Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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2
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1answer
40 views

How to find the top level of the planetary boundary layer in WRF?

I am working on WRF_Chem, I would like to calculate the concentration of CO2 just in the Planetary boundary layer(I mean, I want to calculate CO2 from surface to top of PBL).in WRF How can I calculate ...
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1answer
95 views

Why do 30% of all typhoons in the western north pacific (WNP) affect Taiwan?

A 300-Year Typhoon Record in Taiwan and the Relationship with Solar Activity (also here) shows that about 30% of all typhoons in the western north pacific (WNP) affect Taiwan. (Author's home page) I'm ...
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2answers
389 views

Do wind predictions have confidence scores?

I’m a sailing captain in training and my community members asked about confidence in wind predictions. They were unhappy with the large variation between different wind predictions. The speed and ...
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2answers
52 views

How to calculate the specific humidity based on the saturated specific humidity?

I am using ERA5 data to drive the land surface model. One of the forcing required by LSM is specific humidity. We want to use the 2-m specific humidity. So how can I calculate the specific humidity ...
4
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1answer
67 views

Some website or institute with integrated statistics on forecasting the occurrence of rainbows

I am a lay person in meteorology, maybe this is not the right place for my question, but I would like to ask then. My question is simple: is there a website or institute that has integrated statistics ...
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0answers
29 views

What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
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1answer
30 views

Why are all the variables ( DRY_DEP_FLUX and WET_DEP_FLUX) zero in a wrf model output in all the time steps

I am working on WRF_GHG, I would like to calculate dry and wet deposition in the dry and wet seasons for CO2 and CH4 gases. However, when I check the wrf output, I see that all the variables (...
-1
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1answer
97 views

How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
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0answers
270 views

What is the smallest grid spacing that Eulerian air quality models should use?

The University of Washington runs the Advanced Research Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in predictive mode, and then tests the skill of the model anywhere from 12 - 84 hours out from ...
3
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1answer
44 views

Can Cirrocumulus and Cirrostratus appear at the same time?

I see cirrocumulus fading away in the front and bunch of cirrostratus in the back. However, I was taught that cirrocumulus appear when the upper atmosphere is unstable while cirrostratus appear when ...
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0answers
45 views

How does the jet stream affect weather in Europe?

I researched how mid lattitude cyclones form and found it has to do with the jet stream, which is above the polar front. The pressure difference between the warm and cold air causes a pressure ...
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1answer
28 views

Is there any open source, stochastic rain forecast data available for the UK?

I'm sometimes frustrated by publicly available precipitation forecasts, such as those offered by the Met Office or Google. If I understand these forecasts correctly, they tell me: The expected volume ...
3
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1answer
41 views

Is it possible to detect Coriolis effect using a Wind Rose?

I once learned in high school that the area where I used to live experiences the Coriolis effects of the air movement above the city. I never paid attention to this before, but I recently heard about ...
0
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1answer
85 views

How to measure voltage differential across different altitudes

Imagine two points, one directly above the other ( Point A - 10,000 feet (PA) Point B - 20,000 feet (PB) Imagine there's voltage potential between those two points Q1: How could you measure the ...
5
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1answer
115 views

Cone of uncertainty in cyclones

Whenever I look up the track of a cyclone on the map, I always notice that the cone of uncertainty bulges as it moves towards land/ target. I have inserted two images to show you what I mean, you ...
4
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1answer
96 views

Why are clouds outlining the southeastern United States?

While watching the Starlink 25 launch earlier this month, I noticed that the Florida peninsula seemed to be nicely outlined by clouds. Pulling up satellite imagery from that time showed that my ...
11
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2answers
4k views

Why are mornings cooler than nights?

In the morning, Google shows the temperature from four or five hours ago (around 2:00 a.m.). But then I update the report, and I get the temperature slightly lower than before. Why is the temperature ...
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0answers
42 views

How are weather intensity scales created?

I am interested in the development of scales to measure extreme weather. For example, the Enhanced Fujita Scale for measuring the intensity of tornadoes, etc. How were they created? OK sure, I know ...
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0answers
120 views

Providing Edgar emission using prep_chem_source for tracers (CO2-CH4)

I am working on CO2 and CH4 by WRF-CHEM, for providing my anthropogenic emission from Edgar data base, I'm going to use the Prep_chem_source App. I would like to use Edgar data emission (as my ...
2
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1answer
58 views

How does a whirling hygrometer work, how does it differ from static dry/wet bulb thermometer, and how to obtain humidity from its readings?

Answers to my previous question How is relative humidity determined from a wet and dry bulb readings? provide equations for converting the two temperature measurements to a relative humidity. In ...
5
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1answer
107 views

How much would weather data from ocean-going vessels improve climate research?

I would like to know how good the weather data coverage is on the surface of the world’s oceans, and how much it would improve climate research/models if weather observations from ocean-going vessels ...
0
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1answer
81 views

Is surface temperature relevant for the creation of high- and low pressures areas?

Trying to truly understand high- and low-pressure systems, I find explanations contradicting. The question is: Where is the mistake in my line of thoughts? Looking from a surface point of view: More ...
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0answers
40 views

How to find inertial advective component of ageostrophic wind in natural coordinates

How do you derive the components of the inertial advective wind in natural coordinates? The vector form of the inertial advective wind is: I have been able to find the components in cartesian ...
13
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5answers
3k views

With all the rain Seattle gets, why is widespread flooding relatively rare?

The Puget Sound region is wedged between the Pacific and the Cascades...you'd think with all that rain (and snowmelt in the warmer months), there would be catastrophic flash flooding in lowland areas, ...
14
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1answer
845 views

Why (actually) is the night sky so bright in the city? How far up is that happening?

The recent news reported by the New York Times, the BBC and the NPR web sites (for example) as well as in the Iceland Review and Iceland Magazine sites, about the shutting-off of Reykjavik's ...
3
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1answer
89 views

How big was the eye of the El Reno tornado?

As far as I know, the EF-3 El Reno tornado is by far the largest tornado since meteorologists have started observing them. Tornadoes also have eyes, like hurricanes, but are way too small compared to ...
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1answer
40 views

What is “small layer thickness” defined as in terms of bulk Richardson number approaching gradient Richardson number?

In many sources (https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bulk_richardson_number), bulk Richardson number is defined as an approximation to gradient Richardson number. The prior only approaches the ladder ...
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0answers
56 views

Why is it so warm in the Pacific Northwest of North America right now - mid April 2021?

Temperatures are 5-7 degrees Celsius above average in southwestern British Columbia, and it's surreal for it to be so warm and sunny when the deciduous trees are still mostly barren.
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0answers
15 views

Which factors determine the predominant precipitation type of supercells during tornado outbreaks?

A tale of two outbreaks. April 27, 2011 featured classic supercells that were extremely-fast moving (forward speeds of 60+ mph) in a northeast direction. James Spann noted this while covering the EF4 ...
3
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2answers
145 views

Snow on a relatively warm day

Outside my window it's snowing. This isn't so strange, even for the South of England in mid-April. What is surprising is that the ambient air temperatures (according to the Met-Office) are about 7 or ...
6
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2answers
197 views

Science behind the groundhog day myth

The myth goes that if a groundhog sees his shadow on Feb 2, six more weeks of winter are yet to come, but if he doesn't, spring is just around the corner. I am wondering if there is any science ...
2
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0answers
74 views

What does a change in the mean pressure across 750 km indicate/signify?

Coming from the aviation site: What is the westerly index? The westerly index is: ... the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure difference between ...
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0answers
55 views

Determining probability of precipitation from GFS data

Looking at the index files in https://ftp.ncep.noaa.gov/data/nccf/com/gfs/prod/, there's no probability of precipitation (POP) data provided. (There is a ...
5
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1answer
1k views

How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

The solar radiation is one of the important factors controlling the formation of $O_3$, and thereby impacting the levels of various secondary species in the atmosphere. However, in the campaign of ...
6
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0answers
148 views

5G interference with weather observation, a thing already?

The scientific community expressed concern that global 5G would potentially threaten weather forecasts by scrambling frequencies in the microwave spectrum used for water vapor, atmospheric temperature ...
2
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1answer
44 views

Question on the derivation of a prognostic equation for the mean concentration (Assume horizontal homogeneity in X)

In deriving the prognostic equation for the mean quantity of pollutant C, as shown in my solution below: Am I right in that I do not need to separate T (temperature) into its mean and turbulent parts ...
1
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1answer
75 views

Why does Japan get so much snow?

Japan seems to get a surprising amount of snow in winter, compared to other places that are as cold or colder. The snow seems to be concentrated on the west side of the country, which suggests the ...
0
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1answer
119 views

Why are there both climate regions from axial tilt and weather cells?

So Earth has an axial tilt and that creates weather regions. For example, approximately 23 degrees north and south, approximately the same as the planets axial tilt, will give you the tropics. This ...
7
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1answer
134 views

Can we see the circulation cells in wind maps?

Earth famously possesses three distinct circulation cells per hemisphere. Now out of curiosity one could use a weather app, like windy, to display the wind structures at ground level globally, and ...
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0answers
31 views

How to specify a certain place in a (CDS) weather data query?

I am trying to get time series data for a specific place (latitude and longitude) for different weather elements from the CDS datapool. Therefore, I am using the cdsapi package and can run queries ...
2
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1answer
89 views

Relation between Magnitude of Greenhouse Effect and the Concentration of GHGs like $CO_2$

The Average Surface Temperature of the Earth is calculated by the following equation: $$\sigma T_s^4=\frac{(1-A)\Omega}{4}+\Delta E$$ where, $\sigma$= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant $T_s$= Average Surface ...
27
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3answers
4k views

Equinoxes and solstices: start of the season or mid-season?

In the United States, the upcoming autumnal equinox is marked on most calendars as the "first day of autumn." Similarly the solstices are commonly called the "first day of summer" and "first day of ...
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0answers
20 views

Why is the mean meridional mass stream function multiplied by g/2π?

I was reading this material on the mean atmospheric meridional circulation and the definition of the meridional mass streamfunction: http://www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/faculty/Cook/Hadley_book.pdf (...
4
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3answers
508 views

Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
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2answers
70 views

Relationship between rainwater and solar radiation

I am an enthusiast in this area and reading some scientific articles on precipitation forecasting and solar irradiation, I was wondering if these two variables have any direct correlation or ...
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0answers
34 views

Question regarding an ice age caused by impact event(s)

If a hypothetical series of debris were to collide into a planet like Earth, I'm aware that dust could very well be sent into orbit, causing global cooling. If this were to happen, exactly how would ...
6
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1answer
8k views

How to calculate relative humidity from temperature, dew point, and pressure?

Is there a formula given the temperature, dew point, and pressure to find relative humidity? I have seen several calculators like this one, but I would like to know how to calculate this myself. I ...
2
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2answers
34 views

High vertical resolution atmospheric sounding data

I'm currently doing some analysis using atmospheric sounding data available at University of Wyoming (I assume these are from the GTS network). But, the vertical resolution of the sounding data ...
19
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3answers
5k views

Does rain (temporarily) deplete the surrounding atmosphere of carbon dioxide?

CO2 in the air dissolves into rain water, making them slightly acidic. Is that enough to deplete the surrounding air out of CO2? If yes, how fast does this occur? Is it only with the first drops of ...
3
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1answer
94 views

How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...

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