Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

4
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1answer
163 views

What are the band names of the NCEP grib files?

I'm downloading .grib files from NCEP: ftp://nomads.ncdc.noaa.gov/GFS/analysis_only/ Each file has 315 bands. What are their names? Reproducibility with R: ...
11
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1answer
785 views

How to tell the difference between real rain and fake rain (cloud seeding)?

I live in a city where the pollution is bad, so bad that sometimes we get 'fake' rain (from cloud seeding). This may last for an extended period. There have been times before when it has “rained” and ...
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0answers
124 views

Why does hot air sink in the eye of a tropical cyclone? [duplicate]

We know that warm air rises in the atmosphere due to the reduced density of the parcel itself. But in the eye of a tropical cyclone the warm air sinks down and does not reach the surface, but gets ...
4
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1answer
148 views

Why would geostrophic theory be invoked in the tropics with regards to the MJO?

In this paper reviewing the Madden-Julian Oscillation, frequently geostrophic theory (or approximately geostrophic) is often invoked. However, for geostrophic theory to be invoked, $$Ro=\frac{U}{f_0L}&...
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1answer
220 views

If Earth had rings would gravity exerted by Earth decrease?

If Earth had enough mass in its own rings, more than the weight of Earth: What could it decrease the gravity to? Would the atmosphere have more depth or be thinner? What would the weather be like? ...
0
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1answer
124 views

Does being in the air provide any protection from an asteroid?

How does radiation and shock waves from a radioactive asteroid or atomic explosion disperse throughout Earth's atmosphere? Are there specific areas on Earth that are less likely to receive the shock ...
9
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2answers
300 views

What are the sunniest places on Earth? (including oceans)

This question did arise when thinking on offshore solar power plants, what's their potential, and how efficient would they be compared with land based counterparts. Recently, it is becoming more ...
5
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2answers
979 views

Why do meteorological seasons start earlier than astronomical seasons?

In meteorology the seasons always start at the beginning of the month the astronomical seasons start. The astronomical seasons start around the 21st in a month so I guess it would make more sense to ...
4
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1answer
539 views

How would I use data to find specific humidity and mixing ratio?

I keep reviewing this table to compare and contrast my results: The parcel of air is at 35°C and a relative humidity of 43%. I used this online calculator and it stated that with these two factors ...
2
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1answer
285 views

Does the snow come from local moisture or transported moisture?

Currently there is a snow storm coming from Europe over the UK. This is drastically dropping the temperature and making it snow lots. Is the snow coming from moisture that has been brought over from ...
8
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1answer
179 views

Where did the daily temperature variation go?

Currently central and northern Europe are experiencing a very cold, false-spring like weather phenomenon. When i look at local weather charts, the daily temperature cycle seems to be completely gone, ...
2
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2answers
596 views

How do I convert kg·kg⁻¹ to ppbV (parts per billion volume)?

I am using the CAMS model output data to figure out the ground level ozone at a particular place. It is given in mass mixing ratio, and I want to convert to parts per billion volume mixing ratio (...
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55 views

Correlation between temperature and precipitable water in the tropical climate

Air temperature is known to correlate well with precipitable water at higher latitudes. What are the likely factors that degrade the correlation in the tropical monsoon climate?
3
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1answer
99 views

Can anyone explain this frost phenomenon?

Look at this amazing frost I woke up to in Sooke, BC, Canada. This was so very cool to wake up to.
4
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2answers
250 views

Is there any video evidence of animals raining from the sky?

I image most people have heard stories of fish, frogs, or other small animals raining from the sky. I found quite a few articles on line with many instances of such occurrences but they were mostly ...
2
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0answers
41 views

How to divide timeseries into normal periods in meteorology and climatology?

When analyzing hydrological and climatological timeseries/observations it is a common practice to compare statistics made on normal periods. As WMO calls them: "WMO Climatological Normals". These ...
1
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2answers
239 views

What is the highest balloons possible in a chain?

The BU60-1 balloon attained an altitude of 53.0 km (32.9 mi; 173,900 ft). Weather permitting, would a series of climbable balloons in a chain be able to be linked from the ground to that height of ...
6
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0answers
72 views

Science behind the groundhog day myth

The myth goes that if a groundhog sees his shadow on Feb 2, six more weeks of winter are yet to come, but if he doesn't, spring is just around the corner. I am wondering if there is any science ...
18
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2answers
5k views

Where is the calmest place on Earth?

I have done some research online, and I've found out that Antarctica has the calmest winds (lowest maximum wind speed) recorded on Earth. However, it is uninhabitable for human life. Other very calm ...
3
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1answer
84 views

CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, can it be shown as ensemble average?

Let’s say I have got 15 CMIP5 models’ outputs of a given variable e.g. temperature, for RCP6.5 (2020-2100) run. I want to plot how the temperature will change in the future 2020-2100 (scatter plot, x ...
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0answers
18 views

Is there such a thing as virtual barotropic?

In meteorological terminology within dynamics, there are usually one of two unique assumptions made: Baroclinic- density is a function of both temperature and pressure : $\rho(x,y,z,t)=\frac{P(x,y,z,...
11
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2answers
156 views

Water on Mars and Earth

If water on Earth came from meteorites, why doesn't Mars have substantial water? What made it more highly probable on Earth than on Mars?
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0answers
63 views

Where can I find climate analogs? [closed]

It is an unusual year where I'm at, I'd like to go and see similar climatological years for the north america, more particularly for average pressure, maybe 500mb or 700mb. How would I do this Edit:...
8
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4answers
136 views

How do I find the horizontal pressure level that divides the atmosphere into 2 layers of equal mass?

Surface pressure given is p = 1000 hPa. (the temperature along the atmosphere is constant (T = −10 °C; hydrostatic equilibrium assumed). I tried using the hypsometric equation to find the height of ...
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1answer
122 views

What percentage of cumulonimbus clouds create lightning?

I understand that cumulonimbus clouds can create lightning, but do not understand how many of them create lightning. I would assume that most multi-cell systems would have lightning, while single ...
3
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1answer
56 views

CMIP5 Historical experiments, what do they mean?

What are the main characteristics of CMIP5 Historical experiments? e.g. Initial conditions? Greenhouse gases forcing? How they differ from RCPs? And how they are similar to Observed reanalysis data?...
6
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1answer
2k views

How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
6
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1answer
890 views

How to calculate humidity using outside temperature and outside relative humidity?

I would like to ask how to calculate the relative humidity that a heated indoor area would have using only outside temperature and outside relative humidity. I found the Relative Humidity Calculator ...
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0answers
43 views

classifying the actual weather data of Cfb climate to dry, normal and wet periods [closed]

I have 3 years weather data of a region in Austria, and I want to classify a year to dry, normal and wet periods, how I can analyse this data of such climate? Thanks
6
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1answer
133 views

Do Siberia and Canada have a rasputitsa?

The rasputitsa is a muddy season that happens twice per year in West Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. It happens in mid-October to late November due to rains, and mid-March to late April due to thaws (...
2
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1answer
87 views

Are high velocity winds, or the lack of wind, the most common cause for low visibility?

Low visibility, say <1km (3300 ft), can be caused by fog when there is no/little wind present. On the other hand, high winds associated with blizzards or wildfires can also create low visibility ...
5
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2answers
104 views

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather?

Would the enthalpy of fusion for melting ice fields be a causative factor for colder winter weather? As an example, NASA estimated the annual loss of the Greenland ice field 2002-2013 as more than ...
4
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1answer
122 views

How averaging works in GFS model from NOAA?

We have downloaded grib2 files for GFS model from NOAA and extracted irradiance (Downwards shortwave radiation flux) data. Following is a sample output for cordinates at [52.0,4.0]: ...
5
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1answer
162 views

Can I use radar data to estimate snowfall, or is there a better way?

The problem: There are lots of websites that provide snow forecasts for various ski resorts. The area of interest to me is Japan, specifically the Nagano area, where I use snow-forecast.com and www....
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0answers
159 views

Calculation of apparent heating (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) as defined by Yanai et al. (1972) using NetCDF data?

Please can anyone explain how to calculate apparent heating (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) as defined by Yanai et al. (1972) using NetCDF data? Please kindly check equation 6(Q1) and 7(Q2) of ...
4
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0answers
49 views

Want to buy wind speed sensor, small, cheap [closed]

I want to build a small atmospheric sensor setup that will include an anemometer. It doesn't have to be especially accurate but should be small, lightweight and reliable. The part I'm missing is the ...
5
votes
1answer
106 views

Satellite ocean near-surface air temperature data

For my study, I need to use satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and at the same time I also need satellite air temperature data (Ta) for the first few meters above the ocean. For SST I'll be ...
4
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1answer
31 views

What are the basic rules of how light and seasons affect landscape and objects lighting?

It would probably be a strange question for here but i will shoot it. I want to modify the shaders for Prepar3d the next version of MS flight simulator game. I have ways of interfering with ambient/...
5
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0answers
80 views

What level of heat creates a dust devil?

My understanding is that a dust devil is created when heated air rises rapidly displacing the cooler air above up. My question is, how relatively hot does the patch of air on the ground have to get in ...
2
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0answers
31 views

Why is wind sporadic in a Boston northeaster?

We are having a tough little northeaster in Boston, USA, right now and one oddity that I notice is the wind pattern. There will be complete calm for 3-5 minutes, then the wind will blow hard in gusts ...
2
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0answers
81 views

Why do nearby thunderstorms move in different directions?

The image below from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology shows several thunderstorms in southeast Queensland today and the directions they are expected to move. I'm surprised how different these ...
10
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2answers
370 views

Are weather forecast models more accurate for either high or low temperatures?

The other day our low temperature for the day was ~10 degrees F below our forecast low. I've noticed this before in the winter, especially when temperatures start to go below 0 degrees F (-18 degrees ...
6
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1answer
194 views

Why is cold air fast in an occluded front, but slow in an anti-cyclone?

I've read that cold air moves faster than hot air, for example in an occluded front. But in case of anti-cyclone encountering a cyclone it appears that the cold air of the anti-cyclone moves very ...
4
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1answer
87 views

What is a “tar shower?”

I'm reading about Sodom and Gomorrah on Wikipedia when I come across this: "One such idea is that the Dead Sea was devastated by an earthquake between 2100 and 1900 BCE. This might have unleashed ...
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1answer
64 views

Is there a name for this weather phenomenon?

I was wondering if there was a name for the effect I’ve noticed over a lake in really cold weather. You can see white wisps over it, which I think is mist from the lake rising into the air and ...
10
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2answers
745 views

Can the Bering Sea Rule be used to predict the weather?

Recently, a colleague explained that the recent cold spell in the eastern United States could have been predicted using the Bering Sea Rule. The idea is that 17-21 days after a storm appears in the ...
4
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1answer
115 views

What factors influence cloud height and type?

For example, why do altocumulus clouds fail to form at 6400m in high latitude locations, but will form at this height at a lower latitude? Is it simply an issue of temperature?
5
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1answer
242 views

How do spectral methods work in the context of numerical weather prediction models?

I am broadly familiar with the concept of numerical weather prediction models using various finite methods to solve the primitive equations used in these models, but how do spectral methods work, ...
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1answer
220 views

Severe storm predictions: What meteorological considerations go into hazard assessments? [closed]

In the United States the National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center (SPC) now has 5 categories for the threat of severe storms. These five categories replaced the previous three ...
3
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2answers
63 views

Looking for fun and illuminating weather visualizations

I'm looking for illuminating and fun weather data visualizations like e.g. EarthWindMap. More specifically, I was hoping to find wind vectors overlayed onto a prognostic chart to visualize how the ...