Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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Can cloud seeding make a much hotter summer, at a middle latitude, at the area that receives less water than expected?

My country, Spain (40ºN), receives clouds from the Atlantic Ocean during the summer. Our most visited beaches are on the Eastern coast, which sits on the Mediterranean Sea, there is typically more dry ...
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How big does something have to be to cause an atmospheric event upon entry to the Earth's atmosphere?

The question is about a foreign object, ranging from an asteroid to a spaceship. How large does it have to be in order for its presence to start messing with the weather patterns, causing the like of ...
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1answer
61 views

Extract a GFS variable

I'm trying to extract the APCP variable from a GFS file, with this code: wgrib2 gfst.grb2 -match ":(APCP):" - grib gfst.grb2.small I get a ...
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1answer
56 views

Uncertainty In ERA-Interim data

Greeting, What is the estimated uncertainty value in Temperature, relative humidity, U and V winds of ERA-Interim data?
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2answers
265 views

Are there websites where I can get “lightning frequency maps” in near-real time (worldwide)?

I have an NASA Inspire VLF-3 radio receiver kit that I'm going to put together. It amplifies VLF electromagnetic signals that are already in the audio frequency range and makes them audible. One of ...
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6answers
304 views

Are there any weather services that provide hourly forecasts beyond 7 days?

I'm working on a small project and am trying to find a way to get the very extended hour-by-hour forecast for a location. Most services (Darksky, etc.) seem to offer 7-day extended hourly forecasts, ...
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4answers
3k views

Can the previous weather be computed from the current situation?

If one applies today's state-of-the-art weather forecast computations "backwards", i.e. computing how the systems was X days before the current situation based on knowledge of today's situation, at ...
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1answer
106 views

Why is potential vorticity so emphasized in technical work, but often neglected in maps on weather websites?

When I was first introduced to potential vorticity, I was told that it is a very important tool for meteorologists to learn. Sure, it solved a simple problem in dynamics, but it wasn't apparent to me ...
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39 views

Plotting moist static energy fluxes

I'm trying to plot Moist static energy fluxes (vectors) and their divergence like the attached Figure. I have monthly means of u, v, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential from(1000-100 hPa) ...
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0answers
35 views

Is there a conventional name for when wind speed increases as a result of a large descending air mass?

I remember reading a long time ago in a meteorology book that certain dust storms were caused by a rapid descent of a large air mass. As the air is pressed against the ground, it is forced to spread ...
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1answer
108 views

What happens in the upper air when the altitude of the tropopause changes?

I know about the seasonal changes of the altitude of the tropopause as well as the differences by latitude. I thought the change at one location was a very slow process, but I just found upper air ...
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3answers
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Does the Coriolis Effect affect a wind from East to West?

I'm studying meteorology for a pilot license and there I was taught as a rule of thumb that wind at higher altitudes is approximately turned 30° clockwise to the wind on the surface due to the ...
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1answer
297 views

How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

The solar radiation is one of the important factors controlling the formation of $O_3$, and thereby impacting the levels of various secondary species in the atmosphere. However, in the campaign of ...
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2answers
95 views

Can you have a low pressure with no clouds?

My understanding is that low pressure is usually associated with cloudy skies, however in the last week I observed a day that had low pressure reading but no clouds. Is this possible or did I perhaps ...
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0answers
49 views

For how long can the wind blow unabated on a “trade wind route”?

Take a specific point at sea level (less than 100 meters above it) on a "trade wind" oceanic route. For example, somewhere on Labrador-Ireland route, at roughly 50 degrees of latitude north. Let's say,...
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1answer
433 views

Are you more likely to get a sunburn at the pole than the equator?

After looking at this post I can see that a flat object is more exposed to the sun at the equator. Does this mean that a person walking around (standing up), is much more likely to burn at the poles ...
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1answer
32 views

Precipitation Totals past days online?

I am looking for a website that can I look for to check and see the precipitation totals for past days.. I go to this site : https://www.cocorahs.org/ . It lacks in some areas where I live in the ...
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1answer
147 views

What kind of climate could you expect in a mountainous area in a subtropical region?

More specifically, I'm trying to work out climate analogues for my farm. It's at 5200-6200ft in South India. My area is a bit too small for the Köppen Map to correctly reveal patterns. I'll be ...
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1answer
83 views

Why do clouds have ceilings and bases?

What is the point called when water can not rise above or visually seem to have a ceiling in the atmosphere? What makes that point ideal?
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1answer
48 views

Estimating Average Rainfall

In a question related to my previous one. I am in the process of building a fantasy world. I have the landmasses with elevation worked out along with the air/wind directions at the various latitudes ...
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1answer
60 views

Ocean air reaching maximum humidity

How many miles (or how many hours/days) does air have to travel over the ocean to reach maximum humidity or carry the maximum amount of water it would hold at typical humidity assuming a wind speed of ...
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1answer
97 views

Does the Columbia Basin, North Cascades and Idaho Panhandle/Clearwater get a lot of violent, rotating supercellular thunderstorms?

Every storm season, supercells erupt in Montana and Wyoming. Wayward cold-core setups can trigger supercells or even long-tracked strong tornadoes in the Columbia/Willamette Valley and the rest of SW ...
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0answers
61 views

Do NO2 and O3 titrate each other out in the atmosphere?

Here is a plot of the vertical column densities of NO2 and O3 from an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer in Fairbanks, Alaska. It is interesting to see that when NO2 dips, O3 rises, and vice versa. Also,...
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1answer
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Data of terrestrial evapotranspiration over large areas?

I have been looking for information regarding the total amount of water that evaporates from terrestrial systems and found some global estimates like this one http://www.waterandclimatechange.eu/...
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1answer
41 views

Are there areas of desert sands which experience blizzards?

Building off of another question I recently asked (Is there sand in Antarctica?) I want to ask a broader question coming from the same motive described there. Are there desert sands that experience ...
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1answer
138 views

Is there a maximum size for a single snowflake?

Just based on my previous experiences a wetter snow, in general, has larger flakes. Some online sources say that raindrops do have a maximum size before they start to break apart when surface tension ...
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0answers
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Where to find meteorological data from road stations?

I am involved on a project that aims to analyze data from road weather stations, like the ones you can see from a German site here: https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/bufr_extensions_national/...
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1answer
65 views

Why is the diurnal temperature range on the Cascade volcanoes so small?

Ski-mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest I am frustrated that the snow pack isn't refreezing at night. There is about a 20F difference between the day and night temperatures in Seattle. Looking at ...
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0answers
50 views

Tower cumulus clouds without lightnings

Is there any possibility to have tower cumulus (or cumulonimbus in worst case) without lightnings? And if this is happen what is the factor that cause this phenomenon?
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1answer
80 views

How to know to which PC (Principal Component) a sample belongs in EOF/PCA

I applied EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function, a type of Principal Component Analysis, PCA) analysis to a dataset(geopotential height at 925hpa from ECMWF-interim reanalysis data) that contains 3 ...
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1answer
45 views

Where can I get good raw meteorological data for Middle East?

I live in the Middle East and I am really fond of understanding meteorology and using raw data make my own weather predictions. However, a limitation I encounter here is that most raw meteorological ...
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1answer
106 views

Can someone help me identify this cloud formation?

These pictures were taken today in Oklahoma City and I am both baffled and curious as to what formation this may be. I was wondering if anyone had any idea? Thank you!
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Why does the Earth have six atmospheric bands? [duplicate]

I know that the earth has atmospheric banding like the gas giants. What I want to know is why six in specific? What physical processes or equations determine the number of atmospheric bands on a ...
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1answer
276 views

WRF: EPSG code or spatial reference for Lambert conformal, Mercator and polar stereographic projections [closed]

I'm building an R package (https://github.com/ibarraespinosa/wrftools) to read namelist.wps and return a dynamic map which you can make zoom. In my case, it would be very beneficial because writing a ...
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1answer
440 views

Required temperature difference between land and sea for sea breeze

What is the required temperature difference between the sea and the land in order to create a sea breeze? Is there any relation between the temperature difference and the sea breeze intensity? Is ...
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0answers
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Can a tornado burn itself out?

I know that hurricanes can basically "burn" themselves out of energy if they get too strong, but can the same thing happen with a tornado?
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1answer
219 views

Who would know how to manage rainwater erosion on a sloped property?

I'm a meteorologist with little experience in hydrology. I'm studying my land with the rainwater flow patterns during heavy rain events and looking to manage the erosion, flash flooding, and ponding ...
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1answer
51 views

Calculating a cloud cover index based on comparison of horizontal and tilted irradiance from pyranometers

I have data from 2 pyranometers, one in the horizontal plane and one in a tilted plane. The relevance of the tilting relates to their useage in solar-power plants whereby the tilt is in the same plane ...
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2answers
92 views

Does the NWS actually name winter storms, or is this exclusive to the Weather Channel?

If you occasionally check the Weather Channel (either the smartphone app or online), you'll see they reference strong weather systems by name. (It only seems to be eastern storms.) I've always ...
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2answers
296 views

How to tell if fog is made out of water droplets or ice crystals?

I understand that clouds can be made out of water droplets and/or ice crystals. And that fog is nothing else than low-lying clouds. However, I've experienced fog in a wide ranges of temperatures. I ...
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1answer
132 views

Looking for global cloud cover animations or videos

I am looking for a video of global cloud cover. Something like an animated version of this image: (Originally presented at http://naturalearth.springercarto.com/ne3_data/8192/clouds/africa_clouds_8k....
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2answers
82 views

How should one compare the comfort of climates?

Is there a way to measure the overall feel of the weather for a place? Suppose that: Place A has Temperature $33^o C$, Humidity $57\%$, Wind $14\;km/hr$, and Precipitation $20\%$ Place B has ...
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1answer
40 views

What is an 'obstacle vista diagram'?

Currently I do some research about SODAR and at this paper, the author wrote (p. 1502f): A site should be relatively clear of obstacles that could act as potential fixed-echo reflectors. If that ...
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1answer
36 views

Where can I find detailed historical breakdowns of U.S. lightning fatalities on a year-by-year basis?

e.g. Something like this, but for historical years (preferably covering 1980-2007, since the NWS detailed lists only start from 2008). Location of strike, victim name, where the victim was at (under ...
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0answers
40 views

What are typical ranges of rainfall drop sizes, speeds, and areal or volume densities?

I'd like to look into the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi and the PiCam module to detect rain, and to try to make some measurements of droplet size and rate. This could be done using an LED flash ...
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1answer
340 views

Relationship between pressure, temperature and density in meterology

I have been learning meteorology a bit on my own, and one thing that never gets answered clearly is the relationship of pressure, temperature, and density. When I looked it up, the density of air at ...
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1answer
1k views

Can anyone recommend a good college level meteorology textbook?

I am trying to learn meteorology through self-study. I have found quite a few lectures on YouTube, but they tend to be for non-scientists. I have a strong engineering and physics background and am ...
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Will global Warming continue to produce winter storms in the Northeast US?

Will GW just cause more winter storms in Northeast US or will all of US have colder winters ? This winter in East TX we had three record cold snaps and I lost a lot of Camellia Japonica buds and ...
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58 views

Snow under Siberian High

The Siberian High is a very strong anticyclone present over Siberia in the winter. Cities like Irkutsk lie at its very center, yet Irkutsk has 18-20 days of snow per month in the winter. Shouldn't we ...
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1answer
164 views

What are the band names of the NCEP grib files?

I'm downloading .grib files from NCEP: ftp://nomads.ncdc.noaa.gov/GFS/analysis_only/ Each file has 315 bands. What are their names? Reproducibility with R: ...