Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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Best method for weather station data interpolation with external parameters

I'm part of an organization maintaning a large network of weather stations (~3000 stations) over a European country. Besides storing data measured from the stations into a database, we also produce ...
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2 votes
2 answers
73 views

What causes "Smokey" weather?

Today when I woke up there was fog in the air and it smelled like smoke, I thought the fog was water vapor since the temperature was 47‎°C ( I know that's crazy hot), but then when I saw the weather ...
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1 vote
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divergence of static stability identical parameters

All, The static stability of the atmosphere is defined as: $\sigma =-\dfrac{T}{\theta} \dfrac{d\theta}{dp}= \dfrac{dT}{dp}-\dfrac{R}{c_p} \dfrac{T}{p}$ where: $T$ is temperature, $P$ is pressure, $R$ ...
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Where does this refractive index formula come from: $n_{1} = n - 1 = \frac{77.6P}{T} 10^{-6}$

In this equation, $n_{1} = n - 1 = \frac{77.6P}{T} \cdot 10^{-6}$ the variable P is the total air pressure and T is expressed in Kelvin. This equation describes the refractive index of moist air as EM ...
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1 vote
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What does the refractive index static coefficient measure and how is it derived?

From my understanding the refractive index structure coefficient $C_{n}^2$ measures atmospheric turbulence, but I'm not entirely sure as the literature seems to imply that there are slightly different ...
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5 votes
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72 views

Why does the jet stream meander?

I wanted to explain to high school students why the jet stream meanders, I am aware of the equations describing relative vorticity and planetary vorticity, the concept of conservation of vorticity i.e....
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3 votes
1 answer
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What is a Tropical Forcing and is it related to Climate Forcing?

I see the term Tropical Forcing used in weather synopses but have been unable to find a concise definition of the term. Also, is "Tropical Forcing" a different concept than "Climate ...
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4 votes
2 answers
531 views

On geostrophic wind. How can the Coriolis force cancel out the pressure gradient force when they are mutually perpendicular?

If we are in Northern Hemisphere and there is a point where there is a high pressure, denote it by H, and there is a point where there is low pressure, denote it by L, (for simplicity assume them to ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Compute upwind flux for gridded data

I'm trying to compute something called the "Drying Ratio" following: Eidhammer, 2018 The drying ratio is the ratio of the precipitation to the incoming vapor flux. So, $DR = \frac{F_{in} - ...
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0 votes
1 answer
58 views

How might 25% lower gravity affect precipitation on an Earth-like planet? [closed]

I'm working on a science fiction project and hoping someone who knows something about climate can answer this question for me: if Earth had 25% less gravity, how would that affect precipitation? I ...
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Visible satellite imagery, atmospheric anomaly (descending air) in cumulus fields?

When looking at GOES satellite imagery, in the visible channels. I have noticed these "lines" if you will, usually forms in Cumulus fields. I understand the process of the 'Mackerel sky' (...
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5 votes
1 answer
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How do meteorologists accurately measure outdoor air temperature? There's sunlight, local trapping of air, radiant heat, precipitation

I'd like to know how the state-of-the-art meteorological direct, localized measurements of the temperature of the air is measured. If you put a thermometer in sunlight it may read high. If you put it ...
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1 vote
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Which atmospheric parameters will give accurate result of electricity consumption of an area by using multiple regression model?

I have a dataset that gives values of temperature, Relative humidity Geopotential Ozone mass mixing ratio Potential vorticity Fraction of cloud cover Specific cloud ice water content Specific cloud ...
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1 vote
0 answers
63 views

I'm trying to create a interactive matplotlib figure with a dropdown menu on a tkinter popup window but nothing displays

So I'm trying to create dropdown menu that loads different goes satellite data but when i embed the code to my code nothing displays but it displays perfectly on Notebook and yes i am using Visual ...
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4 votes
1 answer
83 views

Estimating meteorological visibility from air chemical and particulate composition

I have found here an answer that provides formula that only takes into account vapors, pressure and temperature - What is the formula used for atmospheric visibility? Is there an approach that also ...
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2 votes
0 answers
15 views

Does Environment Canada offer archived radar data in gridded format like in the US?

I have seen social media-rologists (weather weenies on Twitter) using the Weatherscope app to display data from the Canadian radar network, which was recently upgraded to dual-pol. For many years, ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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How can i display NEXRAD data in 3d on matplotlib

How do i get nexrad data from KHGX (Houston) in 3D to display in matplotlib
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20 votes
2 answers
5k views

In the northern hemisphere summer, why are places in the north cooler than those in the south?

As the Earth's axis is inclined, during summer in the northern hemisphere places in the north are exposed to the Sun's rays for longer, so days are longer during summer (say in June - Aug). Yet, ...
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1 vote
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gridded air pollution data for Japan

Do you know of any database where I can get past air pollution (sulfur oxides (SOx) - nitrogen oxides (NOx) - photochemical oxidants (Ox) - particulate matter (PM) - suspended particulate matter (SPM) ...
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7 votes
2 answers
87 views

What kind of clouds did Joseph Kittinger see at 102,000 ft?

When Joseph Kittinger in Excelsior III dwelt at his peak altitude of 102,000 ft (31 km), he reportedly saw clouds at his altitude. What in the world could these clouds have been? Polar stratospheric ...
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EOFs T mode vs S mode

Do you know what is the difference between EOFs S mode and T mode? I want to find the spatial patterns and I have a time series for values at each location. Thanks in advance!
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1 vote
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Plot maps from principal component analysis to geopotential height

I want to apply PCA to geopotential height (obtained from ERA5) to find the patterns. The way have created the dataset is: The columns are different locations (latitude/longitute) and the rows are ...
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1 vote
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Empirical quantile mapping

I'm not sure if this is the right section to post this, but since it's about weather and statistics I am posting it here first. I tried using R's qmap package to do a simple experiment using this ...
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0 votes
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49 views

Where can I live if I like long periods of consistent rain?

Let me elaborate on what I mean by "long periods of consistent rain". I currently live in London and contrary to popular belief, it's not rainy. When it rains, it's usually only for 20 ...
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3 votes
1 answer
66 views

Why does cold air inflow in high tropospheric layers create a low in the upper troposphere?

As part of my pilot ground examination I got a question about cold-air inflow to the upper layers of the troposphere, the question was about the result of the inflow, The right answer was that it ...
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0 votes
0 answers
26 views

Is the current tropical depression headed towards Taiwan unusually early for the season? (April 7, 2022 at 4.0N 148.0E)

Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau's Current Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones page shows a tropical depression with the following information: TROPICAL DEPRESSION TD02 Position 061800Z at 4.0N ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Total Cloud Cover% from NOAA inverted?

I'm trying to find and use data involving total cloud cover %. I have downloaded data from NCEI/NOAA specifically here and I'm plotting it like this: ...
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1 vote
0 answers
39 views

US vs EU weather systems commercialization and precision? [closed]

The US and EU have very different government funding systems for weather and space equipment, perhaps as different as the road systems. The US has a higher performing health system on average at a ...
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1 vote
3 answers
97 views

Drought in Scotland?

The BBC reported on March 28, 2022 that Guinard Island was on fire. That strikes me as odd. The west of Scotland should be wet in spring. A wildfire in Scotland in March seems strikingly out of place ...
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3 votes
0 answers
98 views

How much does a global model's accuracy change with the timestep?

I've been working with ICON, ICON-EU and GFS forecasts, and it seems like the temperature results are "close" for the same location, 6 hour forecasts and 120 hour forecasts - MAE: 5.7 and 6....
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2 votes
2 answers
67 views

Modelling atmospheric temperature as function of elevation

If I have a body that is exposed to light of intensity $I$, then its temperature should follow the ODE $$\dot{T} = a I - b T^4$$ Mountains are covered with snow, yet $I$ should be the same as at sea ...
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0 votes
0 answers
25 views

Does absorbed energy from sun go to increasing atmosphere's height, as well as heating earth up?

Water transports heat from the surface of the earth to the upper atmosphere by evaporation, which cools the surface, and then condensing at cloud height, where it releases latent heat. So water ...
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4 votes
1 answer
82 views

Odd wind-speed distribution over North Sea

A popular website for observing wind-speed showed the following distribution over the North Sea 2022-02-18 around the same time that storm Eunice was due to hit the UK. There is some kind of long ...
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4 votes
0 answers
51 views

Do warm-season Foehn winds occur in the Pacific Northwest?

Over the last 30 years, Foehn winds have led to wildfires affecting densely populated areas of the California coast. They're called Diablo winds in the north, and Santa Ana winds in the south. ...
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4 votes
0 answers
64 views

What is the reason behind some of the biome anomalies in Africa?

For example : The center of Africa lies in the Equatorial region and yet, does not have tropical rainforests all the way across. The island of Madagascar has two different biomes Since altitude and ...
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4 votes
1 answer
158 views

Precipitation in two places as independent phenomena

Is it possible to consider the occurrences of precipitation in two different places to be independent phenomena?
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3 votes
1 answer
42 views

Does saturation mixing ratio change during adiabatic ascent/descent?

Does saturation mixing ratio change during adiabatic ascent/descent? I think the mixing ratio ($r_v = \rho_v/\rho_d$) is constant as long as no water vapor is condensed out, but saturation mixing ...
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3 votes
1 answer
97 views

How accurate is ERA5 weather data?

We are using weather data to feed building energy models. Historically, we would do that with weather from the closest weather station, which can be far away (up to 100 km, I guess). Recently, we've ...
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5 votes
1 answer
256 views

Are halcyon days an actual phenomenon?

According to Greek mythology, halcyon days are the seven days in winter when storms never occur. [Wikipedia] I assume that Ancient Greeks noticed a period in winter during which the weather was ...
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7 votes
0 answers
57 views

Could the Pineapple Express collide with cold air, resulting in extreme snowfall?

The pineapple express is a colloquial term for the strong atmospheric river produced by the polar jet stream, which drives excessive moisture and warmer air towards north-western North America. With ...
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1 vote
0 answers
38 views

Interpretation of certain maps related to weather

I am a student Pilot and basically we are asked to give weather briefing every morning using the charts shown here: https://mausam.imd.gov.in/imd_latest/contents/satellite.php#. https://mausam.imd.gov....
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1 vote
0 answers
50 views

In terms of atmospheric pressure, why do pressure systems move and what factors affect the general pressure of an area?

With very limited background in the physics of air and weather, this question occurred to me for no particular reason. With that in mind, a simplified answer would be much appreciated. This weatherman'...
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4 votes
3 answers
99 views

Potential temperature constant in a well-mixed atmospheric layer?

Why is the potential temperature, defined as $\theta = T\Big(\frac{P_0}{P}\Big)^{R/c_p}$, constant in a well-mixed layer? I understand that the dew point temperature has to be parallel to a line of ...
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3 votes
2 answers
175 views

Pressure vs Temperature effect on humidity

I am a bit confused about pressure vs temperature effect on relative humidity. I know that air density is decreased with altitude, which means that there is more "space" between air ...
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5 votes
1 answer
81 views

How does Siberian High develop?

For what I know so far about this phenomenon, it's a super cold mass of dry air accumulating in Siberia and Far East of Russia from September to April. I want to know how it accumulates cold air in ...
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2 votes
1 answer
82 views

How exactly can one make out the direction of and temperature of winds [closed]

I am trying to make a fictional world, but I want to be as realistic as humanly possible with the winds and climate. So my question is, knowing various parametres, how exactly can I make out what ...
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5 votes
0 answers
63 views

Formation of Clouds in High Pressure Systems (Western Australia - Perth)

High pressure systems are normally correlated with stable atmospheric conditions with little to no cloud cover, but due to this minimal cloud cover, doesn't that open up the ocean / ground moisture to ...
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5 votes
1 answer
76 views

Is Global Mean Surface Atmosphere Pressure changed long-term by global warming?

We know the Global Mean Temperature is increasing due to climate change. But for the Global Mean Atmosphere Pressure, can we see an obvious trend?
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5 votes
0 answers
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What was the weather like in Pangaea's equatorial regions ( i.e. 23 latitude North to 23 latitude South )?

I've been having this burning question about the tropical climate of Pangaea but not sure how to ask until now. So far I've read that the carbon dioxide levels back then were much higher than it is ...
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5 votes
3 answers
81 views

Do surface temperature inversions only occur in valleys and natural bowls?

When you read about temperature inversions online, you mostly hear about them trapping pollution in places like Salt Lake City, which is surrounded by mountains. That seems to be the case for most ...
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