Questions tagged [mesoscale-meteorology]

Use mesoscale tag for atmospheric processes with a horizontal extension from 2 km up to 2000 km. Examples are: thunderstorms, sea breezes, squall lines, fronts, tropical cyclones

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How are weather intensity scales created?

I am interested in the development of scales to measure extreme weather. For example, the Enhanced Fujita Scale for measuring the intensity of tornadoes, etc. How were they created? OK sure, I know ...
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Which factors determine the predominant precipitation type of supercells during tornado outbreaks?

A tale of two outbreaks. April 27, 2011 featured classic supercells that were extremely-fast moving (forward speeds of 60+ mph) in a northeast direction. James Spann noted this while covering the EF4 ...
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Weather produced by symmetric cold core cyclones

I know that, although rare, there are symmetric cold core cyclones (with a few of them even having a shallow cold core). They encompass some occluded extratropical cyclones, some dissipating tropical ...
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How do upper-level cyclones and anticyclones affect surface level winds?

Take something like the Bermuda High, for instance. I drew a crude illustration of it. It steers hot, humid air from the Gulf of Mexico towards the east coast of North America. But upper level winds ...
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In a mesocyclone, why does wind shear create a horizontal axis of spinning air?

Take a look at this picture. Moist updrafts interact with highly-sheared upper-level winds, which sets up a horizontal vortex. But why? What causes the air to be forced downward and to the right, then ...
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138 views

Derivative of Exner function

In chapter 13.1 in 'Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes' (Markowski and Richardson,2011) they use a Bernoulli equation and the hydrostatic equation and a lot of assumptions to derive an equation ...
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Why did Hurricane Harvey have so much lightning associated with it?

Hurricane Harvey (Category 4 hurricane, in August 2017) was a prodigious lightning producer when it hit Houston/SE Texas. But I thought hurricanes don't have much lightning (with the eyewall being the ...
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Application of vorticity tendency equation

I have a question about the dynamics of westward propagating vortices. In meteorology, the vorticity tendency is often used to explain the westward propagation of vortices (cyclonic circulation). A ...
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Are there more meteorological catastrophic events due to climate change?

I was told by a sedimentologist there is no evidence of more climatic catastrophic events at the geological register previous to Pleistocene, when climate was warmer. My question is if meteorologists ...
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642 views

Required temperature difference between land and sea for sea breeze

What is the required temperature difference between the sea and the land in order to create a sea breeze? Is there any relation between the temperature difference and the sea breeze intensity? Is ...
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922 views

How big does a lake have to be to have its own Sea Breeze?

How big does a body of water need to have a sea breeze? Is there a chart on sea breezes wind speed that include lakes? Could a circular lake create enough sea breeze to create a wind vortex in the ...
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Why does the absence of diabatic heating rate and frictional terms make the zonal and vertical velocity identically zero?

I was reading an article on fluid dynamics of tropical cyclones, where I came across a condition which states that, For adiabatic friction less flow, equations (1) to (5) have a solution, v(r, z),...
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Calculation of apparent heating (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) as defined by Yanai et al. (1972) using NetCDF data?

Please can anyone explain how to calculate apparent heating (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) as defined by Yanai et al. (1972) using NetCDF data? Please kindly check equation 6(Q1) and 7(Q2) of ...
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291 views

Why do tropical cyclones get more attention than extratropical cyclones?

For tropical cyclones we have carefully tracked every instance of them, and naming them as soon as they have reached a certain intensity... flying aircraft in to measure conditions... compiling ...
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Why are larger tornadoes stronger?

I recently read an article that said that claimed the stronger the tornado, the larger its area and generally, I think this is accepted. Why? The vorticity equation $$\frac{D\vec{\omega}}{Dt}=\...
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To what degree do large lakes influence precipitation levels compared to the ocean?

I was wondering what percentage of precipitation could be estimated to have been contributed by large lakes such as the Great Lakes or Lake Baikal in the immediate vicinity of said lakes (say, within ...
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451 views

How can I learn to make mesoscale/synoptic analyses of major weather events?

With the tornado outbreak in southern Georgia and northern/central Florida on Sunday that has tragically resulted in significant loss of life, eyes are once again on the weather. I was particularly ...
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239 views

How are thermals really released?

Sailplane, paraglider or hang-glider pilots are used to say 'thermal is released by trigger'. The zones with contrasting albedos (land/water, plowed field/forest) or locations where terrain profile ...
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The climatological variance of albedo, soil moisture in weather models

Looking at WRF currently but I am sure this applies to most weather models there is a file (specifically LANDUSE.TBL) that specifies USGS derived albedo, soil ...
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267 views

What's with this anomaly in this sounding (the CAPE and CIN readings)?

This sounding is from 2 hours after the 2.6 mile wide El Reno tornado on May 31 2013.
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Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...