Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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17 views

How to get GHI data from MERRA-2?

Help Requested Does anyone know if MERRA2 contains hourly Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) data, or some other measurement which we can use to calculate GHI?, If so, could you please let me know ...
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1answer
15k views

Do tornadoes have eyes?

In the movie Into the Storm (2014) near the end, storm chaser Pete sees the eye of a massive tornado. In 1928 (real life), Will Keller was in his barn when a huge tornado passed through. He reported ...
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1answer
106 views

Plotting ERA5 U/V Wind Data Using Python

Hello Earth Science Community, I am a beginner Python programmer trying to plot a single time step of 10m surface wind data I grabbed from the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis single level dataset in Python 3.8....
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92 views

5G interference with weather observation, a thing already?

The scientific community expressed concern that global 5G would potentially threaten weather forecasts by scrambling frequencies in the microwave spectrum used for water vapor, atmospheric temperature ...
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44 views

What is the reason for this high outdoor VOC level with strange pattern of slow rise and sudden falling?

I have an Atmotube Pro air quality sensor placed outside in a cup with a large bowl placed over the top of it to protect it from the wind and any rain but to allow air to filter through easily. I'm ...
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1answer
67 views

Increase Evaporation from oceans

I would like to ask you about evaporation from sea water. Can you increase evaporation by spraying seawater to the air? Is there any difference compared to freshwater spraying (aerosol particles)?
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1answer
103 views

What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
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2answers
431 views

Could Australia's bushfires aerosols actually decrease global temperature?

Given the vastness and intensity of the bushfires that have been going on in Australia for weeks now, to the point they are generating their own weather and having an impact thousands kilometers away ...
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3answers
124 views

Why do heat waves affect Australia unevenly?

Firstly, I would like to express my deepest condolences to those affected by the extreme heat and catastrophic wildfires on NSW's south coast and in Gippsland (east of Melbourne). When I was looking ...
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3answers
78 views

formula to convert precipitation in mm/h to runoff in m³/s

I have precipitation data in mm/h but to use them for my model I need them in m³/s. Is there a formula to convert them?
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18 views

Finding free humidity data

I am trying to find historical humidity levels (ideally in percentage format) across the globe divided by sub-country regions or more granular. The time granularity would be daily, but hourly would ...
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1answer
48 views

How to convert the units of specific cloud liquid water from ERA5 (kg/kg) to kg/m2?

I am trying to initialize my model with the cloud liquid water data from ERA5. My model IITM-ESM which evolved from CFSv2 takes in the cloud liquid water information in $\small\mathsf{kg/m^2}$. ...
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135 views

Equatorial Bulge and its implications on the climate

How much of the variance in the climate is due to the equatorial bulge and how much sun radiation do we lose due to the equatorial bulge? I am interested in the variance both through time and ...
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1answer
136 views

How likely is Earth to naturally reverse climate change in the next 2 decades?

A new decade question: given that the “mini ice ages” were triggered by volcanic activity, how likely is it that we will experience similar levels of volcanic activity over the next 20 years? In ...
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1answer
2k views

Running WRF with ECMWF GRIB2 model levels

ECMWF model data comes in a hybrid GRIB format, that is, model level output is stored in GRIB2 messages, whereas surface data still uses GRIB1 format. Ungrib is unable to understand this hybrid GRIB ...
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1answer
225 views

Large Scale lightning Strikes from Cloudless or Near Coudless Skies. How Does it Work?

It is reported in the media that currently in Australia there are dozens of wildfires caused by lightning strikes. I am familiar with the mechanism of ordinary British lightning involving cumulonimbus ...
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1answer
55 views

What is a reasonable range of values for resistance to heat flux?

I am developing a simple parameterisation scheme script to predict surface temperature. The script calculates six heat fluxes including sensible heat flux using a resistance to heat flux parameter. ...
3
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1answer
72 views

Literature on atmospheric modelling

I need to understand some basics about atmospheric modelling, since I am working with data from the COSMO model for my thesis. My questions mainly concern model validation, like learning about the ...
3
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1answer
81 views

How to install ESMF and ESMFPy in Ubuntu using gfortran, gcc, python?

I am trying to regrid some of my latitude-longitude grid files to tripolar ocean grid and found that ESMF can be useful. However, I am finding it hard to install the same.
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1answer
68 views

Does PV=nRT mean that isobars are also isotherms?

Does the ideal gas law, PV=nRT, mean that isobars on a map of surface conditions are also isotherms? Is there a way to intuit isotherms from isobars, and vice versa?
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1answer
34 views

How to de-stagger (or unstagger) WRF wind fields?

I am trying to calculate wind speed from the U and V wind components of a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation. However, I came to realize that some ...
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3answers
174 views

Temperature Advection using finite differences with gridded data

Advection of a scalar quantity, such as temperature (T), by the horizontal wind, is defined as follows: $-\textbf{U}\cdot\nabla T$ where $\textbf{U}$ is the horizontal wind vector, $\textbf{U}=(u,v)$...
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1answer
62 views

Cloud Formations Near Capetown

Why do clouds form a 'tablecloth' which exactly fits the top of Table Mountain near Capetown, South Africa? Something about the table top tailors the clouds to fit it exactly. The thickness is smooth ...
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20 views

Stability Parameter $\zeta$ definition

Let $L_{obu}$ denote the Obukhov length, $z$ denote the height of measurement and $h_c$ denote the canopy(obstacle) height. I have seen two definitions of the stability parameter: $\zeta = z/L_{obu}...
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37 views

Advection Fog or____________

If there is snow on the ground in the fall season, at a location 50 km away north of a warmer body of water to the south and that location is receiving fog, what is causing the fog that is occurring ...
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1answer
34 views

Does Climate Data Store provide daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data?

I have been meaning to download the daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data from the Copernicus Climate Data Store, but couldn't find it. I need the data on pressure levels and currently I am ...
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2answers
108 views

Why is the ice on a frozen lake sometimes cracked?

The YouTube video Skating Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake - BBC News shows a very heavily cracked lake. It doesn't just appear to be a fault line. It appears to be an actual crack that started ...
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25 views

Extracting point data from ERA5 CDS API

I have been extracting ERA5 data through the Web API. Now I am shifting to CDS API. In the web API I used the below code to download time series data at a particular lat/lon. In the CDS API, I can't ...
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1answer
51 views

Weather Forecast [closed]

I am working on an experimental weather station that has a minimal set of sensors: GPS (which gives me the location, date and time); Thermometer (which gives me the air temperature); Barometer (which ...
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2answers
86 views

Where to get temperature sounding model forecast data?

I want to know the current lapse rate for a given point in the US. In other words, I want "live" temperature data at various altitudes. Live is flexible -- I'm generally OK with a forecast which is ...
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2answers
791 views

'River-effect' snow

Earlier this year 'river-effect' snow was reported in the Quad Cities (Western Illinois) along the Mississippi River. Per the local news report: According to Andy Ervin, a Meteorologist with the ...
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3answers
107 views

How to calculate maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures?

A quite simple question that I hope someone can help me with. I have a massive database of hourly minimum and maximum temperatures, from many automatic weather stations. I need to estimate the average ...
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1answer
44 views

Historical isobaric charts?

I am looking for a small-scale isobaric chart, which encompasses central Africa. I am interested in the time span of the past few months. Do you know where to find it? Thanks
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64 views

Is there any link between the weekly human cycle and weather?

I am interested in the linkage between the cyclical timing of human activity, and whether that has a direct effect on weather. Most obvious to me is the weekly cycle, which is observed by most of the ...
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2answers
3k views

How much and what kind of radiation passes through a cloud?

I've read that 80% of sunlight is passing through clouds. Now there a small clouds and big clouds so it should be some average. Is this true or is the amount of sunlight passing throug a cloud really ...
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1answer
12k views

What are the differences between Climatology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Science?

Please explain the main differences between Climatology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Science. Thank you
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1answer
45 views

List some common metrics to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion?

Could you give me some basic understanding of how to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion? For example, could you list some basic metrics to diagnose the vertical motion? Like divergence, vertical ...
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1answer
101 views

Does WRF simulation use sigma or eta vertical coordinate system?

Could you tell me what the WRF's vertical coordinate system is? Sigma or eta? According to the User WRF Guide document, uses a terrain-following hydrostatic pressure coordinate while the WRF ...
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58 views

Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
3
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0answers
49 views

Why aren't tornadoes embedded in squall lines or tornadoes in high-precipitation supercells destroyed by downdrafts?

I often hear that tornadoes die when the RFD (Rear Flank Downdraft) strengthens and destroys their source of inflow... How do tornadoes get any inflowing updrafts when they are embedded in rain? How ...
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0answers
41 views

ERA-5 data downloader… other than CDS-API?

The CDS API does not behave well on our machines. Has anyone had any luck scripting their own ERA-5 reanalysis large-data download script? Perhaps something that is not nearly as large, clunky, and ...
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0answers
92 views

Predicting the weather in two months

On Nov 1, I looked at the Dallas monthly weather averages (pasted below) and tried to predict the average temperature for Jan 2020. It's hard to see any trend, so I would simply predict 46.2 +/- 3.5 °...
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2answers
63 views

Local Weather Forecast (Self-Learning Algorithm)

First of all, the question! : Is it possible to predict local weather tendencies for the upcoming hours (let's say 2-3 hours) using only local data? If yes, which data is needed to make such ...
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1answer
72 views

How to better understand the RIP-nomenclature used in the CMIP5 project?

I am a statistician working on a climatological downscaling project in the Caribbean Sea. I am just starting to learn about the CMIP5 GCM data project. I plan to download CMIP5 data from 6 climate ...
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1answer
51 views

Heat at High Altitudes

Why does the temperature of let’s say 85 degrees Fahrenheit in southern California feel hotter at 7,500 ft elevation than it does at sea level?
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1answer
90 views

Decomposition of variables in horizontal and vertical modes

I have a query regarding the practical applicability of variable separable method. Usually we decompose the variables w.r.t components corresponding to different dimensions, this method is used to ...
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1answer
1k views

WRF vertical integrated moisture flux using NCL

Does anyone know how to calculate the vertical integrated moisture flux using NCL in WRF. It would be best if you can share a NCL script. Here is my code, I used this code to calculate the averaged ...
2
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1answer
76 views

Why the Indian Monsoon doesn't start in the north?

The usual explanation for the Indian Monsoon that I read everywhere is that it is generated by winds from the Arabic Sea, moving to India mainland because of the low pressure there. These winds are ...
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0answers
59 views

Short-term forecast of Europe by using synoptic charts

I should make a short-term forecast of Europe by using synoptic charts. I'm finding it really hard so I'd be glad if you help me. 'В' means high atmospheric pressure I'm trying to figure out the ...
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1answer
40 views

Average Snowfall for Snowy Places?

I just moved to Wisconsin, so my family is throwing snow statistics at me. But it seems to me that the most meaningful average US snowfall statistic isn't available (or easy to find). The average ...