Questions tagged [hydrology]

Hydrology is the study of the properties and behaviour of water. It concerns both surface as well as subsurface water, although water in the oceans and atmosphere is generally excluded. Those are studied by oceanography and meteorology, respectively.

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7
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3answers
122 views

Is it possible to create clouds by pumping water into volcanoes?

Suddenly, there is this idea in my mind that if an important effect of global warming is rainfall reduction and drought, is it possible to use volcanoes as water vaporizers (regardless of costs)?
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1answer
57 views

How to check the recurrence intervall of heavy rain events

Heavy rain or flood events have recurrence intervalls. I.e. 100 year, 50 year or 25 year events. However, with increasing data and global warming and other factors these intervalls change. How can I ...
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How do oases form in the middle of the desert?

I am wondering if there are any theories about the formation of oases, and I am also curious about why an oasis can even last for a very long period of time. I have heard that fresh water exists on ...
11
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1answer
294 views

Permeability of well screen as a limitation to a slug-in test

If you were to do a slug-in test where you put in a known volume of water, would there be a point where, say if the formation was extremely permeable, the permeability of the screen itself would be ...
3
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1answer
38 views

Run Hydrus-1D from the command line

Hydrus-1D, is a modeling environment for analysis of water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This program has a graphical environment which works very well, however a lot ...
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2answers
394 views

Are the water year/hydrological year different around the world?

Following the commonly-known USGS definition of Water Year (or Hydrological Year) we know that it starts on the 1st October and ends on the next 30th September. Is this definition valid only for ...
3
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0answers
17 views

what is a sensitivity analysis in heavy rain 2D surface / 1D drainage network models

For my thesis, the lecturer proposed to make a "sensitivity analysis" with a 2D surface model connected with a 1D drainage Network model for a storm rain event. However, I'm having problems to figure ...
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18answers
37k views

Are there any saltwater rivers on Earth?

I'm curious if there are any saltwater rivers on Earth. These would presumably arise if a saltwater lake had a river outlet to the ocean. However, all the saltwater lakes I looked at (Caspian Sea, ...
2
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3answers
70 views

formula to convert precipitation in mm/h to runoff in m³/s

I have precipitation data in mm/h but to use them for my model I need them in m³/s. Is there a formula to convert them?
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1answer
21 views

Modelling extreme rainfall events: 'blanket approches' when considering soil infiltration

For my thesis on modelling an extreme rainfall event with a 2D surface runoff model I'm supposed to consider the effect of soil infiltration on the runoff: In my work description it says I'm supposed ...
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2answers
3k views

Do dams reduce the flow of river downstream?

There is a conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia, because the latter wants to build a dam on the Nile river. Citing this article: [Egypt] fears the Nile dam will reduce its share of the river and ...
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2answers
94 views

Loop in the continental divide

Various maps of the Continental Divide (the hydrological feature, not the trail) contain a loop that looks like this: What is the hydrologic meaning of the loop in Wyoming? Even if it's a basin, ...
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0answers
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Avra valley aquifier region boundary

Attached is an image of the Avra valley in Southern Arizona, USA from Effects of Kriging and Inverse Modelling on Conditional Simulation of the Avra Valley Aquifier in Southern Arizona -- Clifton and ...
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2answers
58 views

How are aquifers found and traced?

Recently a line from a news article about an aquifer in the path of a tunnel boring machine for Metro networks caught my attention: Ahead of tunnelling, the builders conduct hydrogeology, a study ...
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1answer
482 views

Why do we consider hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure separately?

In petroleum geology, why do we consider hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure separately? Surely the pressure at any point, whether fluid or rock, at depth is simply equal the weight of all ...
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2answers
38 views

What does a “closed basin” mean in groundwater terms?

This answer talks about a "closed basin" that has an outflow to the sea. I had previously assumed that "closed basin" meant the same as "endorheic basin", but that is obviously not the case. What is ...
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2answers
192 views

Underwater rock conduit

After looking at this question - Source of water for the Great Artesian Basin in Australia one would like to know whether there are any underwater rock conduits that transport fresh water across seas ...
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2answers
180 views

Is the Great Artesian Basin a closed basin?

Areas where topography prevents the outflow of water are called closed basins. Is the GAB a closed basin? What if external bodies of water flowed in? Is that still "closed"?
2
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1answer
45 views

How to recharge ground water directly from river water

I am not sure if I am asking it on a correct platform or not. A rainy river passes through my village. We suffer both in summer and in rainy seasons due to this. Could anyone explain how to recharge ...
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3answers
3k views

Source of water for the Great Artesian Basin in Australia

The Great Artesian Basin in Australia covers 23% of the continent and contains 64,900 cubic kilometres of water. Many years ago it was claimed on a TV science show I saw that some of the water in the ...
2
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1answer
85 views

Code for DEM based flow routing in R

I have a DEM as shown for which I have determined flow paths using D8 algorithm (My own code) in R. The resulting DEM with the flow paths is also shown. The flow paths are generated in the form of ...
13
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1answer
8k views

What is hydraulic diffusivity?

I'm having trouble grasping which properties of the soil are described by hydraulic diffusivity (sometimes referred to as soil-moisture diffusivity which is based on the diffusion equation). What ...
5
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2answers
71 views

Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
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0answers
41 views

Flood and Statistics

A recent flood was due to combined effect of rainfall(precipitation) and reservoir storage. I have daily rainfall data and reservoir storage data. How can I correlate these two to get a statistical ...
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1answer
101 views

Hydrology- flow accumulation

I'm not specialist in hydrology, and I would be very grateful if you answer my question: What is flow accumulation in hydrology? Why algorithms used to calculate it over a raster DEM don't take ...
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1answer
79 views

What effect does concretization (paving/flooring with concrete) has on ground water table

I am a newbie for hydrology. If the question seems to have "well known answer", I appreciate if you point me to the resources. I will add details to the question based on comments. Consider a town of ...
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0answers
65 views

Chloride and evaporation

I have a layered aquifer with water that contains high concentrations of calcium and sulfate (~400 mg/L Ca2+, ~1300 mg/L SO42-), at 50 cm below ground surface (bgs), 250 cm bgs and 300 cm bgs. The ...
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6answers
4k views

If water is a renewable resource, why is there water scarcity?

Water is a renewable resource, renewed by the water cycle. If we use water too quickly, water should get evaporated and come down again as precipitation. So, Why is there water scarcity if water ...
11
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1answer
226 views

Lake outflow forming a “reverse delta”?

While rivers often form a delta when they flow into a lake, the outflow of a lake is usually a single stream. Are there lakes where the water flows off in multiple channels that merge into a single ...
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1answer
42 views

What would be a reasonable set of thresholds for flood severity classes?

When working with extreme hydro-meteorological events, flood in particular, it is common procedure to classify each event by its return period/recurrence interval. This probabilistic measure has the ...
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0answers
98 views

Is there an approximate rate for water temperature by depth that could be modeled simply?

I know that there are a couple of questions covering latitude and longitude for water temperature, but overall I'm more interested in the rate of temperature change by depth. Thought Process: ...
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2answers
2k views

What keeps water from sinking into earth?

I remember reading somewhere that there's evidence of water on Mars but it all sank into the Martian soil. So what prevents that happening on earth? Some people say it's because the crust is not ...
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1answer
2k views

Where does the Amazon River really begin?

Where is the true source of the River Amazon? Searching Wikipedia, it suggests the River Apurímac has traditionally been considered the source. However, Google says it is the River Mantaro. In other ...
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3answers
3k views

How is it possible to use up the water in a region?

The Dead Sea, rivers in California and the Aral Sea are said to be shrinking due to water usage, e.g. for agriculture. Yet the water must go somewhere. After the fields are irrigated, the water ...
2
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1answer
59 views

Does the configuration of a confined layer change the storage?

I have a confined aquifer of sand. I will temporarily drain the aquifer, remove the top one meter of the aquifer and then replace that with a layer of gravel. After that I will restore the layer (and ...
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2answers
59 views

In winter, is pond water warmer with or without a fountain? I have goldfish [closed]

I know that goldfish can hibernate but I'd like to keep the water warmer for them. Is moving water colder or warmer than still water? The water shoots out of "pipes" about 3" above the water's ...
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0answers
62 views

When will the weight of melted polar ice release the (currently stuck) subduction of the oceanic plate West of the Oregon coast?

Melted polar ice water makes the oceans deeper on average. The extra water on top of the oceanic plates makes them sink relative to the continental plates. This relative vertical displacement will ...
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1answer
42 views

How to obtain the correlation between monthly streamflows based on physical concepts?

I've been tasked with generating synthetic streamflow scenarios through disaggregation. First, I will generate 50 years of streamflow data. For that, I will probably use a simple model as AR(1) or an ...
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0answers
31 views

Environmenal flow in the context of global gridded hydrological analyses

Environmental flow (EF) is a widely used concept in river basin management and river ecology. There are more than 200 methods to estimate the flow that should be left to the rivers to ensure a ...
4
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1answer
185 views

Coupling recharge with 1D groundwater flow model

Suppose we are modeling 1D groundwater flow in an aquifer of extent $x$ from $A(x=0)$ to $C$. Lets say for unsteady state conditions, the input is at $A(x=0)$, we can model piezometeric response at $B ...
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1answer
44 views

Do desalination plants affect the ground water table?

I saw an article recently in the newspaper stating that a desalination plant near the seashore was causing the ground water to become saline. Usually I would expect that areas where saline water ...
3
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1answer
90 views

How long does it take to refresh the entire water supply in the Earth's atmosphere?

Water in the atmosphere is present as vapour, liquid and ice. It is just a small amount of the Earth's total water supply. I'm wondering how long it will take to rain down all the water from the ...
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0answers
22 views

What's the difference between “loading” and “receiving” in water quality modeling?

I see some models described as simulating 'receiving water quality' and others as 'pollutant loading' models. What is the difference between loading and receiving models in this context? I am more ...
5
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1answer
562 views

Rivers - How to calculate maximum velocity from average velocity in a cross section

I'm studying flow velocities in a small river. I have a lot of data of average flow velocities in cross sections throughout the entire catchment. And I know the river develop a stream velocity profile ...
9
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1answer
224 views

Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

Was discussing the terrain and rivers of Europe today with my father and it became apparent that a graph of the elevation versus course of a river would offer interesting insight, including a quick ...
10
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1answer
86 views

Rocks sparking under water

I have searched for an answer to this question for years, to verify if it was true. A man that lived on a river in the rugged part of the northern Washington Cascades told me an interesting story. He ...
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3answers
3k views

How does a meandering river form?

I read this explanation about rivers: "As the river erodes laterally, to the right side then the left side, it forms large bends, and then horseshoe-like loops called meanders" Why does the river ...
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1answer
79 views

How did the Rhine originally look like? (before human intervention)

For personal reasons I decided to examine the shape and formation of the Rhine. Unfortunately though, the Rhine has long been diverted from its original course by human intervention, so I tried to ...
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2answers
128 views

Searching for ground water

I would like to attempt to build a well-type structure in a woodland area. This woodland is mainly inhabited with Silver Birch and Sycamores and there is a shallow stream running down off of a ...
6
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1answer
87 views

Is there a method to determine the point rainfall intensity for small catchments?

I need to design a weir for a small earth dam in an arid area with a small (smaller than 200 ha), fairly flat catchment area in southern Africa. The idea behind the dam is to collect not more than 10 ...