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Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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What is brown carbon?

There is a lot of interest in brown carbon in the atmospheric science community these days. There is a paper in the journal, "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics" titled, "Black carbon or brown carbon? ...
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I found this small round heavy rock in a box of my dad’s old army stuff [on hold]

I found this seavy black silvery rock found in a box of my dad’s old army stuff. He was stationed in Arizona sometime in the 50’s. Not sure if it’s from there or just happened to be in that box.
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Initiation of Rossby waves during MJO

I am trying to understand the basic dynamics of MJO, where I find several studies which relate it to the initiation of equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves. Though MJO is an eastward propagating wave, I ...
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2answers
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Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
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37 views

Characteristics of saddle points in stream line charts

I am trying to locate saddle points or commonly known as "col" in synoptic meteorology. This is "z" in the following figure. References Here are some of the references regarding this. a). http://www....
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24 views

What exactly are “ambient aerosols”?

I see this term being used everywhere, but I have not been able to find a formal definition for "ambient aerosols".
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1answer
43 views

Locating shearlines or deformation zones in a map

I am looking for a way to detect shearlines or confluence regions such as that shown in the figure below (red dashed line). I was able to derive the stretching, shear, and total deformations. The ...
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12 views

Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
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1answer
56 views

How big of an event is needed to trigger a long winter?

Could a small meteor or natural nuclear explosion melt an ice cap on Earth to trigger a mini ice age without the event being observed by people? Can the Earth have an overlaying thermal cycle that ...
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1answer
107 views

Are these plane trails seen from satellite

Here are photos from West of Normandy, at 7-9am after sunrise on the 14th of may, from the visible satellite. It's a bit strange that they are visible from space, they are 2-3 miles wide? Are they jet ...
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69 views

Does this weather pattern have a name?

The past few weeks of spring in northern Ohio I believe I have noticed a weather pattern where the weather forecast will show a string of days with rain, but what happens is the day is mostly clear, ...
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Which are the greatest disadvantages of this description of glaciation periods?

At the beginning of a global cooling and a new glaciation there is a lot of snow covering more land areas in north longer and longer times, until the last season's snow remain into the new season. The ...
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1answer
36 views

Decomposition of variables in horizontal and vertical modes

I have a query regarding the practical applicability of variable separable method. Usually we decompose the variables w.r.t components corresponding to different dimensions, this method is used to ...
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1answer
92 views

How to improve this prediction about the climate in future?

The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth and clean the air from carbon dioxid when rain- and snowfall, ...
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1answer
29 views

Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...
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43 views

Can extratropical cyclones force global cooling?

We are living in a historical period of global warming since about 20,000 years ago. This global warming period is one of about ten in human history. Those periods may very well be forced to start by ...
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71 views

Atmospheric pressure in weather forecasts: actual pressure or sea-level pressure [duplicate]

What is the usual way to report surface pressure in weather forecasts online, in smartphone apps, on TV/radio? Is it the actual local pressure or the sea-level adjusted value? Does it differ by ...
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1answer
57 views

Computation of geostrophic wind

I am attempting to calculate the zonal and meridional components of geostrophic wind using the equations below: $u_g = -\frac{g_0}{f} \cdot \frac{1}{r} \cdot \frac{\partial \Phi }{\partial \phi}$ $...
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68 views

Using salinity to predict rainfall

Recently, a new method has been proposed by Ray Schmitt (WHOI) and collaborators to use salinity patterns in the ocean to predict weather events (more specifically, rainfall) at scales from weeks to ...
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Modification of an air mass

If an air mass that exists in North America starts moving south west or south east what kind of modification will affect it and how would you characterize it in it's final state? My answer is that it ...
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41 views

Ordered arrangement of clouds

I happened to take a photograph of a region of clouds ,and it seems to have a rather ordered arrangement ,if one looks towards the left of the image. Would there be a physical explanation for this or ...
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2answers
423 views

What are these Gizmos at Izaña Atmospheric Research Center in Spain?

This tweet from the account of the Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña (AEMET) http://izana.aemet.es Izaña Atmospheric Research Center (AEMET) shows images of meteorological instruments ...
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1answer
189 views

Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) - How to interpret the index?

How the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) index can be interpret? Let's suppose I have got an MJO index value of 0.6 in a given day, what this does mean? Does 0.6 represents a weak MJO? Data from ...
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239 views

Extracting Regional Data from ERA5

This is coming from a newcomer, so please be kind. As I delve into the world of meteo data and reanalysis for the first time, I found that acquiring weather data is a lengthy process, so I'm shouting ...
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Just how dry could Ben Nevis get? Is this surprising?

The BBC article Soggy Ben Nevis can be remarkably dry describes results of a crowdscience effort to transcribe historical meteorological records recorded manually by researchers living on top of "Ben ...
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1answer
78 views

How to calculate relative humidity from temperature, dew point, and pressure?

Is there a formula given the temperature, dew point, and pressure to find relative humidity? I have seen several calculators like this one, but I would like to know how to calculate this myself. I ...
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Roughly what proportion of a cloud does 'rain out'?

What proportion of the water in a cloud will 'rain out'? Or, comparing the cloud before and after it has rained, what proportion of the water is left afterwards? I really have no idea so am just ...
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What are the farthest Time Zone locations? [closed]

What place in the world has the farthest time zone? I heard it was Kiribati but then I found that Apia (Samoa) is further. So, is there anyplace that is the farthest in time than these two? What about ...
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2answers
93 views

Temperature Advection using finite differences with gridded data

Advection of a scalar quantity, such as temperature (T), by the horizontal wind, is defined as follows: $-\textbf{U}\cdot\nabla T$ where $\textbf{U}$ is the horizontal wind vector, $\textbf{U}=(u,v)$...
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2answers
49 views

Data for plotting tephigrams

I want to plot some tephigrams. Where can I find pressure, temperature and dewpoint data in text format?
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37 views

Any appreciable differences in microclimate on the shores of small mountain streams?

I have land in India (the tropics), in the hills, on a slope from 6800 feet - 5200 ft altitude (roughly). At that lowest point there's a stream of about 10-15m across. On one side is our land, on the ...
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1answer
144 views

What are these Gizmos at Mauna Loa Observatory?

Artist Rosten Wu's Vimeo channel has a video title Bridging Time and there is discussion about the Keeling Curve and the site where it all began in Hawaii. In the video there is a shot of a weather ...
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1answer
103 views

How do I interpret this “sky cover” chart?

The image below is a screenshot of forecasted sky cover in percentage for various parts of Arizona. Is the sky cover percentage the percentage of each pixel that has cloud, or is it the percentage of ...
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Topography and flash flooding

I'm looking for a study or document showing the effect of the topography, slopes, the sea level and the tide on flash flooding occurrence. Thanks in advance
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1answer
67 views

What do the little flags on these martian wind speed data points mean?

According to this answer the weather at the InSight lander on Mars can now be seen online at https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/weather/ This includes the wind speed and I believe the direction (if that's ...
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1answer
99 views

Rainbow dynamics?

How would steam refract light compared to fog and how would the rainbow appear? Does the temperature of the water drop or ice crystal effect the rainbow in any way? I know the size of the water drop ...
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1answer
100 views

Why is convective precipitation associated with heavy rains?

Why is convective precipitation associated with heavy rains? As per wikipedia's page on Atmospheric Convection: "Moist convection leads to thunderstorm development, which is often responsible for ...
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1answer
35 views

Where can I find a list of snow fall recording stations in my zip code?

Where can I find the locations on snow fall recording stations in a particular United States county or zip code? Is there a way that I can find an hour by hour recent history of snow fall? Hour by ...
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Figuring out the temperature at the tropopause

Either I am misunderstanding something, or reading conflicting information. Likely the former. First off, the tropopause is defined as the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. That ...
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1answer
134 views

How much further can weather forecasting models go before the limits of Chaos Theory set in?

Refer to a report here that mentions the huge advancement in weather forecasting models since the 1980s: How much better? “A modern five-day forecast is as accurate as a one-day forecast was in ...
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2answers
143 views

Did temperature for the US state of Illinois reach an all-time record low 1/31/2019?

The State Climatologist Office for Illinois says the all time low temperature of Illinois was -36 °F, with a report of -37 °F in 2009 being disqualified. This morning, the station Sinnissippi ...
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Does the US National Weather Service use Celsius or Fahrenheit?

This tweet from the National Weather Service in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, USA says: We have officially hit -30 here at the NWS La Crosse office as of 520 a.m. The wind chill is -54. Be sure to dress ...
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How to plot orography for vertical profile of a certain variable along pressure levels in GRADS

I am using GRADS (1, 2, 3) to plot ERA reanalysis relative humidity profile for latitudinal average of 15N to 37N, and along the longitude from 40E to 130E. The orography is quite obvious and thus ...
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292 views

Unstable North Polar Vortex?

What would cause a polar vortex to become unstable a split into 3 smaller ones? How rare is this and what long term effects could this cause if the vortex stays unstable? http://www.severe-weather.eu/...
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1answer
75 views

Where can I find information about monthly seasonal change in a given area?

I have searched Google for almost an hour with no result. I'm looking for something like, "Indonesia, January to August is rain season, September to December is hot season". I can't use the old ...
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2answers
112 views

Is pollution a contributing factor to freezing rain?

I have been to different places with nearly the same freezing temperatures, around -2°C, but only at some specific places I repetitively experienced freezing rain. One common factor at these places ...
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1answer
200 views

Were there any polar vortexes in 2018?

Were there any polar vortexes in 2018? On what dates? I want to see what the weather looked like on those dates: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPuDPxK88g0 Yes I know. You would think that I could ...
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What causes frozen “shooting water” spikes from ice covered water in the winter?

I have seen things like this appear once or twice on cold winter mornings, a frozen spike of water from an ice-covered container or very small body of water (puddle). I found the photo below at Mel ...
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1answer
50 views

Does wind chill work in deserts?

Wind chill works by removing the layer of heated air around your body. However in a hot area, say a desert, wouldn't the air around be hotter than your body or at least much closer to it than cold air?...
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216 views

Continuous lightning for over an hour; is this phenomenon common and does it have a name?

A few months ago, I witnessed something off the coast of Florida that I have never seen in my life. From my apartment, from about 10PM - 12AM, I saw pretty much continuous cloud to cloud lightning. I ...