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Questions tagged [meteorology]

Meteorology is the study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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Are global temperatures, specifically between the two hemispheres, in balance?

I've anecdotally but repeatedly observed a certain balance between temperatures in the two hemispheres. For example, early this year (2018), while Europe was under a late winter spell, weather here in ...
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GFS forecast data - Forecasted variables or measured(directly or indirectly) variables?

In GFS forecast data there are some variables that are not in GFS analysis data. Are they forecast-only variables or are they physically measured ?
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Difference between GDAS and GFS data

What is the exact difference between GFS 0.25 and GDAS 0.25 data which is available in http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/. And are the GFS 0.5 and 1 degree data available in the above url and here the same?...
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Why do tethered aerostats have lower persistence than stratospheric balloons?

We have been thinking of using Aerostats/Balloons for an environmental monitoring project in our university. We have been considering 2 options: Tethered Aerostats (which fly upto 1 km) and ...
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1answer
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Judging wind speed based on flags and inland-water observations

About a year ago, I took this video along the Hudson river in NY, and I'm trying to figure out the Beaufort number based on the water and the flags. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqjvTALRWW8 The ...
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How to create Indonesian environmental conditions in India?

Need to create and maintain Biofloc for fish farming in India, it's really successful in Indonesia and I believe it's due to environmental conditions. Can we replicate the same in India?
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1answer
48 views

What's the default meaning of “Valid” in NOAA weather map?

NOAA weather forecast maps often include a valid time period, e.g: "valid from time1 thru time2." However, many maps only indicate a single time, e.g: "valid time1." In the absence of other ...
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67 views

Why don't tropical cyclones hit Hawaii?

Image by Wikipedia user Citynoise using NOAA data. If you look at this map of tropical cyclone tracks, you'll notice that there's a gap in the central northern Pacific where tropical cyclones ...
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1answer
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If storms form above low pressure regions, why doesn't the eye of a hurricane, a low pressure region, have any storms?

If this is due to the Coriolis Effect, my other question would be how does the wind go upwards to form the storm clouds?
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1answer
151 views

Has a hurricane or cyclone ever reformed after passing over a large land mass?

Hurricane Michael recently hit Florida as a Category 4 storm, and after the remnants passed across a great deal of the east coast of the United States it appears to have re-emerged into the Atlantic ...
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1answer
38 views

On what basis are hurricanes,cyclones or typhoons named? [duplicate]

now its well known that common names are used to name weather storms but on what bases are they named ? is it the person who first notices them ? Is it the the most common name in the region where the ...
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How do the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) waves originate?

I was reading about tropical cyclones and tropical waves and there I saw a study mentioning its relationship with MJO activities. I saw several research papers which discuss about MJO waves. They only ...
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1answer
47 views

Deep sea pumps that work on wind power, can they control the weather?

If they used wind power to bring up cold water from far under the ocean in the day time and spray it on prevailing winds going into land, could they make it rain more in arid regions? What weather ...
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1answer
58 views

What kind of rock or stone is this? Where did it come from?

I found this on the side of the road in Oregon, i think it was left or forgoten about thats why it was left there but it has crystal pockets, multiple colors, some smooth sides, perfect circles and ...
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Air masses and mid-latitude cyclones

Does a warm front with little moisture indicate cloud and precipitation within an extra-tropical cyclone?
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Are clouds more common at night?

Clouds obviously have a strong effect on surface temperatures. By blocking sunlight they can decrease the temperature by several degrees. At night they have a blanket effect that traps warm air and ...
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How to calculate water vapor budget for a selected region in GRADS or MAT Lab

I need to calculate water vapor budget for a selected region. Can anyone suggest a specific link or code for the above mentioned tools please. I have seen a link for NCL but i am not familiar with ...
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what changes in the weather prior to thuderstorms?

What changes in the weather prior to thunderstorms (day before, for example)? It seems humidity goes up and temperature but is there anything else?
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1answer
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Why do hurricanes hitting the US East Coast seem to go north once hitting land?

Question says it all really. It appears that every hurricane hitting the US East Coast directs itself north once on land. Hurricane Florence is predicted to hit North Carolina then turn toward Canada ...
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What is the most powerful kind of extratropical cold core cyclone and why?

I want to understand what makes for a very strong extratropical cyclone. So which kind on Earth is the strongest in terms of windspeed or pressure? Southern ocean storms, nor'easter, European wind ...
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43 views

What do baroclinic waves/instabilities actually look like?

I'm trying to gain a better understanding of what baroclinic waves and instabilities are and how they influence midlatitude weather patterns. I understand the theory behind baroclinicity and the ...
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What colors can lightning be and what causes the different colors?

I've always thought of lightning as being either bright white or yellow in color. However, in the summer I've also seen lightning appear red as so called "heat lightning". What I'm wondering is what ...
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1answer
38 views

How would a particle travel in a hurricane?

How would a particle other then water travel in a hurricane? At what buoyancy or height would a small air born life preserver be safe from the ground in a hurricane? How fun would that be?
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Can weather radar be used to track swarms other than mayflies?

Along the Mississippi River swarms of emerging mayflies have been seen on radar. The radar and image below are from a July 11, 2017 emergence near LaCrosse, Wisconsin. On the radar you can see the ...
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Does the global temperature vary daily (hotter and colder days)?

Earth's current average global temperature (i.e. including hot deserts and cold polar caps) is reported be somewhere between 14°C and 16°C (depending on sources and methods). This temperature varies ...
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1answer
62 views

What are good metrics to compare climates?

I'm interested in visualizing climate data across the conterminous U.S. to determine regions that I would be interested in living in. So far, I've pulled in NOAA data, and I've: averaged the maximum ...
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1answer
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Why can't the meteorologists predict for sure if the day would be rainy even on the beginning of the day sometimes?

Why do the meteorologists still cannot predict if a day would be rainy or cloudy or blizzardy even on the beginning of the day sometimes? My life circles around weather and an avid weather watcher. ...
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1answer
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Interdisciplinary sciences which combine earth sciences with computer science

Are there interdisciplinary sciences which combine earth sciences (like geophysics, climatology, meteorology etc.) and computer science? or something like biotechnology which combine biology with ...
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1answer
49 views

How can temperature be calculated given relative humidity and dew point?

While looking into the better indicator of how miserable it feels outside, either dew point or relative humidity, I came across this statement: The optimum combination for human comfort is a ...
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Why is the atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone lowest in the eye, even though it contains sinking air?

The lowest atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone is generally located in the eye at the center of the cyclone; however, the air in the eye is descending, while the air in the surrounding portions ...
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Can cloud seeding make a much hotter summer, at a middle latitude, at the area that receives less water than expected?

My country, Spain (40ºN), receives clouds from the Atlantic Ocean during the summer. Our most visited beaches are on the Eastern coast, which sits on the Mediterranean Sea, there is typically more dry ...
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How big does something have to be to cause an atmospheric event upon entry to the Earth's atmosphere?

The question is about a foreign object, ranging from an asteroid to a spaceship. How large does it have to be in order for its presence to start messing with the weather patterns, causing the like of ...
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1answer
39 views

Extract a GFS variable

I'm trying to extract the APCP variable from a GFS file, with this code: wgrib2 gfst.grb2 -match ":(APCP):" - grib gfst.grb2.small I get a ...
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How to access precipitation forecast by GEFS

I'm currently working with the water inflow in some rives, and as a input I use the GEFS precipitation forecast. But I couldn't find out were this data is in the NOAA website. The GEFS Reforecast v2 ...
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1answer
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Uncertainty In ERA-Interim data

Greeting, What is the estimated uncertainty value in Temperature, relative humidity, U and V winds of ERA-Interim data?
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2answers
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Are there websites where I can get “lightning frequency maps” in near-real time (worldwide)?

I have an NASA Inspire VLF-3 radio receiver kit that I'm going to put together. It amplifies VLF electromagnetic signals that are already in the audio frequency range and makes them audible. One of ...
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6answers
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Are there any weather services that provide hourly forecasts beyond 7 days?

I'm working on a small project and am trying to find a way to get the very extended hour-by-hour forecast for a location. Most services (Darksky, etc.) seem to offer 7-day extended hourly forecasts, ...
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Can the previous weather be computed from the current situation?

If one applies today's state-of-the-art weather forecast computations "backwards", i.e. computing how the systems was X days before the current situation based on knowledge of today's situation, at ...
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107 views

Looks like rain, but isn't

Two days in a row now, we have looked out the window to see the sparkling noise in the air that you see when it rains. If I go outside, I can see it around me, around 10-20 meters from where I stand. ...
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Plotting moist static energy fluxes

I'm trying to plot Moist static energy fluxes (vectors) and their divergence like the attached Figure. I have monthly means of u, v, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential from(1000-100 hPa) ...
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Is there a conventional name for when wind speed increases as a result of a large descending air mass?

I remember reading a long time ago in a meteorology book that certain dust storms were caused by a rapid descent of a large air mass. As the air is pressed against the ground, it is forced to spread ...
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1answer
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What happens in the upper air when the altitude of the tropopause changes?

I know about the seasonal changes of the altitude of the tropopause as well as the differences by latitude. I thought the change at one location was a very slow process, but I just found upper air ...
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3answers
187 views

Does the Coriolis Effect affect a wind from East to West?

I'm studying meteorology for a pilot license and there I was taught as a rule of thumb that wind at higher altitudes is approximately turned 30° clockwise to the wind on the surface due to the ...
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1answer
105 views

How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

The solar radiation is one of the important factors controlling the formation of $O_3$, and thereby impacting the levels of various secondary species in the atmosphere. However, in the campaign of ...
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2answers
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Can you have a low pressure with no clouds?

My understanding is that low pressure is usually associated with cloudy skies, however in the last week I observed a day that had low pressure reading but no clouds. Is this possible or did I perhaps ...
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For how long can the wind blow unabated on a “trade wind route”?

Take a specific point at sea level (less than 100 meters above it) on a "trade wind" oceanic route. For example, somewhere on Labrador-Ireland route, at roughly 50 degrees of latitude north. Let's say,...
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1answer
156 views

Are you more likely to get a sunburn at the pole than the equator?

After looking at this post I can see that a flat object is more exposed to the sun at the equator. Does this mean that a person walking around (standing up), is much more likely to burn at the poles ...
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1answer
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Precipitation Totals past days online?

I am looking for a website that can I look for to check and see the precipitation totals for past days.. I go to this site : https://www.cocorahs.org/ . It lacks in some areas where I live in the ...
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1answer
104 views

What kind of climate could you expect in a mountainous area in a subtropical region?

More specifically, I'm trying to work out climate analogues for my farm. It's at 5200-6200ft in South India. My area is a bit too small for the Köppen Map to correctly reveal patterns. I'll be ...
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1answer
72 views

Why do clouds have ceilings and bases?

What is the point called when water can not rise above or visually seem to have a ceiling in the atmosphere? What makes that point ideal?