Questions tagged [hydrology]

Hydrology is the study of the properties and behaviour of water. It concerns both surface as well as subsurface water, although water in the oceans and atmosphere is generally excluded. Those are studied by oceanography and meteorology, respectively.

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Likely air composition in cave only accessible from underwater?

I recently stumbled on the images of the Cosquer cave, located in France, famous for being a comparatively recently discovered as a Paleolithic decorated cave. The entrance to cave now is more than ...
Gnudiff's user avatar
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How exactly does "shear stress" and "viscosity" work when it comes to a fluid?

From Crash Course Engineering, understanding the movement of fluids requires knowing: Shear Stress Shear Strain Viscosity Now, I understand that Shear Stress causes Shear Strain, and depending on ...
BigRigz's user avatar
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What is the highest evaporation rate in the world? I know evaporation rates for Australia

I have been searching for the above answer for more than 25 years. I am providing a map of Australia for comparison http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/maps/averages/evaporation/ Is evaporation rate 4000 ...
Tad Soroczynski's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

Curve number adjustment based on antecedent rainfall

Is there any equation I can use to determine curve number as a function of the antecedent precipitation? I am aware of three sets of curve numbers for dry, wet and normal conditions. I was looking at ...
user1889930's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
62 views

Manning's N vs. Drag Coefficient Cd values for NLCD land cover classes

I was trying to understand the difference between Drag coefficient Cd and Manning's N. There are many sources available online which provide values of Manning's N for different land covers such as ...
user1889930's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
60 views

How to accurately estimate air-entry value (AEV) suction for soils?

In the literature, there are graphical (approximate) ways to estimate AEV from the soil water retention curve. I wonder, how can one more accurately estimate AEV according to its definition: the ...
Alireza Amani's user avatar
1 vote
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29 views

Hydrogeology Aquifer Question - Estimating Freshwater Availability

Bikini Atoll is at the northern end of the Ralik chain, and in a region that is somewhat drier. On average, the Atoll receives 1300 mm of rainfall each year, with the wettest season being from May ...
Kyle Rogers's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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What are the inhibiting factors that are hindering ocean wave-based electricity generation?

Considering the amount of available energy there is for the conversion to electricity (ocean waves being endless) I would imagine more attention to this approach by all energy based-companies, as well ...
John Sorenson's user avatar
1 vote
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Conservation of mass in Integrated surface water and groundwater models

One of the fundamental principles in fluid mechanics is the conservation of mass - how is this treated in integrated surface water | groundwater models such as MIKE models, say between two river cross-...
moinabyssinia's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
53 views

How do you determine the % of precipitation falling as snow in the case below?

I have just started a course in hydrology (a totally different field from mine which is computer science) and I can't find the link between the fact that a river flows into a lake and the % of ...
narutoArea51's user avatar
2 votes
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What is the benefit of Priessman Slots in Numerical modeling?

There is no descriptive content on the interneton what Priessman slots are and how they can be used in numerical modeling. What is the benefit of that especially in hydraulic modeling?
moinabyssinia's user avatar
1 vote
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How to use actual evapotranspiration in irrigation scheduling?

I have estimated actual evapotranspiration using the Penman-Monteith method and by using remote sensing data. I have weekly evapotranspiration images. How to utilize this in irrigation scheduling? How ...
Muddasir Shah's user avatar
1 vote
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26 views

MIKE SHE Lateral inflow outputs and the differences between them

There are four 'Lateral inflow' related variables coming out from the .res1d file Lateral inflow SHE overland Lateral inflow SHE saturated zone Lateral inflow SHE overland drain Lateral inflow SHE ...
moinabyssinia's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
751 views

Does the 0m elevation height of a Digital Elevation Model (Copernicus DEM) correspond to mean sea level?

I want to model future coastal flooding caused by sea-level rise under the latest IPCC scenarios at global scale. To this end, I use the Copernicus Digital Elevation Model (Copernicus DEM: https://...
Circus pygargus's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

MIKE Hydro Extended Validation Error: Q/h relation H-Neg must be increasing

I am setting up a MIKE Hydro model for a basin. I am getting extended validation errors on MIKE Hydro ...
moinabyssinia's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
55 views

Approximating Soil Moisture level

Are there any simple models to approximate soil moisture level (%) as a function of distance from a waterbody (say a lake)? If one assigns saturation level of lake to 100% , then are there any ...
user1889930's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
57 views

Where's the Colorado River water going between Glen Canyon and Lake Mead?

While looking through the "minimum inflow" 24-month projection for the Colorado River basin, I noticed something odd for the Lake Mead chart: an expected negative inflow from side streams in ...
Mark's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How to simulate rainfall for a 1 in 100 year storm event?

I have information about total rainfall during a 24-hour, 1 in 100-year storm event for a location. (source: https://hdsc.nws.noaa.gov/hdsc/pfds/index.html). I would like to use this information and ...
user1889930's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
19 views

ACRU4: rainfall units for the wetland water balance

Not sure about the rainfall units in the wetland water balance of ACRU. I have looked at the ACRU4 user manual which comes with the modelling tool installation and a dissertation covering the wetland ...
Peni_'s user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
25 views

ACRU4 model run error: climate file -> "Error running display and data rules"

ACRU model was running fine and producing output. After a few runs and parameter changes, the model returns this error message Not sure what went wrong or changed. Does anyone know what this means or ...
Peni_'s user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How does dredging help the rivers that have gone dry?

How does dredging help the rivers that have gone dry? If you dig deeper, that small, and fixed, amount of water is just going to go lower, isn't it? That just what my layman's logic says, at least. ...
Sergey Zolotarev's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Hydrologic Mass Balance

Old MacDonald had a farm. And on that farm, he had a pond. Old MacDonald (OMD) liked spending a lot of time fishing in his pond. One day a friend told him that the fish will grow twice as big if the ...
thelegendofaang's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
29 views

Factors influencing existence of groundwater

I'm going to use RS/GIS techniques and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to identify potential groundwater zones , but first I need to identify all factors influencing the existence of groundwater. ...
MOE99's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Irrigating from multiple reservoirs in SWAT+

I am applying SWAT+ in an area with multiple reservoirs used for irrigation. I also have a lot of HRUs representing the various crop types in the catchment. The problem is that SWAT+ assigns one ...
Saki's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Developing or implementing manual/advanced irrigation in SWAT+

The following error about HRU occurred when I was trying to implement manual (advanced) irrigation operation. An additional message advises that I contact developers directly when you want to create ...
Saki's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Updating plant/crop database

I have been trying to update the QSWAT+ crop database to include new crops. However it seems the model refuses to read a look-up table with new crops leaving me unable to represent all the various ...
Saki's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
71 views

How much water is the atmosphere receiving

I was reading this Question earlier about how if water is getting lost into space and one of the answers said that (paraphrase) the Earth lost about enough water for the oceans to reduce by 12 cm, if ...
Tardy's user avatar
  • 574
2 votes
1 answer
39 views

MIKE-SHE hydrological model: How to export SZ flow from a larger model to import into a smaller, nested model to inform SZ boundary conditions

We are working on a MIKE-SHE coupled MIKE-Hydro model for a small wetland in South Africa. One of the major issues is that it has zero-flux boundaries around the model domain in the saturated zone (SZ)...
ecohydrol's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
62 views

MHYDRO Hydrodynamics (MIKE HYDRO)

I have run a MIKE HYDRO 1D simulation to completion without any errors being flagged. How do I check for any instability within the model or whether the simulated results are realistic?
faith jumbi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
23 views

Mapping variables in the model to theory documentation in WRSM-Pitman

I’m working with the comprehensive wetland module in WRSM-Pitman. However, the variables listed in the wetland tab of the channel module are not referred to in the same way as the variables listed in ...
faith jumbi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
46 views

Negligible dam capacity to exclude from a runoff module

I am running the WRSM-Pitman model for the upper reaches of a quaternary catchment (which is smaller than its intended use for full quaternary catchments or larger areas). The total catchment area is ...
faith jumbi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
17 views

ACRU4 PercentRiparianInfestation

One of the routines that I am interested in exploring further is the option of including a riparian zone within the Agricultural Catchments Research Unit (ACRU4) model. Once I add the riparian zone to ...
Shaeden Gokool's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
86 views

Is there superionic ice in the earth? and how did it get there?

I recently researched about Superionic Ice which basically is Water under so much pressure and heat that it turns into a black hot ice. I read this article about it too. I found out Superionic ice ...
Tardy's user avatar
  • 574
2 votes
1 answer
32 views

Distribution of wetland inflows to the wetland storage in WRSM-Pitman

I’m working with the comprehensive wetland module in WRSM-Pitman (Bailey and Pitman, 2015) and reconstructing the water balance. Apart from parameter differences, which proportion of upstream inflows ...
Peni_'s user avatar
  • 101
2 votes
1 answer
40 views

WRSM-Pitman: Calculating alpha in the wetland surface area equation for estimating wetland evaporation

I am estimating the wetland water balance variables for the comprehensive wetland module. For evaporation, it is calculated based on the net rainfall and average wetland storage area for the month. In ...
Peni_'s user avatar
  • 101
2 votes
1 answer
132 views

MIKE-SHE and MIKE-HydroRiver model run error: “Unable to write dynamic item” - drive space issues?

I am trying to run a coupled hydrology-hydraulic, MIKE-SHE - MIKE-HydroRiver (MIKE 1D) model (2020 version, DHI). To get the MIKE 1D hydraulic simulation to run without stability issues I had to use a ...
JG_enviro's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
337 views

MIKE-SHE and MIKE-HydroRiver model run error “Water level exceeded maximum…more the 4.0000 times cross section height”

I am trying to run a coupled MIKE-SHE - MIKE-HydroRiver (MIKE 1D) model (2020 version) on a daily timestep. The model gets through the preprocessing stage without a problem but then shows an error ...
ecohydrol's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
70 views

MIKE-SHE model run error: “UZ column shorter than the initial water depth”

I am trying to run a catchment model using MIKE-SHE (2020 version, DHI) including an unsaturated zone (UZ) and a saturated zone (SZ) in the set-up. I have specified the ‘Finite Difference’ method for ...
ecohydrol's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
47 views

How is drainage divide defined upstream of bifurcation?

Recently, I visited the Divide Creek birfucation in Canada where a creek bifurcates with one arm flowing to Pacific and the other to Arctic Ocean and I was wondering how does this rather rare ...
Jen's user avatar
  • 113
3 votes
1 answer
99 views

How to define the lower boundary conditions: seepage face and unit gradient in terms of soil volumetric water content?

context: the models that simulate the flow of water in the soil (e.g. land-surface models) In these models, in order to simulate percolation (/drainage) from the bottom of the defined soil column, we ...
Alireza Amani's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
45 views

ACRU4 riparian zone receiving flood water from river channel

I would like to include wetlands and riparian zones as hydrological response units (HRUs) within the agricultural catchment research unit (ACRU4) model. In the ACRU4 user manual there are graphical ...
Shaeden Gokool's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
76 views

Surprisingly deep rivers

I just read that the Congo River is >200m (650 ft) deep - I had no idea that this is even remotely possible! Q1: What are the processes leading to a river being this deep? Q2: By which method is ...
NotTheMoney's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
236 views

Cannot initialize MIKE-1D - Failed when solving for a steady state solution; water level being exceeded; Warning: Hyperthreading

I get the following error messages when running the hydrological model MIKE-SHE: "Cannot initialize MIKE-1D - Failed when solving for a steady state solution; water level being exceeded; Warning: ...
ecohydrol's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
13 views

Empirical adjustment factors for generating sub-daily precipitation values (for IDF curves)

I am trying to generate an Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve using 6-hourly precipitation data. These curves are used to estimate the return period for a rain event with a specific intensity (...
AR1p's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
2 answers
398 views

Would covering part of Lake Mead with large sheets of bubble wrap reduce the amount of water lost to evaporation?

I have been recently thinking about how the water level of Lake Mead keeps dropping due to its high water evaporation rate brought on by recent years of historical drought conditions. The continuous ...
user57467's user avatar
  • 411
4 votes
1 answer
244 views

Effects of Dredging Estuary Channel on Water Flow

Is it possible to make some generalizations about the hydrographic effects of dredging a channel into an estuary? Or is it too complex a problem and each case must be considered independently? Let me ...
tkreyche's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
178 views

What can make a river end just before an ocean?

In Mallorca, Spain, there is a river called Torrent Son Bauló. As visible in the picture, it ends just before the sea, seemingly blocked by the beach. What can be the cause of that? My guess is that ...
David Hás's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
494 views

What are these 'spine' land features on the banks of the Oder river?

Looking around on Google Maps, one can zoom in on the banks of the Oder river between Germany and Poland and find quite an extensive series of curious repeating land features along much of the river ...
user91231312's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

Can we know if a numerical model will converge or not according to the boundary conditions?

Consider a square 2D domain and a steady-state simulation. According to the geology of the domain, the North, South, West and East limits must be conditions of zero flow (Neumann). The aquifer ...
narutoArea51's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
62 views

Easiest way to visualize precipitation drainage using raster elevation files in R?

As a non-specialist, enviro-enthusiast, I am curious about visualizing post-precipitation run-off in my local area. I have been able to access and download appropriate elevatio rasters for my local ...
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