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Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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375 views

Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
10
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0answers
72 views

How are scatterometer observations standardised before being fed into reanalysis models?

This very basic question occurred to me during a talk on reanalysis data sets. Often we know the observations produced by a particular instrument, say rain radar, are biased from one year to the next ...
9
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234 views

What is the finest horizontal grid spacing that Eulerian grid-cell air-dispersion models should use?

My colleagues run the Advanced Research Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in predictive mode, and then test the skill of the model anywhere from 12 - 84 hours out from the initialization ...
9
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0answers
127 views

Is there a distinction between gap winds and channelled flow?

I have seen gap flows mentioned in the literature, for example [Gohm et al. 2004, Zängl 2002, Mayr et al. 2007]. Whiteman 2000 defines a gap as a "major erosional opening through mountain ranges" and ...
8
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0answers
136 views

What meteorological factors contribute to springtime Trans-Pacific air-pollution events?

The transport of tropospheric ozone, ozone precursors, carbon monoxide, etc from Asia to North America is an active area of research (see J.L. Ambrose, et al., 2011) These types of events occur ...
8
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0answers
133 views

Relation of El Niño to Monsoons

Scientists are forecasting a weak to moderate El Niño event to emerge in the coming months, what causes this to happen? Once developed, how will the El Niño conditions effect progressive monsoon ...
7
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85 views

In quasi-geostrophic frontogenesis, what happens if the potential vorticity is negative?

In particular, what happens if the Sawyer–Eliassen equation cannot be solved? I know that a condition for the Sawyer–Eliassen equation to have a solution is $F^2 N^2 - S^4 >0$, which means that the ...
7
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0answers
426 views

Calculating Monthly Accumulation value of the Clearness Index KT

I have an hourly data file of a particular location which contains the following variables (extracted from the Meteonorm7.0 data base, for a typical one year of data): GlobHor (W/m2): Horizontal ...
6
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0answers
72 views

Science behind the groundhog day myth

The myth goes that if a groundhog sees his shadow on Feb 2, six more weeks of winter are yet to come, but if he doesn't, spring is just around the corner. I am wondering if there is any science ...
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0answers
123 views

Are extratropical cyclones the same as baroclinic waves?

Are extratropical cyclones the same as baroclinic waves? I'm aware of the fact that extratropical cyclones form in 'baroclinic zones' and that they start of as waves. But are these what are referred ...
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63 views

Using Acummulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) for non-tropical cyclones

Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) is used to measure and compare the activity of individual hurricanes and entire tropical cyclone seasons. It is calculated as an integral of the squares of hurricane ...
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78 views

Worldwide weather maps database

I am searching for a database (a free one would be great) that would give me, for any chosen rectangular area on earth, historic data about pressure, sea water temperature, wind (including both speed ...
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78 views

Spatial variability in ocean surface winds

For the near-surface winds over the ocean, many model products and satellite footprints have spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. I'm interested in knowing how much the winds (both ...
5
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0answers
69 views

Using salinity to predict rainfall

Recently, a new method has been proposed by Ray Schmitt (WHOI) and collaborators to use salinity patterns in the ocean to predict weather events (more specifically, rainfall) at scales from weeks to ...
5
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0answers
59 views

Can a tornado burn itself out?

I know that hurricanes can basically "burn" themselves out of energy if they get too strong, but can the same thing happen with a tornado?
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0answers
80 views

What level of heat creates a dust devil?

My understanding is that a dust devil is created when heated air rises rapidly displacing the cooler air above up. My question is, how relatively hot does the patch of air on the ground have to get in ...
5
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0answers
97 views

Are there rules to estimate average temperature

I have temperature data from a weather station, but there are missing data (not more than 80% of the daily temperature observations). The World Meteorological Organization has some rules to validate ...
5
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0answers
62 views

How does fog affect the conductivity/breakdown voltage of air?

Could the breakdown voltage of air significantly go down in very foggy weather (especially very salty fog from seawater)? Kind of a hypothetical question, but if anyone has something on this, I'd ...
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57 views

Estimating fog incidence based on ocean temperature

In the tropics, say the Caribbean, I have read that there is very often a lot of nighttime and morning fog. I have read that the crucial factors are The ocean temperature Cool nighttime air ...
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0answers
42 views

What is the strongest observed static stability in the troposphere?

I know that typical values for the Brunt–Väisälä frequency, $N$, are of the order $10^{-2} \mathrm{s}^{-1}$, but what is the strongest observed stability? And how deep are such strong layers? I am ...
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75 views

NCEP reanalysis latitude and longitude represent center of cell?

I can't find any information regarding the lat and long in the NCEP Reanalysis. Do they represent the center of the cell?
5
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0answers
162 views

Is there anywhere on Earth *without* a rain shadow where we would otherwise expect one?

My understanding of rain shadows is that they occur in a region where year-round wind direction is the same (or nearly so), and there's a mountain range close by, such that the mountains block ...
5
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0answers
177 views

Bulk and dynamic viscosity in the atmosphere

I'm studying the physics of the atmosphere but I'm struggling with the matter of viscosity (Navier-Stokes equation) for gravito-acoustic waves. From Landau-Lifschitz : $$ (T)_{ij} = -p\delta_{ij} + \...
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96 views

How do the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) waves originate?

I was reading about tropical cyclones and tropical waves and there I saw a study mentioning its relationship with MJO activities. I saw several research papers which discuss about MJO waves. They only ...
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49 views

Are clouds more common at night?

Clouds obviously have a strong effect on surface temperatures. By blocking sunlight they can decrease the temperature by several degrees. At night they have a blanket effect that traps warm air and ...
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0answers
52 views

What colors can lightning be and what causes the different colors?

I've always thought of lightning as being either bright white or yellow in color. However, in the summer I've also seen lightning appear red as so called "heat lightning". What I'm wondering is what ...
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41 views

How big does something have to be to cause an atmospheric event upon entry to the Earth's atmosphere?

The question is about a foreign object, ranging from an asteroid to a spaceship. How large does it have to be in order for its presence to start messing with the weather patterns, causing the like of ...
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0answers
40 views

What are typical ranges of rainfall drop sizes, speeds, and areal or volume densities?

I'd like to look into the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi and the PiCam module to detect rain, and to try to make some measurements of droplet size and rate. This could be done using an LED flash ...
4
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0answers
46 views

What software for cloud motion forecasting

I have a large sequence of images in .png (10 second resolution) from sky image system. Is there any inexpensive software for processing images and forecasting cloud motion? I have found out that ...
4
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0answers
111 views

How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
4
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0answers
134 views

How to explain the diurnal variation for different seasons

In a recent work, I'm trying to figure out the pollution situation of my case area. Dealing with the online equipments, I have got the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration time series for a whole year. I ...
4
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0answers
99 views

Why do I occasionally see a lenticular cloud when there's no mountains for hundreds of miles?

Very rarely in the USA Northern Mid West, maybe once a year at most, I will see a very smooth, concave cloud floating over the sky that looks exactly like a lenticular cloud, and only a few minutes, ...
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0answers
211 views

Why does this contrail diverge and then converge?

I observed this contrail above me today, and I noticed that the two inner contrails diverge outwards to merge with the two outer contrails. Then, as the contrails dissipate after several seconds they ...
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0answers
120 views

Software and methods used in LIDAR data visualization?

I was assigned a task to prepare a report which states the current state of the art in Doppler wind LIDAR (DWL) visualization and visualization tools used in meteorology. In the last 3 days I've tried ...
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0answers
77 views

Are there any books, websites, etc. that have many practice problems for Skew-T diagrams and the atmospheric sciences in general?

I am asking because my Intro to Atmospheric Science class (lectures, labs, and the book) has not provided any practice examples of Skew-T diagrams, Coriolis force calculations, LCL (liquid ...
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0answers
163 views

Pasquill-Gifford stability class data for one station

On my project, Stability classes is an useful tool to analysis the weather condition for one place. Using R Package Worldmet, I can get the hourly weather ...
4
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0answers
39 views

Why did Hudson Bay melt so late this year?

The fear with the polar bears is that the ice-free period in the bay is getting longer, right? Did the consecutive polar vortex years from all this global weirding make the bay's winters colder? It ...
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0answers
40 views

What determines the eastward speed that mid-latitude high pressure/low pressure systems move at?

Do they move at the group velocity of Rossby Waves? Or do they move at the phase velocity of Rossby Waves? Or some other speed?
3
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0answers
43 views

Ordered arrangement of clouds

I happened to take a photograph of a region of clouds ,and it seems to have a rather ordered arrangement ,if one looks towards the left of the image. Would there be a physical explanation for this or ...
3
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0answers
61 views

Roughly what proportion of a cloud does 'rain out'?

What proportion of the water in a cloud will 'rain out'? Or, comparing the cloud before and after it has rained, what proportion of the water is left afterwards? I really have no idea so am just ...
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0answers
85 views

Are global temperatures, specifically between the two hemispheres, in balance?

I've anecdotally but repeatedly observed a certain balance between temperatures in the two hemispheres. For example, early this year (2018), while Europe was under a late winter spell, weather here in ...
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0answers
66 views

Difference between GDAS and GFS data

What is the exact difference between GFS 0.25 and GDAS 0.25 data which is available in http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/. And are the GFS 0.5 and 1 degree data available in the above url and here the same?...
3
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0answers
134 views

Why is the atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone lowest in the eye, even though it contains sinking air?

The lowest atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone is generally located in the eye at the center of the cyclone; however, the air in the eye is descending, while the air in the surrounding portions ...
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0answers
61 views

Do NO2 and O3 titrate each other out in the atmosphere?

Here is a plot of the vertical column densities of NO2 and O3 from an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer in Fairbanks, Alaska. It is interesting to see that when NO2 dips, O3 rises, and vice versa. Also,...
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0answers
34 views

Where to find meteorological data from road stations?

I am involved on a project that aims to analyze data from road weather stations, like the ones you can see from a German site here: https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/bufr_extensions_national/...
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0answers
38 views

Will global Warming continue to produce winter storms in the Northeast US?

Will GW just cause more winter storms in Northeast US or will all of US have colder winters ? This winter in East TX we had three record cold snaps and I lost a lot of Camellia Japonica buds and ...
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0answers
64 views

Where did clouds obscure the American eclipse of August 2017?

Emphasis here is did. I'm trying to find a source that will inform me about which locations in the United States actually had their view of the eclipse on Aug 21, 2017 obscured by clouds. I'd ...
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0answers
466 views

What are the Theoretical Limits for Tornado Size and Strength

Is there a theoretical physical limit that we can calculate with regards to Tornado formation? At what size and strength is a hypothetical tornado physically impossible. The largest tornado in ...
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0answers
784 views

Moisture flux convergence in GrADS

I want to calculate vertically integrated moisture flux convergence (VIMFC) in GrADS. But when I give the following instruction it marks me errors: ...
3
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0answers
58 views

Equation for Atmospheric Pressure Tide

Using Pressure sensors - I found out that there is a daily pressure wave-like pattern with peaks at 9:00 & 21:00 (local time). I want to construct an equation to explain this phenomena, probably ...