Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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0answers
40 views

Is there a certification process for automated weather stations?

I'm in the market for a new automated weather station and of course there's a glut of them on the internet. I mostly will be using the data for myself and my own amusement but do plan to submit ...
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1answer
27 views

Calculating total daily rainfall from a tipping bucket rain gauge

I am trying to calculate total daily rainfall based on data from a tipping bucket rain gauge which is calibrated to a tip of 0.2mm. I have data giving the exact time that a tip is recorded and have ...
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4answers
68 views

Hourly historical weather data for USA

I tried Google BigQuery but it is at day level. Is there any source for hourly historical weather data for USA?
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1answer
49 views

Why is the isothermal layer being considered a part of the stratosphere rather than the troposphere or being an independent layer?

At altitudes from 12-20 km (7-12.5 mi) above the midlatitudes the temperature remains constant with altitude (minus 56.5°C in the ISA). This part is usually considered to be in the stratosphere, but ...
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Why is NYC so much colder than Rome despite being at the same latitude? [duplicate]

New York City and Rome are at about the same latitude, but their climates are different. Rome has subtropical climate and it doesn't snow in winter. NYC has temperate climate and it's extremely cold ...
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2answers
79 views

What is the relationship between air pressure and temperature?

I'm trying to reconcile a paradox regarding air pressure and temperature. On the one hand, compressing air heats it up, while expanding it cools it. So density and temperature are proportional. On the ...
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0answers
43 views

What kind of circumstances could lead to extensive flooding of the Fraser River in British Columbia's Lower Mainland?

This might be a better question for Engineering.SE. I know that flash flooding to the extent and intensity that is seen in the Midwest or South is more rare in the Pacific Northwest, because it was ...
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1answer
54 views

Gases descending from atmospheres

Earth’s lower atmosphere is rising due to climate change Temperature is the driving force behind this change, says Jane Liu, an environmental scientist at the University of Toronto. The troposphere ...
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27 views

Atmospheric gravity waves or cumulus cloud street?

I observed these clouds today (november 12, Belgium) and I was wondering if they could be caused by atmospheric gravity waves. How would you spot the difference between gravity waves and a cloud ...
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I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4⁰C warmer in every month. What are my options?

I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4 degrees Celsius warmer in every month. What are my options?
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How to convert $\ce{NO2}$ mixing ratio (ppmv) into $\ce{NO2}$ column density(moles/m2)?

I have a WRF-chem output with NO2 mixing ratio for 37 levels, for my analysis I need to convert it into into column density. How do I do that?
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1answer
42 views

Does total precipitation have different meanings?

I'm new in hydrology sciences and for my work, I have to differentiate solid precipitation time series and liquid precipitation from total precipitation time series. My data are from a meteorological ...
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How to best calculate ensemble spread with 2D data?

Sorry if this has been asked before, but I am looking through papers and websites and cannot find something satisfying. Say that I have 10 different ensemble members calculating geopotential height ...
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1answer
94 views

What causes these periodic high-pressure blobs along the west coast of South America?

I was looking through the Weatherbug atmospheric pressure map around 8:30 am ET on Oct 26 2021, and noticed this chain of small high pressure blobs along the west coast of South America. It was also ...
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Electric phenomenon when tornado funnel disappears?

A video of a recent tornado in Germany shows two points of glowing light appear at the end of the lifetime of a tornado, when the funnel is already almost entirely retracted. Here is a video link. The ...
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1answer
61 views

Software for spatial interpolation of temperature and relative humidity data from weather stations

I'm working with time series of weather data (specifically, min/max daily temperatures and relative humidity) recorded from weather stations over an area of about 200,000 km2. I would be interested in ...
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1answer
94 views

How to calculate sea level pressure from geopotential height?

For this, I am using python to plot and manipulate the data. I am using reanalysis data in a netcdf format for this problem. The data includes geopotential, for which I estimated the geopotential ...
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1answer
57 views

What is grib2 telling me?

I am having trouble interpreting the output of wgrib2. I was expecting this command to produce a set of four measurements: one for each corner of a box at the specified pressure level. Instead I got ...
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52 views

What causes the polar vortex to exist?

What causes the polar vortex to exist? I've tried to look this up online but I can't seem to find an answer.
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How to statistically downscale wind speeds?

Background I am trying to estimate wind speeds at a proposed wind farm site using the method described in this paper hyperlink here. The approach is summarized in figure 2 of the paper. Short Summary, ...
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1answer
34 views

Does increased water vapour in atmosphere increase the risk of hypoxia?

I recently found that each degree of warming increases water vapour by 7% and I've also learned that the atmosphere contains (on average) between 1-5% water vapour when saturated, this confused me a ...
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5answers
132 views

Does global warming inhibit transport of moisture?

This northern summer, 2021, there were wildfires in Southern Europe and floods in Germany nearly at same time, also, floods and wildfires in different parts of Turkey, and floods in Far East of Russia ...
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0answers
51 views

Meteorological Data API with Python

I have a number of points in Europe I would like meteorological data for. More specifically, I am looking for data that is relevant in Air Quality models, like wind, temperature and humidity. The time ...
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Using variables from different CMIP6 models

I would like to know if using variables (ex: sea surface temperature, precipitation, etc.) from two CMIP6 climate models to produce a species/niche distribution model is an accepted practice and won’t ...
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Does an increase in SR lead to an increase in strength and intensity of ionospheric lightning?

As explained in the following document: ELF Electromagnetic Waves from Lightning: The Schumann Resonances Upper-Atmosphere phenomena like Sprites and Elves can be recorded with extremely low frequency ...
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51 views

Calculating layer thickness in python

I have calculated the $∂θ_\varepsilon/∂z$ with 'Height', 'Latitude', 'Longitude' dimensions. ...
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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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Range of frequencies of the Schumann resonance?

Crossposted at Physics SE As the surface-ionospheric gap acts as a resonator for electromagnetic waves, it should have several harmonic values from the base, fundamental frequency of 7.83 Hz. These ...
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3answers
92 views

Why isn't wind speed considered when calculating a heat index?

I work outside in Florida, and the heat is sometimes unbearable. But if a breeze hits me, it makes it much more tolerable. There are some days where there is high heat and humidity, and a steady wind. ...
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1answer
94 views

Is it possible for a local flood to reach the heights of a mountain, say 7000 ft, and wash away a ship over 350 miles? [closed]

Is it even possible? How much water would it take? Does the whole earth need to be flooded to reach that height?
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1answer
43 views

Why does the magnitude of the uncertainty on temperature forecast fluctuate periodically

I remember several years ago, the weather report on the VRT (Flemish national media) would show the temperature forecast of the coming days and it would also show the uncertainty on that temperature. ...
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Dynamic frontogenesis derivation

On page 142 of Lackmann's Midlatitude Synoptic Meteorology, Equation 6.7 gives the derivative of the Boussinesq buoyancy $b = \frac{g \theta'}{\theta_0 (z)}$ (perturbation potential temperature $\...
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0answers
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Why is equatorial Africa wetter in the west than the east? [duplicate]

Looking at equatorial Africa in Google Maps, the western part – Guinea, the Congo – is the dark green of tropical rain forest that I would expect of a wet equatorial region, by analogy with the Amazon ...
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1answer
68 views

What causes thunderstorms to develop in the early dawn hours?

I know that a majority of thunderstorms form in the daytime due to convection from sunlight heating in a moist, unstable airmass. Once the sun begins to set, these storms dissipate. But on some ...
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1answer
79 views

How is weather formation prevented in the stratosphere?

Water diffuses from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. By that principle, I would expect water from the troposphere to diffuse into the stratosphere, where water content ...
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1answer
65 views

Why are waterspouts less powerful than tornadoes?

It's often said that waterspouts are weaker than tornadoes, but after some quick searches on the internet, I haven't been able to figure out why that is. Two relevant sources that I've found: This ...
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1answer
59 views

Is there a publicly accessible resource of video/image footage of the sky over an entire year?

I am looking for videos/image series that show (at least a section of) the (daytime) sky at a given location for a prolonged time (ideally > 1 year). This youtube video is one example of what it ...
3
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1answer
298 views

Temperature Inversion

According to my environmental management textbook, the conditions necessary for a temperature inversion are: High air pressure, which causes the upper air to sink Calm conditions resulting from high ...
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0answers
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How do you find the relationship between the angle a weather front makes with the ground and the temperatures and along front winds either side of it?

I am working through David Andrews' "An introductuion to atmospheric physics". (2nd Ed) Question 4.8 concerns finding the relationship between the angle a weather front makes with the ground ...
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1answer
50 views

How to linearize the shallow-water equations?

The shallow water equations are: \begin{aligned} &\frac{du}{dt} = -g\frac{\partial h}{\partial x} + fv\\ &\frac{dv}{dt} = -g\frac{\partial h}{\partial y} - fu\\ &\frac{dh}{dt} = -h(\frac{\...
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1answer
77 views

What meteorological features accompany/cause a thermal inversion?

I am physics grad student working on a problem of making a statistical (neural network) prediction of the air pollution in a city. I am provided with hourly values for ca. a dozen meteo features of ...
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Did Dark Lightning turn out to be a real thing? Is this what produces gamma ray flashes from lightning storms?

The Science at NASA video ScienceCasts: Dark Lightning describes observation of gamma rays from Earth by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These gamma rays are associated with weather that produces ...
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0answers
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Are terms like "Extremely Torrential Rain" (>500 mm/24 hours) universal in meteorology?

Meteorological phenomenon can span large ranges in size and strength and categorizations exist based on thresholds, One example is the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) (see also NOAA) ...
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What are those precipitation and water droplet characterization instruments called that they put on meteorological aircraft? How do they work?

A long time ago I did some reading on Mie scattering and atmospheric particulate counting and I got sidetracked on raindrop characterization. I remember reading about light and laser based ...
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1answer
50 views

Wind monitoring system for a specified region: How should this be done, and with what?

I am unsure if this is the correct place to ask such a question I will give it a go. So, the lab I work in is building a "drone park" to conduct robotics and controls experiments in. This ...
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1answer
150 views

Determining if a fine resolution lat/lon point lies in a coarse resolution lat/lon grid box?

I have two datasets, each with two differing resolutions. The first dataset is a coarser resolution data set that has 0.5 x 0.625 degree resolution and contains values of MERRA-2 boundary layer ...
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1answer
58 views

What makes a typhoon suddenly turn by 90 degrees? (e.g. 2021 In-fa/Fabian)

The motion of Typhoon In-fa or Fabian made a hard 90 degree left turn and started heading towards Taiwan, slowed to 5 km/hr before reaching it, then took a hard 90 degree right turn and proceeded ...
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2answers
148 views

How much would 5 gigatons of methane warm the atmosphere compared to 5 gigatons of CO2 if both were released in one go?

I don't know much about science, I'm just curious about how much warming a certain amount of CH4 would cause compared to a similar amount of CO2 (both 5 GtC). I'm sorry if the question sounded a bit ...
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8answers
5k views

Ways to make a "How hard is it raining?" detector for personal use?

Is there a consensus on the "heaviness" of rain? and Relationship between Probability of Precipitation and Predicted Amount of Rain remind me of a gedankenexperiment of mine. I like to ...
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2answers
165 views

Is there a consensus on the "heaviness" of rain?

As part of the home dashboard I am developing, I get information about incoming rain. It is given in mm/min. Is there a consensus on the precipitation rate that is called "light rain", or &...

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