Questions tagged [hydrology]

Hydrology is the study of the properties and behaviour of water. It concerns both surface as well as subsurface water, although water in the oceans and atmosphere is generally excluded. Those are studied by oceanography and meteorology, respectively.

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14
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2answers
570 views

Could the Dead Sea dry up? and if so, when?

According to recent findings, during the last interglacial period, about 120,000 years ago, the precursor of the Dead Sea (Lake Lisan) dried up perhaps entirely. Today, the Dead Sea level is dropping ...
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Time series analysis and streamflow data [closed]

Does anyone know of any examples of (common) time series analysis techniques applied to streamflow data? Edit: I am wondering if anyone has come across papers using common time series analysis ...
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High Discharge Value in SWAT modelling

At first run I’ve encountered the problem since the values of modeled and observed discharge are significantly different. The correlation between them is nearly 0,2...
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1answer
770 views

'Peak water' in the Ogallala Aquifer, USA?

According to the United States Geological Survey Report (USGS) Groundwater Depletion in the United States (1900–2008), the Ogallala Aquifer (or High Plains Aquifer) is a vital source of groundwater ...
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What are Horton's laws?

Robert E. Horton coined these four laws: the law of stream numbers, the law of stream lengths, the limits of infiltration capacity, and the runoff-detention-storage relation. What are they ...
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1answer
285 views

Is there a standard definition of a “dry-down” event in hydrology?

When studying the land surface, dry-down periods - periods after rain where the soil moisture is decreasing due to evapotranspiration and drainage - are of great interested, because soil moisture has ...
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How do I prepare for the International Earth Science Olympiad?

Recently I have been selected for the National Camp of INTERNATIONAL EARTH SCIENCE OLYMPIAD of my country. How do I prepare for it? Resources, books, etc. I know there are 4 parts- geology, ...
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How important is understanding linear algebra in groundwater modeling?

I am considering taking a course in linear algebra and wanted to get a survey to see how important it is. My goal is not just to understand how to push the buttons in some software (e.g. GW Vistas, ...
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1answer
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The relationship between specific discharge and flux

How are specific discharge and flux linked? Is flux simply specific discharge × area? And when we speak of flux of an element eg. N-flux, is that ...
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833 views

How do perennial rivers in high alpine areas maintain year round flows?

We have several perennial rivers in my country that originate out of high altitude alpine glacier melt. I can understand snow or glacier melting in the summer to increase the flows but it is observed ...
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Freshwater changes in time?

Taking freshwater as being: Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as ...
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Lake inflow-outflow problem

The evaporation from a lake is to be calculated by the water balance method. Inflow to the lake occurs through three small rivers, A, B and C. The outflow occurs through the river D. Calculate ...
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1answer
670 views

To what extent is hydroelectric power really renewable?

One of the more widespread "renewable" ways of generating power is by harnessing hydropower, i.e. by exploiting the movement of falling or flowing water. Some of the most commonly seen implementations ...
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Meaning of the C in the unit “mg C L-1”

Could somebody tell me what the "C" signifies in the unit mg C L-1? I was wondering if it stood for concentration but it seems redundant as litres are mentioned. Thanks. The paper which uses the unit ...
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What does groundwater consist of?

I heard that groundwater is rich in minerals and fluorides, but I have no clear thoughts on what else it contains and whether the ground water differs from area to area. Can someone please shed some ...
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371 views

What's the contribution of different types of river sources? [closed]

There are different types of river sources, most people might think of springs, melting snow or glaciers, but other types of sources can include wet meadows or marshland. In terms of volume, what is ...
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Is the cause of Old Faithful's bimodal distribution for eruption times straightforward?

From wikipedia: With a margin of error of 10 minutes, Old Faithful will erupt 65 minutes after an eruption lasting less than 2.5 minutes or 91 minutes after an eruption lasting more than 2.5 ...
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1answer
242 views

How does soil redox potential affect the rate of denitrification?

Denitrification requires low oxygen conditions as wells as organic carbon. Are reduced soils (e.g gleysols) more likely to have higher denitrification rates because they have low oxygen levels?
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Is there any link between sea-water inflitration into groundwater and nitrate?

I recently read a pop-science article about sea-water infilitration into (sweet) groundwater. One specific instance mentioned was the gaza strip: Exzessive well building and drawing of groundwater ...
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Do river fluxes help contribute to long-term carbon sequestration?

Rivers help transport sediment from higher regions into the oceans (where it's hard to get back into the atmosphere). And this sediment could be carbon-rich.
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How are minor tributaries of a river determined?

What are the criteria to determine if river A is a major or minor tributary to another River B? Is stream order the only deciding factor i.e. the highest order is the main stem, one less order is a ...
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What's the geological period of the birth of the river Ganges?

Avatarana or Descent of the Ganges (extracted from Wikipedia): "In late May or early June every year, Hindus celebrate the avatarana or descent of the Ganges from heaven to earth." There are ...
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1answer
243 views

Are there situations where the groundwater table doesn't follow the morphology of the surface?

In most or all geological site reports I read, the groundwater table (of the uppermost groundwater layer) always followed the morphology of the surface. Is this always the case? Are there signs for ...
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252 views

How to determine the transmissivity of a system of rocks and faults from the stationary drawdown pattern?

I have a dataset containing high frequency measurements of the hydraulic head at different locations in a 5x6km area. Also known are the precipitation, evaporation, and pumped discharges from a number ...
14
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1answer
270 views

Recharge a dry aquifer?

Aquifers have a natural recharge rate. However, some aquifers rely on fossil water for their primary (or even sole) water supply. When water in a well is pulled from these aquifers faster than they ...
9
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1answer
59 views

Lab procedure for analyzing/assessing the presence of semi-volatile solids

I'm looking for a lab experiment design that shows how to measure the presence of semi-volatile solids in water (and not sludge or soil or solids). All I have found so far are chromotography/mass ...
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405 views

What are the impacts of sublimation on an annual mountain snowpack?

Massive amounts of freshwater rests atop the world's mountains in the form of ice, snow, permafrost, and glaciers. Many areas of the world rely upon the melting of snow and ice to recharge their ...

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