Questions tagged [measurements]

Questions related to acquiring, processing and interpreting field measurements of any kind. Including instrumentation and data analysis.

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1answer
45 views

Tipping bucket rain gauge measurement, normalizing

I have bought this cheap rain gauge (only the rain gauge, not the other parts) for measuring rainfall with a Raspberry Pi. It works as far as I can tell, every bucket swing will result in an interrupt ...
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1answer
86 views

Measuring the circumference of the earth - revisited

I have done a bit of research on this topic already and the easiest way seems to be the experiment by Eratosthenes. We pick two locations on the same latitude (of which we know the distance) and then ...
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Books / resources on measurement methods in atmospheric sciences

I have found this very long book from weather.gov (free access) Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation which might be a bit too in-depth for what I'm looking for, so I was ...
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3answers
657 views

How much does COVID-19 affect weather forecasts?

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is concerned about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quantity and quality of weather observations and forecasts, as well as atmospheric and climate ...
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1answer
75 views

How do we know the speed of S-waves (shear waves) in the Earth's inner core? Has this been measured?

Wikipedia's Seismic wave includes the plot below of the speed of S and P waves as a function of depth in the Earth. In the region of the outer core the speed of S-waves or shear waves is shown to be ...
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2answers
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How many days has it been since the Cambrian explosion?

I want to know how to calculate the number of days since an event in Earth's past, and am using the Cambrian explosion as an example. I define a day to be one rotation of Earth with respect to the ...
4
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2answers
85 views

Extent of desert area influence in local climate

With reference to this image...: ...from this recent tweet, I was wondering to what extent would Mediterranean regions be affected by the large desert areas to its South? "Affected", here meaning ...
4
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1answer
93 views

What is the second thermometer in the image from the Esperanza Antarctic temperature record?

Today, the Argentinian meteorological service tweeted about a new temperature record for Antarctica of 18.3°C, made on the Espezanza peninsula. This was subsequently reported by many other sources. ...
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174 views

How do the pros measure humidity?

I have used a wet/dry bulb setup to estimate humidity, and it appears that the Argentinian meteorological service uses one in Antarctica as well. Wikipedia sez: Humidity measurement is among the ...
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1answer
123 views

How is relative humidity determined from a wet and dry bulb readings?

The question What is the second thermometer in the image from the Esperanza Antarctic temperature record? shows what might be a wet/dry bulb setup. I've given one to a friend to measure humidity for ...
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How are barometric pressure measurements traceable over centuries to 100 parts per million accuracy?

The BBC News item Barometric pressure in London 'highest in 300 years' at least begins with Overnight, Sunday into Monday, London's Heathrow Airport recorded a barometric pressure of 1,049.6 ...
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What does a floating mercury barometer look like? How does it work and how is buoyancy used?

This answer to How are barometric pressure measurements traceable over centuries to 100 parts per million accuracy? describes a floating mercury barometer, and mentions that some employed a Vernier ...
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How is land subsidence measured?

When groundwater is pumped out of the ground by wells, and not replenished fast enough, the groundwater level sinks. With it, the surface of the area sinks also. Locally, this effect is not apparent,...
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Sustained WS discrepancy for Hugo 1989 in Charleston

I am reviewing Sustained Wind Speed data for several locations associated with Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. HURDAT2 data shows the Max Sustained Wind Speed at Landfall to be 120 knots at Isle of ...
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1answer
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Is there a way to calculate the ground and 10m temperature from standard 2m temperature measurements?

I am wondering if it is possible at all to calculate the ground temperature and air temperature at 10m above ground from 2m measurements, or at least using data that a standard weather station ...
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1answer
169 views

What kind of climate could you expect in a mountainous area in a subtropical region?

More specifically, I'm trying to work out climate analogues for my farm. It's at 5200-6200ft in South India. My area is a bit too small for the Köppen Map to correctly reveal patterns. I'll be ...
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2answers
3k views

What exactly is wind velocity

How exactly do we define wind velocity? Obviously, I suppose this is something like "speed of displacement of a quantity of air", but this seems to be too imprecise. For example, a cup anemometer ...
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1answer
63 views

Transmitter receiver coil separation for Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Measurement

Why increasing transmitter-receiver coil separation in EM survey (EM31, also here) increases depth of penetration? Suppose there is a horizontal flat conductive layer underneath a flat resistive ...
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2answers
569 views

What was the lowest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

This article Lowest recorded temperatures lists a -89 Degrees Celsius in Vostok, Antartica as the lowest recorded temperature. However, this other article List of weather records lists a −93.2 °C (−...
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176 views

Was the “'Bama Boom” even recorded by infrasound or by seismic detectors?

The 'Bama Boom ('Bama is short for the US state of Alabama) is a term for some audible "booms" heard by many people in Alabama and now in Colorado. See for example the Popular Mechanics article ...
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746 views

Which is worse, plastic or styrofoam cups?

Which disposable cup between plastic and styrofoam harm the environment the most? Which is the most unhealthy to use for the Earth for humans and animals?
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1answer
68 views

If the accuracy of measurement of the earth's volume is not known, how can scientists assert that the earth is not expanding?

Volcanic eruptions, undersea earthquakes, fissures in the crust, meteoroid accumulation could all be seen as empirical evidence of expansion of the earth. Sink holes and other phenomena could be ...
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2answers
227 views

TRMM rainfall measurement for synoptic systems

I have gone through the website of TRMM that explains how the TRMM satellite gather precipitation data- http://pmm.nasa.gov/node/158. During the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), we have synoptic systems ...
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2answers
955 views

From where do weather radar maps get their data?

I see maps like this one all the time online and in the news. A moving map that shows clouds and stuff moving around with time. Where do they get the data from? Is it from a single source location or ...
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What was the highest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

The article entitled "54 Celsius degrees in Iran, the highest temperature ever recorded?" says 56,6 Celsius may be the highest temperature ever recorded, in Death Valley, California, and it also ...
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1answer
281 views

Unwarranted claim of higher degree of accuracy in zircon geochronology

The uncertainty in the half life of uranium-238 is stated at 0.05% [1]. The same paper gives the date 251.941 myr ± 31 kyr. 251.941 $\times$ 0.05% = 125 kyr. How are the authors justified in ...
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1answer
85 views

Atmospheric visibility measuring device

I have this project at university where I have to make an atmospheric visibility measuring device using Arduino. I talked with my teacher and he said that I should do something like this, using an ...
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2answers
79 views

Data for plotting tephigrams

I want to plot some tephigrams. Where can I find pressure, temperature and dewpoint data in text format?
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103 views

How temperature anomaly are measured

Temperature Anomaly is the measure used to show that the earth is warming. The formula for temperature anomaly involves in the subtraction of average temperature measurement over 30 years considered ...
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1answer
71 views

Help understanding radar data in subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap

The BBC News article Isolated lakes found beneath Canadian ice sheet links to the open access Science Advances article Discovery of a hypersaline subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap, ...
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2answers
512 views

How does ice-penetrating radar “see” through kilometers of ice without being absorbed?

The BBC News article Isolated lakes found beneath Canadian ice sheet links to the open access Science Advances article Discovery of a hypersaline subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap, ...
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1answer
211 views

Are there “transparent” clouds?

Comments below this answer to the question Why are lightning towers at launch pads topped with big hollow tubes with spiral windings and not “lightning rod-shaped” lightning rods? link to a 2013 ...
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4answers
160 views

What are the technical solutions to measure $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I'm currently at COP24 (United Nations Climate Change Conference) in Katowice, Poland. (some editing since I took a screenshot of my laptop) I've asked some guys about $\ce{CO2}$ emissions but very ...
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1answer
757 views

How to make, read, and calibrate a ping-pong ball anemometer?

I'd like to make a ping-pong ball anemometer to make estimates or approximate measurements of wind and surface air currents at low to moderate speeds. I don't own an anemometer now, but I'd estimate ...
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1answer
93 views

How is the distribution of Argo floats managed over the Earth's oceans?

The BBC News article Climate change: Oceans 'soaking up more heat than estimated' mentions Argo floats as one technology to measure the temperature of the oceans, and links to argo.ucsd.edu where ...
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1answer
259 views

What principles do we consider when selecting an air pollution monitor location?

I'm working on a project aiming at finding some potential point as a new air pollutant monitor site for a city to measure $SO_2$, $NO_2$, $PM_{2.5}$, etc. After modeling the surface concentration of ...
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9answers
61k views

What does a mm of rain mean?

Lots of people have explained it over many sites but I still can not confidently say that I know what it means when they say Hong Kong experienced 3mm of rainfall last Friday. Does it mean that 3mm ...
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2answers
4k views

What is the meaning of the units Mg C?

I am reading an article on deforestation entitled Tropical Deforestation and Carbon Emissions from PADDD. Part of the article reads: If future deforestation rates follow recent trends, PADDDed ...
3
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0answers
34 views

Where to find meteorological data from road stations?

I am involved on a project that aims to analyze data from road weather stations, like the ones you can see from a German site here: https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/bufr_extensions_national/...
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2answers
355 views

How is surface pressure generally measured, and at what actual height?

In various atmospheric equations, surface pressure is one of the variables used. For example, in calculating the density of air or pressure-corrected relative optical air mass. How is surface pressure ...
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1answer
110 views

How does NASA get a 360 degrees texture map of Earth?

How does NASA get a 360 degrees texture map of Earth and separates it into specularity map, bump map etc? And how do they get the texture map of clouds separate?
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136 views

Direct measurments of vertical ocean mixing?

What kinds of vertical ocean mixing measuring instruments are available? This answer How to measure ocean vertical velocity? tells about the measurement of vertical velocity by ADCP, but they give ...
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1answer
348 views

What is 'dissection rate'?

I am looking for a definition of this term for wikipedia, with a reference. It's mentioned on Franz Josef Land where it's indicated that the units are km-2/km. I'm curious about how this would be ...
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65 views

How is tiltmeter data processed?

With what programs can inclinometer data be processed? And how is instrumental correction done?
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1answer
1k views

How do scientists measure the age of old animal remains?

The remains of a mammoth were recently unearthed in a Michigan farmer’s field [1]. This find could provide new information on the activity of early humans in the area, experts at the University of ...
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1answer
143 views

Do humans cause a DST-related shift in average daily temperatures?

Inspired by the title to this question, is there a shift in average daily temperatures caused by the DST change in human activities? I can picture any number of mechanisms by which a shift could ...
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2answers
263 views

What mechanism is used to measure ocean currents from cables?

The volume transport of the Florida Current (one of the parts of the Gulf Stream) is measured using an underwater cable. What are the processes that allow for these measurements? How can we obtain ...
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0answers
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Is there a sort of “global natural disaster” index?

Is there what could be called a "global disaster index", i.e., a measure of the number, weighted by their intensities, of all the world's natural disasters at given moments in time throughout history?
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Are there ways stormwater attenuation can be quantified for comparison between different systems or conditions?

Various sources agree land cover changes impact the attenuation of stormwater. E.g. forest areas generally slow the rainfall-runoff response and moderate it, reducing peaks in hydrographs, as compared ...