Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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2 votes
0 answers
32 views

Visible satellite imagery, atmospheric anomaly (descending air) in cumulus fields?

When looking at GOES satellite imagery, in the visible channels. I have noticed these "lines" if you will, usually forms in Cumulus fields. I understand the process of the 'Mackerel sky' (...
0 votes
1 answer
153 views

How to measure voltage differential across different altitudes

Imagine two points, one directly above the other ( Point A - 10,000 feet (PA) Point B - 20,000 feet (PB) Imagine there's voltage potential between those two points Q1: How could you measure the ...
5 votes
1 answer
107 views

How do meteorologists accurately measure outdoor air temperature? There's sunlight, local trapping of air, radiant heat, precipitation

I'd like to know how the state-of-the-art meteorological direct, localized measurements of the temperature of the air is measured. If you put a thermometer in sunlight it may read high. If you put it ...
5 votes
0 answers
86 views

What are those precipitation and water droplet characterization instruments called that they put on meteorological aircraft? How do they work?

A long time ago I did some reading on Mie scattering and atmospheric particulate counting and I got sidetracked on raindrop characterization. I remember reading about light and laser based ...
1 vote
0 answers
32 views

Which atmospheric parameters will give accurate result of electricity consumption of an area by using multiple regression model?

I have a dataset that gives values of temperature, Relative humidity Geopotential Ozone mass mixing ratio Potential vorticity Fraction of cloud cover Specific cloud ice water content Specific cloud ...
1 vote
0 answers
25 views

I'm trying to create a interactive matplotlib figure with a dropdown menu on a tkinter popup window but nothing displays

So I'm trying to create dropdown menu that loads different goes satellite data but when i embed the code to my code nothing displays but it displays perfectly on Notebook and yes i am using Visual ...
7 votes
2 answers
85 views

What kind of clouds did Joseph Kittinger see at 102,000 ft?

When Joseph Kittinger in Excelsior III dwelt at his peak altitude of 102,000 ft (31 km), he reportedly saw clouds at his altitude. What in the world could these clouds have been? Polar stratospheric ...
4 votes
1 answer
81 views

Estimating meteorological visibility from air chemical and particulate composition

I have found here an answer that provides formula that only takes into account vapors, pressure and temperature - What is the formula used for atmospheric visibility? Is there an approach that also ...
3 votes
0 answers
95 views

How much does a global model's accuracy change with the timestep?

I've been working with ICON, ICON-EU and GFS forecasts, and it seems like the temperature results are "close" for the same location, 6 hour forecasts and 120 hour forecasts - MAE: 5.7 and 6....
20 votes
2 answers
5k views

In the northern hemisphere summer, why are places in the north cooler than those in the south?

As the Earth's axis is inclined, during summer in the northern hemisphere places in the north are exposed to the Sun's rays for longer, so days are longer during summer (say in June - Aug). Yet, ...
2 votes
0 answers
13 views

Does Environment Canada offer archived radar data in gridded format like in the US?

I have seen social media-rologists (weather weenies on Twitter) using the Weatherscope app to display data from the Canadian radar network, which was recently upgraded to dual-pol. For many years, ...
1 vote
0 answers
19 views

How can i display NEXRAD data in 3d on matplotlib

How do i get nexrad data from KHGX (Houston) in 3D to display in matplotlib
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

gridded air pollution data for Japan

Do you know of any database where I can get past air pollution (sulfur oxides (SOx) - nitrogen oxides (NOx) - photochemical oxidants (Ox) - particulate matter (PM) - suspended particulate matter (SPM) ...
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

EOFs T mode vs S mode

Do you know what is the difference between EOFs S mode and T mode? I want to find the spatial patterns and I have a time series for values at each location. Thanks in advance!
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Plot maps from principal component analysis to geopotential height

I want to apply PCA to geopotential height (obtained from ERA5) to find the patterns. The way have created the dataset is: The columns are different locations (latitude/longitute) and the rows are ...
3 votes
1 answer
59 views

Why does cold air inflow in high tropospheric layers create a low in the upper troposphere?

As part of my pilot ground examination I got a question about cold-air inflow to the upper layers of the troposphere, the question was about the result of the inflow, The right answer was that it ...
1 vote
0 answers
23 views

Empirical quantile mapping

I'm not sure if this is the right section to post this, but since it's about weather and statistics I am posting it here first. I tried using R's qmap package to do a simple experiment using this ...
0 votes
0 answers
47 views

Where can I live if I like long periods of consistent rain?

Let me elaborate on what I mean by "long periods of consistent rain". I currently live in London and contrary to popular belief, it's not rainy. When it rains, it's usually only for 20 ...
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

Is the current tropical depression headed towards Taiwan unusually early for the season? (April 7, 2022 at 4.0N 148.0E)

Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau's Current Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones page shows a tropical depression with the following information: TROPICAL DEPRESSION TD02 Position 061800Z at 4.0N ...
3 votes
2 answers
46 views

Total Cloud Cover% from NOAA inverted?

I'm trying to find and use data involving total cloud cover %. I have downloaded data from NCEI/NOAA specifically here and I'm plotting it like this: ...
4 votes
1 answer
155 views

Precipitation in two places as independent phenomena

Is it possible to consider the occurrences of precipitation in two different places to be independent phenomena?
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

US vs EU weather systems commercialization and precision? [closed]

The US and EU have very different government funding systems for weather and space equipment, perhaps as different as the road systems. The US has a higher performing health system on average at a ...
1 vote
3 answers
96 views

Drought in Scotland?

The BBC reported on March 28, 2022 that Guinard Island was on fire. That strikes me as odd. The west of Scotland should be wet in spring. A wildfire in Scotland in March seems strikingly out of place ...
2 votes
2 answers
6k views

Should I worry about copper pipe outside attracting lightning strikes?

I used some copper pipe outside to string some decorative lights up higher in my yard. I used the copper because I thought it would be pretty and patina nice. Then I remembered that copper is a good ...
3 votes
1 answer
99 views

Question on the derivation of a prognostic equation for the mean concentration (Assume horizontal homogeneity in X)

In deriving the prognostic equation for the mean quantity of pollutant C, as shown in my solution below: Am I right in that I do not need to separate T (temperature) into its mean and turbulent parts ...
2 votes
2 answers
63 views

Modelling atmospheric temperature as function of elevation

If I have a body that is exposed to light of intensity $I$, then its temperature should follow the ODE $$\dot{T} = a I - b T^4$$ Mountains are covered with snow, yet $I$ should be the same as at sea ...
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

Does absorbed energy from sun go to increasing atmosphere's height, as well as heating earth up?

Water transports heat from the surface of the earth to the upper atmosphere by evaporation, which cools the surface, and then condensing at cloud height, where it releases latent heat. So water ...
10 votes
1 answer
112 views

How to statistically downscale wind speeds?

Background I am trying to estimate wind speeds at a proposed wind farm site using the method described in this paper hyperlink here. The approach is summarized in figure 2 of the paper. Short Summary, ...
10 votes
4 answers
1k views

How could humans alter storm intensity or direction other than cloud seeding?

I am familiar with the concept of cloud seeding, where precipitation can be induced with aerosols, thereby altering storm intensity further downwind. Are there methods that could be used to ...
9 votes
1 answer
369 views

What is the difference between the freezing level and 0 C isotherm in NOAA's GFS?

I'm playing around with NOAA's GFS forecast data and I see that it contains both a "0 °C isotherm level" and a "Highest tropospheric freezing level". Could someone tell me the ...
4 votes
1 answer
79 views

Odd wind-speed distribution over North Sea

A popular website for observing wind-speed showed the following distribution over the North Sea 2022-02-18 around the same time that storm Eunice was due to hit the UK. There is some kind of long ...
3 votes
1 answer
385 views

Temperature Inversion

According to my environmental management textbook, the conditions necessary for a temperature inversion are: High air pressure, which causes the upper air to sink Calm conditions resulting from high ...
4 votes
1 answer
133 views

Are terms like "Extremely Torrential Rain" (>500 mm/24 hours) universal in meteorology?

Meteorological phenomenon can span large ranges in size and strength and categorizations exist based on thresholds, One example is the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) (see also NOAA) ...
4 votes
0 answers
51 views

Do warm-season Foehn winds occur in the Pacific Northwest?

Over the last 30 years, Foehn winds have led to wildfires affecting densely populated areas of the California coast. They're called Diablo winds in the north, and Santa Ana winds in the south. ...
4 votes
0 answers
61 views

What is the reason behind some of the biome anomalies in Africa?

For example : The center of Africa lies in the Equatorial region and yet, does not have tropical rainforests all the way across. The island of Madagascar has two different biomes Since altitude and ...
8 votes
1 answer
128 views

Is there any link between the weekly human cycle and weather?

I am interested in the linkage between the cyclical timing of human activity, and whether that has a direct affect on weather. Most obvious to me is the weekly cycle, which is observed by most of the ...
6 votes
1 answer
104 views

Did Dark Lightning turn out to be a real thing? Is this what produces gamma ray flashes from lightning storms?

The Science at NASA video ScienceCasts: Dark Lightning describes observation of gamma rays from Earth by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These gamma rays are associated with weather that produces ...
7 votes
2 answers
500 views

Is there a standardized way to define weather icons based on quantifiable data?

Weather APIs often provide weather icons which symbolize the state of the sky at a given point, or as an average. Is there a standardized way to define what the icon should be, based on quantifiable ...
15 votes
3 answers
2k views

What causes these banded clouds?

A set of banded clouds can be seen in MODIS imagery during several days in January and February over the Gulf of Maine. They tend to occur with very cold winds from the NW following storms. There are ...
15 votes
6 answers
4k views

With all the rain Seattle gets, why is widespread flooding relatively rare?

The Puget Sound region is wedged between the Pacific and the Cascades...you'd think with all that rain (and snowmelt in the warmer months), there would be catastrophic flash flooding in lowland areas, ...
0 votes
2 answers
58 views

Potential temperature constant in a well-mixed atmospheric layer?

Why is the potential temperature, defined as $\theta = T\Big(\frac{P_0}{P}\Big)^{R/c_p}$, constant in a well-mixed layer? I understand that the dew point temperature has to be parallel to a line of ...
5 votes
1 answer
71 views

Is Global Mean Surface Atmosphere Pressure changed long-term by global warming?

We know the Global Mean Temperature is increasing due to climate change. But for the Global Mean Atmosphere Pressure, can we see an obvious trend?
10 votes
3 answers
284 views

Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?

Since there is a total solar eclipse somewhere almost every year, I would have thought it would be included as a standard option in weather forecast models. However, I've learned that is not really ...
7 votes
6 answers
365 views

Are there any weather services that provide hourly forecasts beyond 7 days?

I'm working on a small project and am trying to find a way to get the very extended hour-by-hour forecast for a location. Most services (Darksky, etc.) seem to offer 7-day extended hourly forecasts, ...
3 votes
1 answer
76 views

How accurate is ERA5 weather data?

We are using weather data to feed building energy models. Historically, we would do that with weather from the closest weather station, which can be far away (up to 100 km, I guess). Recently, we've ...
19 votes
2 answers
36k views

Transfer precipitation forecast in mm to expected snowfall in cm

What conversion functions exist to transfer precipitation forecast in mm to expected snowfall in cm? Simple rules of thumbs as well as more advanced methods would be of interest.
3 votes
1 answer
35 views

Does saturation mixing ratio change during adiabatic ascent/descent?

Does saturation mixing ratio change during adiabatic ascent/descent? I think the mixing ratio ($r_v = \rho_v/\rho_d$) is constant as long as no water vapor is condensed out, but saturation mixing ...
5 votes
0 answers
61 views

Formation of Clouds in High Pressure Systems (Western Australia - Perth)

High pressure systems are normally correlated with stable atmospheric conditions with little to no cloud cover, but due to this minimal cloud cover, doesn't that open up the ocean / ground moisture to ...
5 votes
1 answer
254 views

Are halcyon days an actual phenomenon?

According to Greek mythology, halcyon days are the seven days in winter when storms never occur. [Wikipedia] I assume that Ancient Greeks noticed a period in winter during which the weather was ...
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Moisture flux convergence in GrADS

I want to calculate vertically integrated moisture flux convergence (VIMFC) in GrADS. But when I give the following instruction it marks me errors: ...

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