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Questions tagged [meteorology]

Meteorology is the study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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Are clouds more common at night?

Clouds obviously have a strong effect on surface temperatures. By blocking sunlight they can decrease the temperature by several degrees. At night they have a blanket effect that traps warm air and ...
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How to calculate water vapor budget for a selected region in GRADS or MAT Lab

I need to calculate water vapor budget for a selected region. Can anyone suggest a specific link or code for the above mentioned tools please. I have seen a link for NCL but i am not familiar with ...
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what changes in the weather prior to thuderstorms?

What changes in the weather prior to thunderstorms (day before, for example)? It seems humidity goes up and temperature but is there anything else?
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1answer
67 views

Why do hurricanes hitting the US East Coast seem to go north once hitting land?

Question says it all really. It appears that every hurricane hitting the US East Coast directs itself north once on land. Hurricane Florence is predicted to hit North Carolina then turn toward Canada ...
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35 views

What is the most powerful kind of extratropical cold core cyclone and why?

I want to understand what makes for a very strong extratropical cyclone. So which kind on Earth is the strongest in terms of windspeed or pressure? Southern ocean storms, nor'easter, European wind ...
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37 views

What do baroclinic waves/instabilities actually look like?

I'm trying to gain a better understanding of what baroclinic waves and instabilities are and how they influence midlatitude weather patterns. I understand the theory behind baroclinicity and the ...
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0answers
28 views

What colors can lightning be and what causes the different colors?

I've always thought of lightning as being either bright white or yellow in color. However, in the summer I've also seen lightning appear red as so called "heat lightning". What I'm wondering is what ...
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1answer
35 views

How would a particle travel in a hurricane?

How would a particle other then water travel in a hurricane? At what buoyancy or height would a small air born life preserver be safe from the ground in a hurricane? How fun would that be?
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3answers
76 views

Can weather radar be used to track swarms other than mayflies?

Along the Mississippi River swarms of emerging mayflies have been seen on radar. The radar and image below are from a July 11, 2017 emergence near LaCrosse, Wisconsin. On the radar you can see the ...
6
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1answer
37 views

Does the global temperature vary daily (hotter and colder days)?

Earth's current average global temperature (i.e. including hot deserts and cold polar caps) is reported be somewhere between 14°C and 16°C (depending on sources and methods). This temperature varies ...
7
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1answer
42 views

What are good metrics to compare climates?

I'm interested in visualizing climate data across the conterminous U.S. to determine regions that I would be interested in living in. So far, I've pulled in NOAA data, and I've: averaged the maximum ...
3
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1answer
31 views

Why can't the meteorologists predict for sure if the day would be rainy even on the beginning of the day sometimes?

Why do the meteorologists still cannot predict if a day would be rainy or cloudy or blizzardy even on the beginning of the day sometimes? My life circles around weather and an avid weather watcher. ...
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1answer
62 views

Interdisciplinary sciences which combine earth sciences with computer science

Are there interdisciplinary sciences which combine earth sciences (like geophysics, climatology, meteorology etc.) and computer science? or something like biotechnology which combine biology with ...
2
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1answer
35 views

How can temperature be calculated given relative humidity and dew point?

While looking into the better indicator of how miserable it feels outside, either dew point or relative humidity, I came across this statement: The optimum combination for human comfort is a ...
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0answers
68 views

Why is the atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone lowest in the eye, even though it contains sinking air?

The lowest atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone is generally located in the eye at the center of the cyclone; however, the air in the eye is descending, while the air in the surrounding portions ...
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0answers
55 views

Can cloud seeding make a much hotter summer, at a middle latitude, at the area that receives less water than expected?

My country, Spain (40ºN), receives clouds from the Atlantic Ocean during the summer. Our most visited beaches are on the Eastern coast, which sits on the Mediterranean Sea, there is typically more dry ...
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0answers
38 views

How big does something have to be to cause an atmospheric event upon entry to the Earth's atmosphere?

The question is about a foreign object, ranging from an asteroid to a spaceship. How large does it have to be in order for its presence to start messing with the weather patterns, causing the like of ...
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1answer
36 views

Extract a GFS variable

I'm trying to extract the APCP variable from a GFS file, with this code: wgrib2 gfst.grb2 -match ":(APCP):" - grib gfst.grb2.small I get a ...
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0answers
15 views

How to access precipitation forecast by GEFS

I'm currently working with the water inflow in some rives, and as a input I use the GEFS precipitation forecast. But I couldn't find out were this data is in the NOAA website. The GEFS Reforecast v2 ...
4
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1answer
34 views

Uncertainty In ERA-Interim data

Greeting, What is the estimated uncertainty value in Temperature, relative humidity, U and V winds of ERA-Interim data?
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2answers
227 views

Are there websites where I can get “lightning frequency maps” in near-real time (worldwide)?

I have an NASA Inspire VLF-3 radio receiver kit that I'm going to put together. It amplifies VLF electromagnetic signals that are already in the audio frequency range and makes them audible. One of ...
6
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6answers
224 views

Are there any weather services that provide hourly forecasts beyond 7 days?

I'm working on a small project and am trying to find a way to get the very extended hour-by-hour forecast for a location. Most services (Darksky, etc.) seem to offer 7-day extended hourly forecasts, ...
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4answers
3k views

Can the previous weather be computed from the current situation?

If one applies today's state-of-the-art weather forecast computations "backwards", i.e. computing how the systems was X days before the current situation based on knowledge of today's situation, at ...
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0answers
104 views

Looks like rain, but isn't

Two days in a row now, we have looked out the window to see the sparkling noise in the air that you see when it rains. If I go outside, I can see it around me, around 10-20 meters from where I stand. ...
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0answers
17 views

Plotting moist static energy fluxes

I'm trying to plot Moist static energy fluxes (vectors) and their divergence like the attached Figure. I have monthly means of u, v, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential from(1000-100 hPa) ...
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0answers
28 views

Is there a conventional name for when wind speed increases as a result of a large descending air mass?

I remember reading a long time ago in a meteorology book that certain dust storms were caused by a rapid descent of a large air mass. As the air is pressed against the ground, it is forced to spread ...
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0answers
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What happens in the upper air when the altitude of the tropopause changes?

I know about the seasonal changes of the altitude of the tropopause as well as the differences by latitude. I thought the change at one location was a very slow process, but I just found upper air ...
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3answers
118 views

Does the Coriolis Effect affect a wind from East to West?

I'm studying meteorology for a pilot license and there I was taught as a rule of thumb that wind at higher altitudes is approximately turned 30° clockwise to the wind on the surface due to the ...
2
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1answer
72 views

How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

The solar radiation is one of the important factors controlling the formation of $O_3$, and thereby impacting the levels of various secondary species in the atmosphere. However, in the campaign of ...
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2answers
66 views

Can you have a low pressure with no clouds?

My understanding is that low pressure is usually associated with cloudy skies, however in the last week I observed a day that had low pressure reading but no clouds. Is this possible or did I perhaps ...
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0answers
43 views

For how long can the wind blow unabated on a “trade wind route”?

Take a specific point at sea level (less than 100 meters above it) on a "trade wind" oceanic route. For example, somewhere on Labrador-Ireland route, at roughly 50 degrees of latitude north. Let's say,...
4
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1answer
129 views

Are you more likely to get a sunburn at the pole than the equator?

After looking at this post I can see that a flat object is more exposed to the sun at the equator. Does this mean that a person walking around (standing up), is much more likely to burn at the poles ...
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1answer
25 views

Precipitation Totals past days online?

I am looking for a website that can I look for to check and see the precipitation totals for past days.. I go to this site : https://www.cocorahs.org/ . It lacks in some areas where I live in the ...
3
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1answer
87 views

What kind of climate could you expect in a mountainous area in a subtropical region?

More specifically, I'm trying to work out climate analogues for my farm. It's at 5200-6200ft in South India. My area is a bit too small for the Köppen Map to correctly reveal patterns. I'll be ...
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1answer
72 views

Why do clouds have ceilings and bases?

What is the point called when water can not rise above or visually seem to have a ceiling in the atmosphere? What makes that point ideal?
2
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1answer
38 views

Estimating Average Rainfall

In a question related to my previous one. I am in the process of building a fantasy world. I have the landmasses with elevation worked out along with the air/wind directions at the various latitudes ...
3
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1answer
42 views

Ocean air reaching maximum humidity

How many miles (or how many hours/days) does air have to travel over the ocean to reach maximum humidity or carry the maximum amount of water it would hold at typical humidity assuming a wind speed of ...
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1answer
44 views

Does the Columbia Basin, North Cascades and Idaho Panhandle/Clearwater get a lot of violent, rotating supercellular thunderstorms?

Every storm season, supercells erupt in Montana and Wyoming. Wayward cold-core setups can trigger supercells or even long-tracked strong tornadoes in the Columbia/Willamette Valley and the rest of SW ...
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0answers
50 views

Do NO2 and O3 titrate each other out in the atmosphere?

Here is a plot of the vertical column densities of NO2 and O3 from an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer in Fairbanks, Alaska. It is interesting to see that when NO2 dips, O3 rises, and vice versa. Also,...
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1answer
19 views

Data of terrestrial evapotranspiration over large areas?

I have been looking for information regarding the total amount of water that evaporates from terrestrial systems and found some global estimates like this one http://www.waterandclimatechange.eu/...
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1answer
31 views

Are there areas of desert sands which experience blizzards?

Building off of another question I recently asked (Is there sand in Antarctica?) I want to ask a broader question coming from the same motive described there. Are there desert sands that experience ...
3
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1answer
45 views

Is there a maximum size for a single snowflake?

Just based on my previous experiences a wetter snow, in general, has larger flakes. Some online sources say that raindrops do have a maximum size before they start to break apart when surface tension ...
3
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0answers
31 views

Where to find meteorological data from road stations?

I am involved on a project that aims to analyze data from road weather stations, like the ones you can see from a German site here: https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/bufr_extensions_national/...
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1answer
46 views

Why is the diurnal temperature range on the Cascade volcanoes so small?

Ski-mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest I am frustrated that the snow pack isn't refreezing at night. There is about a 20F difference between the day and night temperatures in Seattle. Looking at ...
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0answers
46 views

Tower cumulus clouds without lightnings

Is there any possibility to have tower cumulus (or cumulonimbus in worst case) without lightnings? And if this is happen what is the factor that cause this phenomenon?
2
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1answer
43 views

How to know to which PC (Principal Component) a sample belongs in EOF/PCA

I applied EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function, a type of Principal Component Analysis, PCA) analysis to a dataset(geopotential height at 925hpa from ECMWF-interim reanalysis data) that contains 3 ...
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1answer
37 views

Where can I get good raw meteorological data for Middle East?

I live in the Middle East and I am really fond of understanding meteorology and using raw data make my own weather predictions. However, a limitation I encounter here is that most raw meteorological ...
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1answer
91 views

Can someone help me identify this cloud formation?

These pictures were taken today in Oklahoma City and I am both baffled and curious as to what formation this may be. I was wondering if anyone had any idea? Thank you!
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37 views

Why does the Earth have six atmospheric bands? [duplicate]

I know that the earth has atmospheric banding like the gas giants. What I want to know is why six in specific? What physical processes or equations determine the number of atmospheric bands on a ...
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1answer
100 views

WRF: EPSG code or spatial reference for Lambert conformal, Mercator and polar stereographic projections [closed]

I'm building an R package (https://github.com/ibarraespinosa/wrftools) to read namelist.wps and return a dynamic map which you can make zoom. In my case, it would be very beneficial because writing a ...