Questions tagged [hydrology]

Hydrology is the study of the properties and behaviour of water. It concerns both surface as well as subsurface water, although water in the oceans and atmosphere is generally excluded. Those are studied by oceanography and meteorology, respectively.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
3
votes
1answer
324 views

Cooling effect by evaporation [closed]

Why exactly does water cool down by evaporation? What happens in this process? How much does it cool down? What's the formula to describe this process?
1
vote
0answers
66 views

Any way to increase the amount of water that flows through bedrock?

My pond is fed by a spring that collects inside a large concrete box (6' x 6' x 8'deep) that was formed up many years ago. The walls of this box are sitting on bedrock. Small trickles of water seep ...
2
votes
0answers
279 views

What is difference between Riverbed conductance term and streambed leakance/retardation coefficient?

In literature some times to account for semi-pervious sediments at bottom of stream, streambed leakance also called retardation coefficient ($L$) is used. This is equal to the ratio of conductivity of ...
2
votes
4answers
6k views

Why do rivers have 'wells' in mountains?

Why/how can rivers have sources in places high above the sea level?
9
votes
1answer
156 views

In -20 °C weather, creeks below waterfalls here form ice columns. What are these called? Ice-canoes?

I would like to know the name(s) of this ice formation. How common or rare is it? What other regions of the world does this occur in? What specific requirements are needed to produce it and could it ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

How to integrate dry wells into groundwater level mapping automatically (inequality constraints on the interpolation)?

I'm interested in automating spatial interpolation of groundwater level measurements. I'm wondering if anyone knows a method for automatically taking into account things like dry wells, where I can't ...
5
votes
0answers
54 views

Near Future Precipitation and Temperature estimations?

I was wondering if anyone here is familiar with temperature and precipitation estimation? I need to estimate P and T from April to July 2016. I am planning to use excel to do the calculation because ...
3
votes
1answer
260 views

How to characterize flow of nonreactive tracer in a porous media?

About Tracer Experiment This experiment is conducted by injecting a fluid with nonreactive species of certain concentration inside a column or core composed of sand. The injection of fluid can either ...
8
votes
1answer
145 views

Unrealistic solution for advection-diffusion-reaction PDE with heterogeneous porous media

About the code: I have a code which simulates concentration from advection-diffusion-reaction PDE in 2D space (X,Y) with time. The solution is obtained using fully implicit finite-difference method ...
3
votes
1answer
268 views

How are biological oxygen demand and depth related?

What is the relation between biological oxygen demand (BOD) and depth? I need to calculate the BOD of a drinking water tank and I have ultimate BOD at the surface of water, but I need to calculate it ...
5
votes
1answer
293 views

In hydrology, what's the difference between specific and total catchment area?

I am getting stuck on the concepts of Total Catchment Area (TCA) and Specific Catchment Area (SCA) as I try to learn more about TOPMODEL and hydrology modeling. What do these metrics mean in hydrology?...
3
votes
0answers
192 views

Point source pollution model for South America

I want to model point source pollution in S. America watersheds. Specifically, given a set of pollution points and corresponding pollution output levels, I want to know the course these pollutants ...
4
votes
0answers
49 views

Lithologic and hydrostratigraphic logs for the Deccan volcanic province, India

I need data on depth/thickness of of different lithologic units under Deccan Volcanic Province in MP, Maharashtra and Gujarat. For this if anyone can help in providing help in obtaining well log data ...
5
votes
2answers
180 views

Is the Great Artesian Basin a closed basin?

Areas where topography prevents the outflow of water are called closed basins. Is the GAB a closed basin? What if external bodies of water flowed in? Is that still "closed"?
2
votes
0answers
157 views

Time series analysis and streamflow data [closed]

Does anyone know of any examples of (common) time series analysis techniques applied to streamflow data? Edit: I am wondering if anyone has come across papers using common time series analysis ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Why are the Little Colorado River and Havasu Creek blue?

In Grand Canyon there are two side streams that carry heavy carbonate loads and deposit travertine along their lengths. The Little Colorado and Havasu Creek both rise from springs a few miles above ...
1
vote
0answers
746 views

How to calculate the infiltration rate? [closed]

This is Exercise 4.8.1 in Introduction to Physical Hydrology by Martin Hendriks. The water level above flat terrain during an experiment with double ring infiltrometer is 20 mm. The saturated ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

How to plot lat-lon-rainfall in MATLAB?

I have average annual rainfall values at few grids, as shown in below example; Lat: 25.5 26.5 33.5 34.5 35.5 36.5 41.5 42.5 Lon: 89.5 91.5 78.5 79.5 83.5 84.5 75.5 76.5 Rain: 110 120 122 135 114 ...
7
votes
1answer
292 views

Ship turning causing calm water

Can anyone tell me the official or technical term for the effect of when extremely calm water appears when a ship turns sharply in a full circle? I realise it could be related to wakes, but is not a ...
8
votes
2answers
622 views

How to perform regridding (1.0d to 0.5d) using bilinear interpolation for an irregular area?

I need to regrid temperature dataset from 1 degree to 0.5 degree. In case we have data available for all grids falling in a square, as shown below, we can simply regrid it using bilinear/bicubic ...
14
votes
2answers
551 views

Could the Dead Sea dry up? and if so, when?

According to recent findings, during the last interglacial period, about 120,000 years ago, the precursor of the Dead Sea (Lake Lisan) dried up perhaps entirely. Today, the Dead Sea level is dropping ...
16
votes
2answers
3k views

How do long rivers exist?

I was recently on a long-haul flight over Siberia and it struck me as rather remarkable that something like the Lena River could exist. It seems very surprising that there's a route from some random ...
9
votes
1answer
836 views

Evaporation loss formulas

A while ago I created a spreadsheet to calculate evaporation loss. I found several formulas to do that, two from Kevin Rafferty and one from Engineering Toolbox. The one from Engineering Toolbox was ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

High Discharge Value in SWAT modelling

At first run I’ve encountered the problem since the values of modeled and observed discharge are significantly different. The correlation between them is nearly 0,2...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

What are Horton's laws?

Robert E. Horton coined these four laws: the law of stream numbers, the law of stream lengths, the limits of infiltration capacity, and the runoff-detention-storage relation. What are they ...
11
votes
0answers
131 views

Using sodium chloride load as a point source pollutant variable in SWAT model?

I'm currently working with the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). My task is to model the loading of sodium chloride into streams. One approach I would like to take is to use the point ...
9
votes
1answer
3k views

How do I prepare for the International Earth Science Olympiad?

Recently I have been selected for the National Camp of INTERNATIONAL EARTH SCIENCE OLYMPIAD of my country. How do I prepare for it? Resources, books, etc. I know there are 4 parts- geology, ...
8
votes
2answers
192 views

Underwater rock conduit

After looking at this question - Source of water for the Great Artesian Basin in Australia one would like to know whether there are any underwater rock conduits that transport fresh water across seas ...
9
votes
3answers
3k views

Source of water for the Great Artesian Basin in Australia

The Great Artesian Basin in Australia covers 23% of the continent and contains 64,900 cubic kilometres of water. Many years ago it was claimed on a TV science show I saw that some of the water in the ...
11
votes
1answer
225 views

Minimum flow duration curves

It is common to prepare flow duration curves from a set of daily river flow data, but does it make sense to build a flow duration curve from a set of monthly minimum flow data? I searched on internet, ...
15
votes
2answers
598 views

How and why do these tree-like river structures form?

I noticed these detailed tree-like river structures in Google Earth Google Maps link How and why do these form? Rivers don't typically split. What would cause the water to keep branching off again ...
14
votes
2answers
692 views

How important is understanding linear algebra in groundwater modeling?

I am considering taking a course in linear algebra and wanted to get a survey to see how important it is. My goal is not just to understand how to push the buttons in some software (e.g. GW Vistas, ...
21
votes
5answers
3k views

Is there a database of global rainfall time series?

Is there any institute out there collecting time series data of precipitation, and making them accessible online? I need data for a few different locations, but: Low spatial resolution is fine. For ...
13
votes
1answer
718 views

'Peak water' in the Ogallala Aquifer, USA?

According to the United States Geological Survey Report (USGS) Groundwater Depletion in the United States (1900–2008), the Ogallala Aquifer (or High Plains Aquifer) is a vital source of groundwater ...
5
votes
0answers
152 views

Freshwater changes in time?

Taking freshwater as being: Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as ...
7
votes
2answers
758 views

How do perennial rivers in high alpine areas maintain year round flows?

We have several perennial rivers in my country that originate out of high altitude alpine glacier melt. I can understand snow or glacier melting in the summer to increase the flows but it is observed ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Interpreting some hydropower data. What does DSF mean in this context?

This is the historical feed of the Keystone dam for October 2014: www.swt-wc.usace.army.mil/chartbin/KEYSOct14.shtml Here is the real time feed: www.swt-wc.usace.army.mil/ops_hydropower/KEYShydro....
13
votes
1answer
8k views

What is hydraulic diffusivity?

I'm having trouble grasping which properties of the soil are described by hydraulic diffusivity (sometimes referred to as soil-moisture diffusivity which is based on the diffusion equation). What ...
10
votes
1answer
4k views

How to calculate flow duration curve for a set of 12 year data?

Given, discharge data alone for each month in each year, is it possible to calculate the flow duration curve? Some of the discharge values in some months were found to be 0. Do we need to consider ...
14
votes
1answer
253 views

Is there a standard definition of a “dry-down” event in hydrology?

When studying the land surface, dry-down periods - periods after rain where the soil moisture is decreasing due to evapotranspiration and drainage - are of great interested, because soil moisture has ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Slope of Saturation vapor pressure versus temperature-A parameter in Penman's equation

How is mm of Hg per degree Celsius converted to kPa per degree Celsius? I also need the equation for computing the value of A (slope) in mm of Hg per degree Celsius.
7
votes
0answers
286 views

What's the contribution of different types of river sources? [closed]

There are different types of river sources, most people might think of springs, melting snow or glaciers, but other types of sources can include wet meadows or marshland. In terms of volume, what is ...
10
votes
1answer
3k views

Lake inflow-outflow problem

The evaporation from a lake is to be calculated by the water balance method. Inflow to the lake occurs through three small rivers, A, B and C. The outflow occurs through the river D. Calculate ...
17
votes
1answer
607 views

To what extent is hydroelectric power really renewable?

One of the more widespread "renewable" ways of generating power is by harnessing hydropower, i.e. by exploiting the movement of falling or flowing water. Some of the most commonly seen implementations ...
12
votes
1answer
406 views

Is the cause of Old Faithful's bimodal distribution for eruption times straightforward?

From wikipedia: With a margin of error of 10 minutes, Old Faithful will erupt 65 minutes after an eruption lasting less than 2.5 minutes or 91 minutes after an eruption lasting more than 2.5 ...
13
votes
1answer
238 views

How does soil redox potential affect the rate of denitrification?

Denitrification requires low oxygen conditions as wells as organic carbon. Are reduced soils (e.g gleysols) more likely to have higher denitrification rates because they have low oxygen levels?
12
votes
2answers
381 views

What does groundwater consist of?

I heard that groundwater is rich in minerals and fluorides, but I have no clear thoughts on what else it contains and whether the ground water differs from area to area. Can someone please shed some ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Meaning of the C in the unit “mg C L-1”

Could somebody tell me what the "C" signifies in the unit mg C L-1? I was wondering if it stood for concentration but it seems redundant as litres are mentioned. Thanks. The paper which uses the unit ...
10
votes
2answers
125 views

Is there any link between sea-water inflitration into groundwater and nitrate?

I recently read a pop-science article about sea-water infilitration into (sweet) groundwater. One specific instance mentioned was the gaza strip: Exzessive well building and drawing of groundwater ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

The relationship between specific discharge and flux

How are specific discharge and flux linked? Is flux simply specific discharge × area? And when we speak of flux of an element eg. N-flux, is that ...