Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
3 votes
0 answers
12 views

What are (meteorolgical) land depressions?

Reading the Wikipedia page for some North Indian Cyclone Seasons I've come across multiple systems called "land depressions". (written as Land [number]) Example (Land 01 2019): I'm not ...
5 votes
0 answers
76 views

Why does Hurricane Ian show a long tail off to the North-East on doppler radar?

I was looking at the radar on the Weather Channel website and I noticed something that I don't think I've ever seen before. Screen shot from 11:30 AM EST 9/29 Hurricane/Tropical Storm Ian can be seen ...
  • 151
1 vote
2 answers
58 views

Measure of daylight brightness

I am looking for a meteorological measure of daylight brightness/luminosity. I can only find measures that are defined by the number of hours of sunlight during a day, but is there a measure that also ...
  • 111
3 votes
1 answer
215 views

How to convert specific humidity ERA5 in kg/kg to g/kg or mm/day?

The specific humidity of ERA5 data is kg/kg, but some articles work with this variable in g/kg. How can I convert this? Or to compare with precipitation, evaporation, and other variables, how to ...
  • 33
1 vote
2 answers
50 views

In geostrophic wind, what is the mechanism behind the tendency of the coriolis effect/force and the pressure gradient force to balance each other out?

I understand that it is possible for the coriolis effect and the pressure gradient force (PGF) to cancel each other out, but it appears to be a tendency (rather than just a possibility). What is the ...
  • 41
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

Applying spline interpolation for Brunt-Vaisala frequency

I have taken an upper air sounding from UoW Database and currently calculating the Brunt-Vaisala frequency (the 'squared' one, at the moment) using MetPy across several stations for some basic ...
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
42 views

What does "red sun at night, sailor's delight" mean and is it true?

There is proverb that sounds like: Red sun at night, sailor’s delight; red sun in the morning, sailor take warning. Is it valid and if it is then what is it about?
  • 131
2 votes
0 answers
44 views

How do I calculate the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) phase from RMM1 & RMM2? [closed]

I want to calculate the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) phase by myself using Real-time Multivariate MJO series 1 (RMM1) and 2 (RMM2) from a data file. The formula for doing so is: $MJO phase = \...
  • 21
8 votes
3 answers
3k views

Why is the Coriolis effect zero near the equator?

I came to know that Coriolis effect is maximum at the poles and negligible at the equator. I could not figure a logical meaning behind it. Could someone please explain? Also, does it have anything to ...
5 votes
0 answers
54 views

What is the name and effect behind this circular cloud phenomenon?

The picture of this cloudy sky was taken today in Hamburg, Germany. Any idea, what it is, where it comes from and if it has a special name?
  • 151
1 vote
0 answers
56 views

Map showing the typical rainfall paths

Hello I am looking for a map that shows the typical (typical for the last 50 years) precipitation paths in the Northern Hemisphere! I already know this map, but it only shows a momentary event and ...
  • 1,354
2 votes
0 answers
20 views

What is the effect of increasing the size interval in the generalized dynamic equation (GDE) to simulate an evolving aerosol?

The following differential equation allows me to calculate the the number concentration of aerosol particles from 2 nm to 3 nm. $$\frac{dN_2{_-{_3}}}{dt}=J_2-J_3-N_2{_-{_3}}.CoagS_2{_-{_3}}$$ In the ...
3 votes
1 answer
65 views

How to estimate a hurricane's wind speed in mph from other factors?

A formula was given by Brian Norcross but I wanted to know what others thought of this formula: Hurricane Sustained Winds (mph) = 9.615 * (1015.8 - central pressure [mb])0.6143
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is a wind chill formula that will work from -10 C to +50 C and uses wind speed in km/h?

I'm looking for a wind chill formula that will work from -10 °C to +50 °C and uses wind speed in km/h so that I can use this formula to add this element to a weather station I am programming. I don't ...
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

Underground temperature record

Max/min Thermometer readings from a weather station with Stevenson screen are subject to noise from many sources and represent the max/ min at that one point in space. It's well known that underground ...
  • 261
2 votes
0 answers
48 views

Predicting the weather with temperature and humidity

I basically want to make this same idea: Weather forecast based on pressure, temperature and humidity only (for implementation in Arduino) without the pressure sensor. I have a DS18B20 and a HR202 to ...
5 votes
0 answers
66 views

Confusion about the horizontal pressure gradient force being equal to the gradient of the geopotential in pressure coordinates

I asked this in the physics exchange and thought I would ask here as well: I see many sources in atmospheric dynamics express the following: $\frac{1}{\rho}(\nabla p) = \nabla_p \phi$ For example this ...
  • 63
2 votes
0 answers
12 views

Empirical adjustment factors for generating sub-daily precipitation values (for IDF curves)

I am trying to generate an Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve using 6-hourly precipitation data. These curves are used to estimate the return period for a rain event with a specific intensity (...
  • 21
0 votes
1 answer
94 views

Could a nuclear explosion in the Atlantic Ocean during the hurricane season trigger a hurricane?

I am wondering if denotating a nuclear bomb in the Atlantic Ocean during the hurricane season could trigger a hurricane. For example, say that a 100-megaton bomb was loaded onto a ship and that ship ...
  • 327
3 votes
2 answers
468 views

At what latitudes does the precipitation water for Europe evaporate?

I'm currently wondering at what latitudes the precipitation water for Europe evaporates. For some reason I can hardly find any data on where the source of the vapour can be, which is then transported ...
  • 1,354
3 votes
0 answers
77 views

Best method for weather station data interpolation with external parameters

I'm part of an organization maintaning a large network of weather stations (~3000 stations) over a European country. Besides storing data measured from the stations into a database, we also produce ...
  • 31
2 votes
2 answers
115 views

What causes "Smokey" weather?

Today when I woke up there was fog in the air and it smelled like smoke, I thought the fog was water vapor since the temperature was 47‎°C ( I know that's crazy hot), but then when I saw the weather ...
1 vote
0 answers
36 views

divergence of static stability identical parameters

All, The static stability of the atmosphere is defined as: $\sigma =-\dfrac{T}{\theta} \dfrac{d\theta}{dp}= \dfrac{dT}{dp}-\dfrac{R}{c_p} \dfrac{T}{p}$ where: $T$ is temperature, $P$ is pressure, $R$ ...
  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
29 views

Where does this refractive index formula come from: $n_{1} = n - 1 = \frac{77.6P}{T} 10^{-6}$

In this equation, $n_{1} = n - 1 = \frac{77.6P}{T} \cdot 10^{-6}$ the variable P is the total air pressure and T is expressed in Kelvin. This equation describes the refractive index of moist air as EM ...
1 vote
0 answers
8 views

What does the refractive index static coefficient measure and how is it derived?

From my understanding the refractive index structure coefficient $C_{n}^2$ measures atmospheric turbulence, but I'm not entirely sure as the literature seems to imply that there are slightly different ...
6 votes
1 answer
149 views

Why does the jet stream meander?

I wanted to explain to high school students why the jet stream meanders, I am aware of the equations describing relative vorticity and planetary vorticity, the concept of conservation of vorticity i.e....
  • 61
3 votes
1 answer
44 views

What is a Tropical Forcing and is it related to Climate Forcing?

I see the term Tropical Forcing used in weather synopses but have been unable to find a concise definition of the term. Also, is "Tropical Forcing" a different concept than "Climate ...
  • 31
4 votes
2 answers
558 views

On geostrophic wind. How can the Coriolis force cancel out the pressure gradient force when they are mutually perpendicular?

If we are in Northern Hemisphere and there is a point where there is a high pressure, denote it by H, and there is a point where there is low pressure, denote it by L, (for simplicity assume them to ...
1 vote
0 answers
19 views

Compute upwind flux for gridded data

I'm trying to compute something called the "Drying Ratio" following: Eidhammer, 2018 The drying ratio is the ratio of the precipitation to the incoming vapor flux. So, $DR = \frac{F_{in} - ...
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

How might 25% lower gravity affect precipitation on an Earth-like planet? [closed]

I'm working on a science fiction project and hoping someone who knows something about climate can answer this question for me: if Earth had 25% less gravity, how would that affect precipitation? I ...
  • 203
3 votes
0 answers
52 views

Visible satellite imagery, atmospheric anomaly (descending air) in cumulus fields?

When looking at GOES satellite imagery, in the visible channels. I have noticed these "lines" if you will, usually forms in Cumulus fields. I understand the process of the 'Mackerel sky' (...
  • 31
5 votes
1 answer
138 views

How do meteorologists accurately measure outdoor air temperature? There's sunlight, local trapping of air, radiant heat, precipitation

I'd like to know how the state-of-the-art meteorological direct, localized measurements of the temperature of the air is measured. If you put a thermometer in sunlight it may read high. If you put it ...
  • 7,108
1 vote
0 answers
34 views

Which atmospheric parameters will give accurate result of electricity consumption of an area by using multiple regression model?

I have a dataset that gives values of temperature, Relative humidity Geopotential Ozone mass mixing ratio Potential vorticity Fraction of cloud cover Specific cloud ice water content Specific cloud ...
1 vote
0 answers
157 views

I'm trying to create a interactive matplotlib figure with a dropdown menu on a tkinter popup window but nothing displays

So I'm trying to create dropdown menu that loads different goes satellite data but when i embed the code to my code nothing displays but it displays perfectly on Notebook and yes i am using Visual ...
4 votes
2 answers
102 views

Estimating meteorological visibility from air chemical and particulate composition

I have found here an answer that provides formula that only takes into account vapors, pressure and temperature - What is the formula used for atmospheric visibility? Is there an approach that also ...
2 votes
0 answers
28 views

Does Environment Canada offer archived radar data in gridded format like in the US?

I have seen social media-rologists (weather weenies on Twitter) using the Weatherscope app to display data from the Canadian radar network, which was recently upgraded to dual-pol. For many years, ...
1 vote
0 answers
24 views

How can i display NEXRAD data in 3d on matplotlib

How do i get nexrad data from KHGX (Houston) in 3D to display in matplotlib
20 votes
2 answers
5k views

In the northern hemisphere summer, why are places in the north cooler than those in the south?

As the Earth's axis is inclined, during summer in the northern hemisphere places in the north are exposed to the Sun's rays for longer, so days are longer during summer (say in June - Aug). Yet, ...
  • 301
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

gridded air pollution data for Japan

Do you know of any database where I can get past air pollution (sulfur oxides (SOx) - nitrogen oxides (NOx) - photochemical oxidants (Ox) - particulate matter (PM) - suspended particulate matter (SPM) ...
7 votes
2 answers
92 views

What kind of clouds did Joseph Kittinger see at 102,000 ft?

When Joseph Kittinger in Excelsior III dwelt at his peak altitude of 102,000 ft (31 km), he reportedly saw clouds at his altitude. What in the world could these clouds have been? Polar stratospheric ...
  • 101
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

EOFs T mode vs S mode

Do you know what is the difference between EOFs S mode and T mode? I want to find the spatial patterns and I have a time series for values at each location. Thanks in advance!
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
42 views

Plot maps from principal component analysis to geopotential height

I want to apply PCA to geopotential height (obtained from ERA5) to find the patterns. The way have created the dataset is: The columns are different locations (latitude/longitute) and the rows are ...
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

Empirical quantile mapping

I'm not sure if this is the right section to post this, but since it's about weather and statistics I am posting it here first. I tried using R's qmap package to do a simple experiment using this ...
  • 301
0 votes
0 answers
49 views

Where can I live if I like long periods of consistent rain?

Let me elaborate on what I mean by "long periods of consistent rain". I currently live in London and contrary to popular belief, it's not rainy. When it rains, it's usually only for 20 ...
3 votes
1 answer
102 views

Why does cold air inflow in high tropospheric layers create a low in the upper troposphere?

As part of my pilot ground examination I got a question about cold-air inflow to the upper layers of the troposphere, the question was about the result of the inflow, The right answer was that it ...
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

Is the current tropical depression headed towards Taiwan unusually early for the season? (April 7, 2022 at 4.0N 148.0E)

Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau's Current Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones page shows a tropical depression with the following information: TROPICAL DEPRESSION TD02 Position 061800Z at 4.0N ...
  • 7,108
3 votes
2 answers
54 views

Total Cloud Cover% from NOAA inverted?

I'm trying to find and use data involving total cloud cover %. I have downloaded data from NCEI/NOAA specifically here and I'm plotting it like this: ...
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

US vs EU weather systems commercialization and precision? [closed]

The US and EU have very different government funding systems for weather and space equipment, perhaps as different as the road systems. The US has a higher performing health system on average at a ...
1 vote
3 answers
107 views

Drought in Scotland?

The BBC reported on March 28, 2022 that Guinard Island was on fire. That strikes me as odd. The west of Scotland should be wet in spring. A wildfire in Scotland in March seems strikingly out of place ...
3 votes
0 answers
103 views

How much does a global model's accuracy change with the timestep?

I've been working with ICON, ICON-EU and GFS forecasts, and it seems like the temperature results are "close" for the same location, 6 hour forecasts and 120 hour forecasts - MAE: 5.7 and 6....

1
2 3 4 5
21