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Questions tagged [hydrology]

Hydrology is the study of the properties and behaviour of water. It concerns both surface as well as subsurface water, although water in the oceans and atmosphere is generally excluded. Those are studied by oceanography and meteorology, respectively.

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Environmenal flow in the context of global gridded hydrological analyses

Environmental flow (EF) is a widely used concept in river basin management and river ecology. There are more than 200 methods to estimate the flow that should be left to the rivers to ensure a ...
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Why do we consider hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure separately?

In petroleum geology, why do we consider hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure separately? Surely the pressure at any point, whether fluid or rock, at depth is simply equal the weight of all ...
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Do desalination plants affect the ground water table?

I saw an article recently in the newspaper stating that a desalination plant near the seashore was causing the ground water to become saline. Usually I would expect that areas where saline water ...
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What's the difference between “loading” and “receiving” in water quality modeling?

I see some models described as simulating 'receiving water quality' and others as 'pollutant loading' models. What is the difference between loading and receiving models in this context? I am more ...
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Rivers - How to calculate maximum velocity from average velocity in a cross section

I'm studying flow velocities in a small river. I have a lot of data of average flow velocities in cross sections throughout the entire catchment. And I know the river develop a stream velocity profile ...
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73 views

Rocks sparking under water

I have searched for an answer to this question for years, to verify if it was true. A man that lived on a river in the rugged part of the northern Washington Cascades told me an interesting story. He ...
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67 views

How did the Rhine originally look like? (before human intervention)

For personal reasons I decided to examine the shape and formation of the Rhine. Unfortunately though, the Rhine has long been diverted from its original course by human intervention, so I tried to ...
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46 views

Does the configuration of a confined layer change the storage?

I have a confined aquifer of sand. I will temporarily drain the aquifer, remove the top one meter of the aquifer and then replace that with a layer of gravel. After that I will restore the layer (and ...
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110 views

Lake outflow forming a “reverse delta”?

While rivers often form a delta when they flow into a lake, the outflow of a lake is usually a single stream. Are there lakes where the water flows off in multiple channels that merge into a single ...
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Is it possible to create clouds by pumping water into volcanoes?

Suddenly, there is this idea in my mind that if an important effect of global warming is rainfall reduction and drought, is it possible to use volcanoes as water vaporizers (regardless of costs)?
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77 views

Searching for ground water

I would like to attempt to build a well-type structure in a woodland area. This woodland is mainly inhabited with Silver Birch and Sycamores and there is a shallow stream running down off of a ...
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Comparing Pros and Cons of SWAT and HSPF

To model hydrology in a watershed, two of the most famous and widely used distributed models are SWAT and HSPF. I have some good understanding of HPSF, but I don't know when and why should one prefer ...
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Hydrology - Flowrate vs. radius of influence

I am using the following equation (Theim/Dupuit) to determine radius of influence for an unconfined aquifer. Assume all other variables are held constant. If Q increases, does the Radius of ...
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Clarification of overbank flows

Apologies for what may be a very basic question, but I am struggling to understand the definition of overbank flow. Overbank flow is defined along the lines of this: Water flow over the top of the ...
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60 views

how to know the correct results in watershed delineation in ArcGIS?

When I use one DEM in my study area to delineate watersheds, the results are different from when I mosaic 4 DEM layers adjacent to each other. After the mosaic process, 3 of the basins were merged in ...
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1answer
55 views

What's the difference between these most basic, first-order models for estimating runoff?

There are a lot of variations of basic, first-order hydrology models to estimate runoff from rainfall with a few other parameters. From what I can tell, most very basic rainfall-runoff models use one ...
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2answers
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Does nitrate take a particular long time to percolate from surface into groundwater?

In a recent discussion with a farmer, the (at least in northwestern Germany) "popular" topic of nitrate infiltration into groundwater came up. The general view is that lots of fields receive more ...
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Rivers flowing into Pakistan

Why do Rivers flowing into Pakistan come from either Afghanistan or India and not from inland mountains? Is it possible for Pakistan to source fresh water from its northern mountains avoiding India ...
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Concept of artesian aquifers and pressure is not clear.

I do not understand how the Artesian aquifer is causing the water in the flowing well to reach a level higher than the ground surface? And what role does the piezometric surface play in it?
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Who would know how to manage rainwater erosion on a sloped property?

I'm a meteorologist with little experience in hydrology. I'm studying my land with the rainwater flow patterns during heavy rain events and looking to manage the erosion, flash flooding, and ponding ...
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If water is a renewable resource, why is there water scarcity?

Water is a renewable resource, renewed by the water cycle. If we use water too quickly, water should get evaporated and come down again as precipitation. So, Why is there water scarcity if water ...
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Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

Was discussing the terrain and rivers of Europe today with my father and it became apparent that a graph of the elevation versus course of a river would offer interesting insight, including a quick ...
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Looking for a reference for identifing stream regimes(Intermittent, Perennial)

I'm a hydrologist with a good background in GIS. I'm looking for a reference (Methodology, Technical guide) for identification of temporary, intermittent and perennial streams. I google and only found ...
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How to relate RCM/GCM RCP climate projections to observational data for use in a hydrologic model

As a (smaller) part of my research, I want to look at climate projection data and how that might influence the hydrology within a study catchment in Rajasthan, India. For "the present day" climate, I ...
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886 views

Correct phrase for a 'forgetful' natural system?

This is a rather general question: assume I have a system that has a certain 'forgetful' property, which means that while I can offset its current state for a moment, it will eventually return to its ...
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Best material for Piezometer tube in water well

I have a 150M deep borehole. We want to measure ground water level using a pressure sensor. I believe that it is best practice to make use of a Piezometer tube ...
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Approaches for estimating potential evapotranspiration for non agricultural landuse classes

We are studying the water balance of a small catchment close to Jaipur, Rajasthan India in a semiarid climate. About a quarter of the landuse within the catchment is agriculture, the rest is divided ...
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Are there any DIY conductivity sensors that will hold calibration for long periods? {multiple months}

We've just published our DIY underwater loggers: http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/18/2/530 and the #1 thing we would like to add to the platform is conductivity. The loggers themselves will easily run ...
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Why Coastal catchments should be appended for watershed analysis (Archydro Suggestion)?

I'm a GIS specialist with a good background in watershed hydrology and geomorphology theories. In a project, I should analyse coastal and inland catchments separately. I have some neighbourhood ...
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Chloride and evaporation

I have a layered aquifer with water that contains high concentrations of calcium and sulfate (~400 mg/L Ca2+, ~1300 mg/L SO42-), at 50 cm below ground surface (bgs), 250 cm bgs and 300 cm bgs. The ...
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1answer
55 views

How stormy (wave height) does Lake Baikal get?

I'm trying to find info on the storminess of Lake Baikal. I want to compare wave heights in a storm on this lake to wave heights in a storm on the ocean. All I could find was very general information ...
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2answers
197 views

Could parallel rivers flow in opposite directions?

Some rivers have been moving backwards. This got me thinking about an unusual idea. Could there be terrain that causes two rivers, within a few miles of each other (10?), to flow in opposite ...
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55 views

Freeze variations

We fish on several lakes on one property. Some lakes are frozen to 3 inches and others are ice free. If it has been below freezing for weeks, why haven't all lakes froze ?
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High resolution global land use projections

I am looking for global land use projections for a large scale hydrological analysis. The most widely used datasets are the LUH (v1) Products used for CMIP5 based on Hurtt et al 2011. These products ...
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Missing Data in GSOD Data

I been accessing daily historical NOAA GSOD data through Google BigQuery. I am interested in long term time series of snow, precipitation, and to a lesser extent temperature for areas around the Volga ...
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1answer
120 views

Derive Reference Potential Evapotranspiration from Potential Evapotranspiration

I'm working on a project in Rajasthan, India involving modelling water supply and demand in a catchment. For this, I am working with WEAP which has modules for estimating groundwater recharge using a ...
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1answer
27 views

Unable to prepare input file for HSPF software for watershed modeling!

I am trying to use BASINS 4.1 software to prepare input file for HSPF (.uci). When I launch HSPF from BASINS software, I have to direct the sofware to read a time series file (.wdm). In my case I am ...
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Modelling the unsaturated zone in FeFlow in seawater intrusion scenarios

Does anyone have experience with modelling seawater intrusion scenarios in Feflow? In my models, my mass-concentration seems to drive up into the unsaturated vadose zone, which I don't believe is ...
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Where does the Amazon River really begin?

Where is the true source of the River Amazon? Searching Wikipedia, it suggests the River Apurímac has traditionally been considered the source. However, Google says it is the River Mantaro. In other ...
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Designing FIR or other filters for soil water content

I have 250 or so soil sensors that I need to QC. They monitor various parameters such as soil temp, soil water content, soil co2, and soil heat flux. It isn't unusual for a sensor to behave poorly due ...
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1answer
111 views

Does a hurricane classification exists where estimated rainfall is taken into account?

Hurricanes are classified with the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. However an extreme amount of rainfall can cause a disaster although the windspeeds are not extreme. Is there some sort of ...
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1answer
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Are there ways stormwater attenuation can be quantified for comparison between different systems or conditions?

Various sources agree land cover changes impact the attenuation of stormwater. E.g. forest areas generally slow the rainfall-runoff response and moderate it, reducing peaks in hydrographs, as compared ...
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1answer
75 views

How long does it take to refresh the entire water supply in the Earth's atmosphere?

Water in the atmosphere is present as vapour, liquid and ice. It is just a small amount of the Earth's total water supply. I'm wondering how long it will take to rain down all the water from the ...
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1answer
159 views

Area reduction factor reference for precipitation

For a large catchment (>1000ha) I'm looking for some method to use a area reduction factor to adapt precipitation values. I have a large dataset of daily precipitation values but I have to use some ...
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48 views

Are ramp pumps the solution to the global water problem? [closed]

For the past few years people have been trying to solve the global water problem (especially in Africa), and what better way than being echo friendly. So my question is, can you use the tidal energy ...
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2answers
474 views

Does negative reference evapotranspiration make sense using FAO Penman-Monteith equation?

I computed the daily reference evapotranspiration $ET_0$ using the Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements - FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. The outputs seems ...
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1answer
102 views

Hydrology - Depression cone VS transmissivity

My question concerns the depression cone of a pumping well in a confined aquifer: Say the transmissivity of the aquifer is 1200 m^2/day how will the cone change if the transmissivity is 600 m^2/day? ...
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1answer
116 views

To delineate the drainage basin for a lake, would the pour point be the inlet or the outlet?

I am interested in the area draining into and affecting a particular lake. Delineating this drainage basin, should I use the lake's inlet or outlet to best capture the relevant drainage basin? I think ...
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1answer
97 views

What is difference between partially penetrating stream and fully penetrating stream?

If fully penetrating stream means, the stream penetrates fully to the depth of aquifer, then doesn't it mean that there is zero conductance or leakance? The leakance or conductance is a term used to ...
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367 views

What is meant by inverted water table?

There are some papers in literature which discuss stream-aquifer interaction. They describe that the stream aquifer interaction ranges from connection to disconnection. When there is disconnection, ...