Skip to main content

Questions tagged [measurements]

Questions related to acquiring, processing and interpreting field measurements of any kind. Including instrumentation and data analysis.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
3 votes
1 answer
424 views

Are there "transparent" clouds?

Comments below this answer to the question Why are lightning towers at launch pads topped with big hollow tubes with spiral windings and not “lightning rod-shaped” lightning rods? link to a 2013 ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,122
5 votes
4 answers
302 views

What are the technical solutions to measure $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I'm currently at COP24 (United Nations Climate Change Conference) in Katowice, Poland. (some editing since I took a screenshot of my laptop) I've asked some guys about $\ce{CO2}$ emissions but very ...
Mars Robertson's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
129 views

How is the distribution of Argo floats managed over the Earth's oceans?

The BBC News article Climate change: Oceans 'soaking up more heat than estimated' mentions Argo floats as one technology to measure the temperature of the oceans, and links to argo.ucsd.edu where ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,122
42 votes
10 answers
152k views

What does a mm of rain mean?

Lots of people have explained it over many sites but I still can not confidently say that I know what it means when they say Hong Kong experienced 3mm of rainfall last Friday. Does it mean that 3mm ...
coder123's user avatar
  • 521
3 votes
2 answers
207 views

What kind of climate could you expect in a mountainous area in a subtropical region?

More specifically, I'm trying to work out climate analogues for my farm. It's at 5200-6200ft in South India. My area is a bit too small for the Köppen Map to correctly reveal patterns. I'll be ...
kladhest's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
41 views

Where to find meteorological data from road stations?

I am involved on a project that aims to analyze data from road weather stations, like the ones you can see from a German site here: https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/bufr_extensions_national/...
Pedro Palermo's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
872 views

How is surface pressure generally measured, and at what actual height?

In various atmospheric equations, surface pressure is one of the variables used. For example, in calculating the density of air or pressure-corrected relative optical air mass. How is surface pressure ...
cr0's user avatar
  • 1,178
1 vote
1 answer
86 views

Help understanding radar data in subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap

The BBC News article Isolated lakes found beneath Canadian ice sheet links to the open access Science Advances article Discovery of a hypersaline subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap, ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,122
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

How does ice-penetrating radar "see" through kilometers of ice without being absorbed?

The BBC News article Isolated lakes found beneath Canadian ice sheet links to the open access Science Advances article Discovery of a hypersaline subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap, ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,122
3 votes
0 answers
92 views

How is tiltmeter data processed?

With what programs can inclinometer data be processed? And how is instrumental correction done?
Liz's user avatar
  • 31
6 votes
0 answers
240 views

Was the "'Bama Boom" even recorded by infrasound or by seismic detectors?

The 'Bama Boom ('Bama is short for the US state of Alabama) is a term for some audible "booms" heard by many people in Alabama and now in Colorado. See for example the Popular Mechanics article ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,122
7 votes
2 answers
370 views

What mechanism is used to measure ocean currents from cables?

The volume transport of the Florida Current (one of the parts of the Gulf Stream) is measured using an underwater cable. What are the processes that allow for these measurements? How can we obtain ...
arkaia's user avatar
  • 15.5k
4 votes
0 answers
71 views

Is there a sort of "global natural disaster" index?

Is there what could be called a "global disaster index", i.e., a measure of the number, weighted by their intensities, of all the world's natural disasters at given moments in time throughout history?
Geremia's user avatar
  • 141
1 vote
1 answer
150 views

Are there ways stormwater attenuation can be quantified for comparison between different systems or conditions?

Various sources agree land cover changes impact the attenuation of stormwater. E.g. forest areas generally slow the rainfall-runoff response and moderate it, reducing peaks in hydrographs, as compared ...
cr0's user avatar
  • 1,178
1 vote
1 answer
38 views

Is it possible to obtain the richter grade of an earthquake with the data of an accelerometer?

I have an accelerometer on a table that gives me the $x$, $y$, and $z$ axis acceleration in $m/s^2$ when I move the table. Is there a formula or method to pass this data to a earthquake grade in a ...
Total's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
1 answer
187 views

How to Interpret this set of Latitude and Longitude?

I have a house's coordinates that I know is in LA, Ventura, or Orange county, California and it says the latitude and longitude are ...
Seth Kitchen's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
91 views

Does the diameter of the earth decrease because of soil subsiding due to irrigation and rainfall over the years?

I am taking a course on coursera where the instructor talks of a soil subsidence concrete post that was put there in Everglades southern Florida in 1920s. He goes on to describe the level of earth ...
Krishna's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
1 answer
94 views

Does the length of a river depend on the scale of measurements?

Coastlines are highly fractal, leading to the coastline paradox: the length increases to surprisingly large numbers as your scale of measurement gets smaller. Does the same thing apply to rivers, ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 1,261
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to make, read, and calibrate a ping-pong ball anemometer?

I'd like to make a ping-pong ball anemometer to make estimates or approximate measurements of wind and surface air currents at low to moderate speeds. I don't own an anemometer now, but I'd estimate ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,122
3 votes
2 answers
301 views

How are daily precipitation totals computed?

I would like to use ASOS data from Iowa State University to compute daily rainfall totals for specific locations. Using ASOS, I am unable to match the official NWS totals. I am assuming that the ...
Robert McDonald's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
352 views

How does MSLP change with elevation? trying to interpolate MSLP

My understanding of MSLP is that it is a normalized value for pressure at some location as if that location altitude was zero. "Thus, MSLP is not a function of elevation" However, after inspecting ...
Zarathustra_Wth's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
2k views

Drawing strike lines when given strike and dip

Map 1 shows a hillside with topographic contours at 50 m intervals. At Locality A a coal seam is exposed at the surface. The strike and dip of the seam is as indicated on the map. Use this information ...
Mizza's user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
1 answer
291 views

Is there any way to measure the amount of radiation the earth receives from the sun?

My understanding is that it is difficult to measure the amount of radiation the earth receives to the sun and that due to variability in a number of different quantities such as the changing distance ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
  • 1,804
10 votes
1 answer
1k views

How are data from tiltmeters used to monitor volcanic activity?

I've just learned in this answer that tiltmeters (which I assume measure changes in tilt) are used near active volcanos. (Saw a mention in item 4. here also.) What kind of geological (volcanological?)...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,122
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

How to find Cloud cover data in GFS grib models

I've been looking for the cloud cover estimates provided in the NOAA GFS models. This page discusses all their weather products and one of the few I find that includes cloud cover data "Total Cloud ...
user6972's user avatar
  • 301
6 votes
0 answers
220 views

How are global cloud cover estimates generated and how is the data accessed?

The website ventusky.com offers three models to produce cloud estimate: ICON, GFS and GEM. They extract a fractional cloud number, shown in percentage. From the ERDDAP portal to the GFS model (...
user6972's user avatar
  • 301
3 votes
2 answers
529 views

What is 'dissection rate'?

I am looking for a definition of this term for wikipedia, with a reference. It's mentioned on Franz Josef Land where it's indicated that the units are km-2/km. I'm curious about how this would be ...
Bill Bell's user avatar
  • 133
8 votes
1 answer
152 views

Do humans cause a DST-related shift in average daily temperatures?

Inspired by the title to this question, is there a shift in average daily temperatures caused by the DST change in human activities? I can picture any number of mechanisms by which a shift could ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 1,261
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

Are average daily temperatures affected by DST?

To calculate the average daily temperatures, do meteo professionals still use the Mannheim procedure with twice weighted measurement in the evening? (It could be obsolete by automated weather stations....
Zsolt Szilagy's user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
101 views

What field studies have developed or supported the Penman-Monteith equations for estimating evapotranspiration?

I'm trying to understand transpiration estimation methods. The FAO recommends a standard Penman-Monteith methodology for modeling evapotranspiration based on meteorological and vegetation parameters (...
cr0's user avatar
  • 1,178
8 votes
1 answer
153 views

Direct measurments of vertical ocean mixing?

What kinds of vertical ocean mixing measuring instruments are available? This answer How to measure ocean vertical velocity? tells about the measurement of vertical velocity by ADCP, but they give ...
RTh's user avatar
  • 111
4 votes
0 answers
447 views

Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
The Baron's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is there a way to calculate the ground and 10m temperature from standard 2m temperature measurements?

I am wondering if it is possible at all to calculate the ground temperature and air temperature at 10m above ground from 2m measurements, or at least using data that a standard weather station ...
D Vida's user avatar
  • 71
4 votes
0 answers
78 views

Capillary rise experiment and obtainable information about the porous medium

I have access to rock core(s) and vacuum saturation chambers as seen in the image below. I can dry the rock core using an oven, measure its geometry and mass. I can place it into the vacuum ...
Armadillo's user avatar
  • 581
1 vote
0 answers
320 views

How to find latitude and longitude? [closed]

I worked on the map and found out that point A is 60oN 120oW by looking at it, but the answer said that it A is suppose to be 30oN 90oW. For B, I got 30oS 60oW, but the answer said that B is 23oS 43oW....
MathWA wenti's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
405 views

How accurate are the resistivity values from the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)?

Modern ERT methods/devices can provide 2D resistivity profiles for some terrain. How accurate are the resistivity values in those profiles? Are these some sorts of apparent resistivities and one ...
Dmitry's user avatar
  • 33
3 votes
0 answers
60 views

Determining '< x' values as numeric

I do have a large dataset containing nearly a decade of particulate matter measurements. At the lower precision limit of the measuring instrument, there are values given like ...
Arne's user avatar
  • 685
4 votes
1 answer
151 views

How does NASA get a 360 degrees texture map of Earth?

How does NASA get a 360 degrees texture map of Earth and separates it into specularity map, bump map etc? And how do they get the texture map of clouds separate?
John's user avatar
  • 628
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

How does one interpret negative geopotential height values?

I am using NCEP Reanalysis Geopotential height data and this is at 1000 mb and downloading it from here - 1000 Mb Geopotential height values and some of these values are negative for a particular date ...
user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
25 views

Does the level/reading/measurement of solar exposure impact temperatures

Does the level/reading/measurement of solar exposure impact temperatures? What I mean by this is, does a higher level/reading/measurement of solar exposure of a place cause/create higher temperatures, ...
Kait's user avatar
  • 111
3 votes
1 answer
595 views

Accurately Measuring Indoor/Outdoor Air Temperature & Relative Humidity

I’m conducting an independent study as a concerned citizen on the indoor temperature at an animal shelter to support the need of improved air conditioning by documenting how hot it can reach during ...
kittycat's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
151 views

Desert greening - Do we have long term (several decades) data on precipitation around the Sahara?

This article of desert greening states that some areas around the Sahara have seen increased plant growth in recent decades, caused by global warming. The causal chain would be warmer air can hold ...
mart's user avatar
  • 1,244
4 votes
0 answers
50 views

Conversion factor between different Landsats?

I have collected data (spectral bands) from Landsat 4-5 and Landsat 8. I was calculating NDVI when I noticed that the two Landsats have different band numbers designated as Red and Near Infra Red (...
Salman's user avatar
  • 141
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is there a difference between Density and Specific Gravity?

My textbook says that the specific gravity is "the ratio of the mass of a mineral compared with the mass of an equal volume of water." Is this any different to density? If so, how? If not, why does ...
Tim's user avatar
  • 356
4 votes
1 answer
80 views

Is there a concise industry standard way of displaying wind speed, gust and direction?

I'm writing a smart-watch watch-face app with weather details. Since it's on a 1"x1" screen, I'm trying to keep all information as compact as possible. I'm using open weather map for my testing, and ...
Sidney's user avatar
  • 287
4 votes
4 answers
4k views

Difference between Meteosat and Insat satellite Images

I have seen many times that their are two kinds of Satellite Images shown on the websites like Skymet for India i.e. Meteosat satellite images Insat satellite images I want to understand the basic ...
Mani's user avatar
  • 667
2 votes
1 answer
873 views

What is the distribution of global photosynthesis?

Has anyone attempted to classify global photosynthesis? For example, what percentage of it occurs over land? What percentage comes from agriculture? Same questions for total growth of plant mass. ...
Climate Questions's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
318 views

What principles do we consider when selecting an air pollution monitor location?

I'm working on a project aiming at finding some potential point as a new air pollutant monitor site for a city to measure $SO_2$, $NO_2$, $PM_{2.5}$, etc. After modeling the surface concentration of ...
Han Zhengzu's user avatar
  • 2,459
6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Where can I get historic hourly precipitation data for Italy?

I am looking for a time-series of hourly precipitation for Naples, Italy. I'd like to learn how to find this sort of data for Italy in general, as well. Ideally this data would cover a recent year ...
cr0's user avatar
  • 1,178
6 votes
1 answer
943 views

How accurately can a tsunami be predicted? Have there been any successful evacuations?

With the current instruments in hand, how accurately can we predict tsunamis? Please consider me as a novice with only basic information how tsunamis are formed. Has there ever been a successful ...
Sathyam's user avatar
  • 163