Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
4
votes
3answers
137 views

Why do clouds have ceilings and bases?

What is the point called when water can not rise above or visually seem to have a ceiling in the atmosphere? What makes that point ideal?
2
votes
2answers
4k views

Should I worry about copper pipe outside attracting lightning strikes?

I used some copper pipe outside to string some decorative lights up higher in my yard. I used the copper because I thought it would be pretty and patina nice. Then I remembered that copper is a good ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

In meteorology, are satellite data “better” than reanalysis data?

More specifically, can it be argued that satellite data are more reliable because they are direct measurements of physical quantities, while reanalysis data depend on the processing and merging of ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

What CRS does GFS use?

I'm trying to reproject GRIB data from NOAA forecasts onto other data using Python and the pygrib and proj packages (among many others). What is the proper Proj string for GFS GRIBs? The projection ...
8
votes
1answer
4k views

Continuous lightning for over an hour; is this phenomenon common and does it have a name?

A few months ago, I witnessed something off the coast of Florida that I have never seen in my life. From my apartment, from about 10PM - 12AM, I saw pretty much continuous cloud to cloud lightning. I ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Why are there both climate regions from axial tilt and weather cells?

So Earth has an axial tilt and that creates weather regions. For example, approximately 23 degrees north and south, approximately the same as the planets axial tilt, will give you the tropics. This ...
3
votes
2answers
91 views

Understanding the color coding of a weather map

I came across an infrared weather map like this I couldn't find any legend on the colorbar's color convention. Initially, I thought that might be the color for reflected light's wavelength, but there ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Books / resources on measurement methods in atmospheric sciences

I have found this very long book from weather.gov (free access) Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation which might be a bit too in-depth for what I'm looking for, so I was ...
9
votes
1answer
5k views

What is the loudest thunder ever recorded (dB) at ground level and where did it occur?

Sound travels fastest through warm air and conditions such as temperature inversions can help to amplify the sound of thunder (source). Conversely, during a thundersnow event the falling, and ...
5
votes
1answer
80 views

How/where is randomness/stochasticity used in weather prediction

I am seeking information on how weather models use randomness (if at all). From what I can gather daily weather forecasting uses partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions ...
2
votes
0answers
145 views

Predicting the weather in two months [closed]

EDIT 6/13/2020: Actual Jan average from same website was 50.3 °F, which is even above my one-sigma bound, so I failed badly. What did I miss now that we have hindsight? On Nov 1, I looked at the ...
6
votes
1answer
124 views

What are these lines that I frequently see on doppler radar?

I frequently see lines like this (the red arrows in the image below point to what I am referring to) on doppler radars. They are usually propagating outward from a line of thunderstorms. What are they,...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

Total differentiation

The local derivative is linked to the total derivative by: $\frac{\partial T}{\partial t} = \frac{DT}{Dt} - \mathbf{U} \cdot \nabla T$ and the -$ \mathbf{U} \cdot \nabla T$ term represent the change ...
2
votes
0answers
71 views

Is pollution the reason why rainbows are so rare nowadays?

Today I saw a rainbow after almost a decade. I live in Noida (a city) in India. Most people I know believe that: we don't see rainbows nowadays because of pollution and now after nearly 3 months since ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

What is the relationship between the derivatives of specific volume and potential temperature with height?

While studying about atmospheric waves, I found a passage in my book in which a equation involved the term $$ \frac{1}{\alpha }\frac{\partial \alpha }{\partial z}$$ where $\alpha$ is the specific ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Why some area in the ocean seems to have like “wind barrier”?

When looking at the earth wind map, some lines clearly distinguish themselve and act as "frontier" between stream of wind. I was wondering what it was and what was causing them? Thanks.
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Rainbowish phenomenon outside my home

I took a photo of an amazing sight I had never seen outside my home ( southern india ) but I could not tell if it was a rainbow type thing or an aurora borealis. Also if it was to be a sun dog , ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Torrential rain from a tiny cloud in otherwise blue sky [closed]

In the 1950s in England in an otherwise cloudless blue sky in summer a very small dense cloud appeared overhead around midday which looked like cumulus and for about 5 minutes we had torrential rain. ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Providing Edgar emission using prep_chem_source for tracers (CO2-CH4)

I am working on CO2 and CH4 by WRF-CHEM, for providing my anthropogenic emission from Edgar data base, I'm going to use the Prep_chem_source App. I would like to use Edgar data emission (as my ...
4
votes
1answer
232 views

What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...
10
votes
4answers
825 views

How could humans alter storm intensity or direction other than cloud seeding?

I am familiar with the concept of cloud seeding, where precipitation can be induced with aerosols, thereby altering storm intensity further downwind. Are there methods that could be used to ...
6
votes
1answer
126 views

What level of heat creates a dust devil?

My understanding is that a dust devil is created when heated air rises rapidly displacing the cooler air above up. My question is, how relatively hot does the patch of air on the ground have to get in ...
7
votes
1answer
99 views

Can a tornado burn itself out?

I know that hurricanes can basically "burn" themselves out of energy if they get too strong, but can the same thing happen with a tornado?
2
votes
2answers
124 views

If I build a concrete surface on a 1km x 1km area and painted it black, will I create convection (updraft from ground)?

Providing there are low wind conditions and a clear sky, will the 1 km x 1 km black surface create an upward convention? Let’s say I were to do this at 60$^\circ$ N longitude in march month, the ...
3
votes
2answers
103 views

Literature on atmospheric modelling

I need to understand some basics about atmospheric modelling, since I am working with data from the COSMO model for my thesis. My questions mainly concern model validation, like learning about the ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Effect on climate of the Earth’s rotation was a week instead of 24 hours

Cross-posted in Worldbuilding. Curious what the affects on daily temperatures and climate would be if the Earth had a slower rotation, say 84 hours of light and 84 hours of darkness. How extreme ...
3
votes
1answer
127 views

What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
3
votes
2answers
205 views

How to install ESMF and ESMFPy in Ubuntu using gfortran, gcc, python?

I am trying to regrid some of my latitude-longitude grid files to tripolar ocean grid and found that ESMF can be useful. However, I am finding it hard to install the same.
1
vote
1answer
245 views

Why is the pressure on the poles higher in Summer and lower in Winter?

Just to give context, this was not my original question but one that I ended up stuck with while trying to find a cause for the following observation (which is almost universally true for temperate ...
3
votes
1answer
58 views

What is a reasonable range of values for resistance to heat flux?

I am developing a simple parameterisation scheme script to predict surface temperature. The script calculates six heat fluxes including sensible heat flux using a resistance to heat flux parameter. ...
5
votes
0answers
63 views

Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Is it meaningful to assume static pressure to be constant along a streamline?

I am looking at Bernoulli's equation formulated in two dimensions, which reads $$\frac{v^2}{2}+c_p\theta_0\pi+gz \equiv \mathrm{const.}$$ along a given streamline $\gamma$, where $v=|\mathrm{v}|$ for ...
45
votes
5answers
14k views

Why do snowflakes form into hexagonal structures?

Snowflakes are known to form into pretty hexagonal structures. The image below shows a variety of such structures that are possible (although by all means not an exhaustive list): What is the ...
4
votes
3answers
7k views

Are EF6 Tornadoes officially recognized

Are EF6 Tornadoes officially recognized on the fujita scale or not, I have been quite confused on this and I have been very curious about it.
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Cloud Formations Near Capetown

Why do clouds form a 'tablecloth' which exactly fits the top of Table Mountain near Capetown, South Africa? Something about the table top tailors the clouds to fit it exactly. The thickness is smooth ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

If its ice sheet were removed under modern atmospheric conditions, what climatic and ice-sheet equilibrium would be re-established over Antarctica?

Note the use of the term removed instead of melted—as in, any excess water is moved to where it can't cause trouble, either through the use of advanced technology (space elevators, et cetera) or for ...
12
votes
3answers
652 views

How much does COVID-19 affect weather forecasts?

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is concerned about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quantity and quality of weather observations and forecasts, as well as atmospheric and climate ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

How do they determine the “feels like” temperatures for weather data?

I'm pulling air temperature and other weather stats from various APIs. There's this concept called "feels like temperature", separate from "actual temperature". Apparently, this is the temperature ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

How to search for the nearest non nan value in 2d xarray dataset

I have a 2d xarray dataset and I am having several nan values in the dataset. These nan values need to be filled with the nearest non-nan values in the 2d array. How do I do this? I am trying to ...
1
vote
1answer
254 views

Does Climate Data Store provide daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data?

I have been meaning to download the daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data from the Copernicus Climate Data Store, but couldn't find it. I need the data on pressure levels and currently I am ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

What is the “forecast hour of product”

The NCEP website describes the file naming format of the GFS forecast data. https://www.nco.ncep.noaa.gov/pmb/products/gfs/ What does "forecast hour of product" mean?
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Ice Water Content from GFS file

I am working my way through this paper: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2017/8707234.pdf Equations 10 and 11 require the ice water content. I can't find it in the GFS grib2 file ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Digital alternative to hand analyzed maps

I am a staunch believer in the benefit of hand analyzing maps to get a good feel for the state of the atmosphere before getting into my forecast. With Covid-19 keeping us out of the office, one of the ...
4
votes
1answer
49 views

How will air quality, weather and climate improve because of the containment, social distancing and lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak?

The actions taken to contain the corona-virus epidemic is closing any form of human activities in the world. Schools are closed in most cities of the world, people are told to stay at home and it ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How can I create netcdf file from my emission data in wrfinput_d01 format

I have some emission data files in netcdf format in diffrent files. I would like to write them in netcdf file as my wrfchemi_d01 to use them for runing wrf_chem. How can I create netcdf file from my ...
1
vote
2answers
57 views

What data of agricultural yield to use for India?

I am trying to understand the role of various meteorological factors on agricultural yield over India. Is there a dataset available directly or an indirect proxy of agricultural data, maybe satellite, ...
4
votes
1answer
262 views

“steep slope” when cold fronts encounter warm fronts: Confusing sentence in textbook

I'm currently reading a university textbook on processes that result in rainfall events. In the current processes, I'm reading there is a cold front that basically pushes warm air upwards which ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

Why does exhaust smells linger some days?

Some days I can smell bad smelling exhaust 50 meters or more away from the bus stop. I think the air is usually moist those days. Does exhaust gases linger longer if the air is moist near the ground?...

1
2 3 4 5
17