a region?

The Dead Sea, rivers in California and the Aral Sea are said to be shrinking due to water usage, e.g. for agriculture. Yet the water must go somewhere. After the fields are irrigated, the water ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

In winter, is pond water warmer with or without a fountain? I have goldfish [closed]

I know that goldfish can hibernate but I'd like to keep the water warmer for them. Is moving water colder or warmer than still water? The water shoots out of "pipes" about 3" above the water's ...
3
votes
1answer
218 views

water (or hydrological) year around the world, does it change?

Following the commonly-known USGS definition of Water Year (or Hydrological Year) we know that it starts on the 1st October and ends on the next 30th September. Is this definition valid only for ...
4
votes
0answers
61 views

When will the weight of melted polar ice release the (currently stuck) subduction of the oceanic plate West of the Oregon coast?

Melted polar ice water makes the oceans deeper on average. The extra water on top of the oceanic plates makes them sink relative to the continental plates. This relative vertical displacement will ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

How to obtain the correlation between monthly streamflows based on physical concepts?

I've been tasked with generating synthetic streamflow scenarios through disaggregation. First, I will generate 50 years of streamflow data. For that, I will probably use a simple model as AR(1) or an ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Environmenal flow in the context of global gridded hydrological analyses

Environmental flow (EF) is a widely used concept in river basin management and river ecology. There are more than 200 methods to estimate the flow that should be left to the rivers to ensure a ...
2
votes
1answer
371 views

Why do we consider hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure separately?

In petroleum geology, why do we consider hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure separately? Surely the pressure at any point, whether fluid or rock, at depth is simply equal the weight of all ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Do desalination plants affect the ground water table?

I saw an article recently in the newspaper stating that a desalination plant near the seashore was causing the ground water to become saline. Usually I would expect that areas where saline water ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What's the difference between “loading” and “receiving” in water quality modeling?

I see some models described as simulating 'receiving water quality' and others as 'pollutant loading' models. What is the difference between loading and receiving models in this context? I am more ...
5
votes
1answer
457 views

Rivers - How to calculate maximum velocity from average velocity in a cross section

I'm studying flow velocities in a small river. I have a lot of data of average flow velocities in cross sections throughout the entire catchment. And I know the river develop a stream velocity profile ...
10
votes
1answer
83 views

Rocks sparking under water

I have searched for an answer to this question for years, to verify if it was true. A man that lived on a river in the rugged part of the northern Washington Cascades told me an interesting story. He ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

How did the Rhine originally look like? (before human intervention)

For personal reasons I decided to examine the shape and formation of the Rhine. Unfortunately though, the Rhine has long been diverted from its original course by human intervention, so I tried to ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Does the configuration of a confined layer change the storage?

I have a confined aquifer of sand. I will temporarily drain the aquifer, remove the top one meter of the aquifer and then replace that with a layer of gravel. After that I will restore the layer (and ...
11
votes
1answer
203 views

Lake outflow forming a “reverse delta”?

While rivers often form a delta when they flow into a lake, the outflow of a lake is usually a single stream. Are there lakes where the water flows off in multiple channels that merge into a single ...
5
votes
2answers
82 views

Is it possible to create clouds by pumping water into volcanoes?

Suddenly, there is this idea in my mind that if an important effect of global warming is rainfall reduction and drought, is it possible to use volcanoes as water vaporizers (regardless of costs)?
2
votes
2answers
124 views

Searching for ground water

I would like to attempt to build a well-type structure in a woodland area. This woodland is mainly inhabited with Silver Birch and Sycamores and there is a shallow stream running down off of a ...
5
votes
2answers
123 views

Comparing Pros and Cons of SWAT and HSPF

To model hydrology in a watershed, two of the most famous and widely used distributed models are SWAT and HSPF. I have some good understanding of HPSF, but I don't know when and why should one prefer ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Hydrology - Flowrate vs. radius of influence

I am using the following equation (Theim/Dupuit) to determine radius of influence for an unconfined aquifer. Assume all other variables are held constant. If Q increases, does the Radius of ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

Clarification of overbank flows

Apologies for what may be a very basic question, but I am struggling to understand the definition of overbank flow. Overbank flow is defined along the lines of this: Water flow over the top of the ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

how to know the correct results in watershed delineation in ArcGIS?

When I use one DEM in my study area to delineate watersheds, the results are different from when I mosaic 4 DEM layers adjacent to each other. After the mosaic process, 3 of the basins were merged in ...
5
votes
1answer
109 views

What's the difference between these most basic, first-order models for estimating runoff?

There are a lot of variations of basic, first-order hydrology models to estimate runoff from rainfall with a few other parameters. From what I can tell, most very basic rainfall-runoff models use one ...
4
votes
2answers
77 views

Does nitrate take a particular long time to percolate from surface into groundwater?

In a recent discussion with a farmer, the (at least in northwestern Germany) "popular" topic of nitrate infiltration into groundwater came up. The general view is that lots of fields receive more ...
0
votes
2answers
663 views

Rivers flowing into Pakistan

Why do Rivers flowing into Pakistan come from either Afghanistan or India and not from inland mountains? Is it possible for Pakistan to source fresh water from its northern mountains avoiding India ...
1
vote
1answer
456 views

Concept of artesian aquifers and pressure is not clear.

I do not understand how the Artesian aquifer is causing the water in the flowing well to reach a level higher than the ground surface? And what role does the piezometric surface play in it?
7
votes
1answer
220 views

Who would know how to manage rainwater erosion on a sloped property?

I'm a meteorologist with little experience in hydrology. I'm studying my land with the rainwater flow patterns during heavy rain events and looking to manage the erosion, flash flooding, and ponding ...
11
votes
6answers
4k views

If water is a renewable resource, why is there water scarcity?

Water is a renewable resource, renewed by the water cycle. If we use water too quickly, water should get evaporated and come down again as precipitation. So, Why is there water scarcity if water ...
9
votes
1answer
196 views

Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

Was discussing the terrain and rivers of Europe today with my father and it became apparent that a graph of the elevation versus course of a river would offer interesting insight, including a quick ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

Looking for a reference for identifing stream regimes(Intermittent, Perennial)

I'm a hydrologist with a good background in GIS. I'm looking for a reference (Methodology, Technical guide) for identification of temporary, intermittent and perennial streams. I google and only found ...
4
votes
0answers
157 views

How to relate RCM/GCM RCP climate projections to observational data for use in a hydrologic model

As a (smaller) part of my research, I want to look at climate projection data and how that might influence the hydrology within a study catchment in Rajasthan, India. For "the present day" climate, I ...
9
votes
5answers
895 views

Correct phrase for a 'forgetful' natural system?

This is a rather general question: assume I have a system that has a certain 'forgetful' property, which means that while I can offset its current state for a moment, it will eventually return to its ...
2
votes
0answers
70 views

Best material for Piezometer tube in water well

I have a 150M deep borehole. We want to measure ground water level using a pressure sensor. I believe that it is best practice to make use of a Piezometer tube ...
2
votes
0answers
73 views

Approaches for estimating potential evapotranspiration for non agricultural landuse classes

We are studying the water balance of a small catchment close to Jaipur, Rajasthan India in a semiarid climate. About a quarter of the landuse within the catchment is agriculture, the rest is divided ...
7
votes
1answer
699 views

Are there any DIY conductivity sensors that will hold calibration for long periods? {multiple months}

We've just published our DIY underwater loggers: http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/18/2/530 and the #1 thing we would like to add to the platform is conductivity. The loggers themselves will easily run ...
2
votes
0answers
89 views

Why Coastal catchments should be appended for watershed analysis (Archydro Suggestion)?

I'm a GIS specialist with a good background in watershed hydrology and geomorphology theories. In a project, I should analyse coastal and inland catchments separately. I have some neighbourhood ...
5
votes
0answers
64 views

Chloride and evaporation

I have a layered aquifer with water that contains high concentrations of calcium and sulfate (~400 mg/L Ca2+, ~1300 mg/L SO42-), at 50 cm below ground surface (bgs), 250 cm bgs and 300 cm bgs. The ...
4
votes
1answer
69 views

How stormy (wave height) does Lake Baikal get?

I'm trying to find info on the storminess of Lake Baikal. I want to compare wave heights in a storm on this lake to wave heights in a storm on the ocean. All I could find was very general information ...
4
votes
2answers
424 views

Could parallel rivers flow in opposite directions?

Some rivers have been moving backwards. This got me thinking about an unusual idea. Could there be terrain that causes two rivers, within a few miles of each other (10?), to flow in opposite ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Freeze variations

We fish on several lakes on one property. Some lakes are frozen to 3 inches and others are ice free. If it has been below freezing for weeks, why haven't all lakes froze ?
3
votes
1answer
71 views

High resolution global land use projections

I am looking for global land use projections for a large scale hydrological analysis. The most widely used datasets are the LUH (v1) Products used for CMIP5 based on Hurtt et al 2011. These products ...