Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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7
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1answer
87 views

Can we see the circulation cells in wind maps?

Earth famously possesses three distinct circulation cells per hemisphere. Now out of curiosity one could use a weather app, like windy, to display the wind structures at ground level globally, and ...
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0answers
12 views

How to specify a certain place in a (CDS) weather data query?

I am trying to get time series data for a specific place (latitude and longitude) for different weather elements from the CDS datapool. Therefore, I am using the cdsapi package and can run queries ...
2
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1answer
58 views

Relation between Magnitude of Greenhouse Effect and the Concentration of GHGs like $CO_2$

The Average Surface Temperature of the Earth is calculated by the following equation: $$\sigma T_s^4=\frac{(1-A)\Omega}{4}+\Delta E$$ where, $\sigma$= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant $T_s$= Average Surface ...
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3answers
4k views

Equinoxes and solstices: start of the season or mid-season?

In the United States, the upcoming autumnal equinox is marked on most calendars as the "first day of autumn." Similarly the solstices are commonly called the "first day of summer" and "first day of ...
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0answers
16 views

Why is the mean meridional mass stream function multiplied by g/2π?

I was reading this material on the mean atmospheric meridional circulation and the definition of the meridional mass streamfunction: http://www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/faculty/Cook/Hadley_book.pdf (...
4
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3answers
481 views

Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
2
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1answer
11 views

How to calculate the specific humidity based on the saturated specific humidity?

I am using ERA5 data to drive the land surface model. One of the forcing required by LSM is specific humidity. We want to use the 2-m specific humidity. So how can I calculate the specific humidity ...
0
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0answers
37 views

How to identify a metallic rock that when wet 2 pieces of same rock coming into close contact caused an explosive [closed]

Nearly round metallic rock found in Arkansas, inside is marbled with shining metallic. After cleaning with dawn, water and soft tootbrush I matched 2 parts together and turned my back, heard a loud ...
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2answers
69 views

Relationship between rainwater and solar radiation

I am an enthusiast in this area and reading some scientific articles on precipitation forecasting and solar irradiation, I was wondering if these two variables have any direct correlation or ...
0
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0answers
33 views

Question regarding an ice age caused by impact event(s)

If a hypothetical series of debris were to collide into a planet like Earth, I'm aware that dust could very well be sent into orbit, causing global cooling. If this were to happen, exactly how would ...
5
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1answer
7k views

How to calculate relative humidity from temperature, dew point, and pressure?

Is there a formula given the temperature, dew point, and pressure to find relative humidity? I have seen several calculators like this one, but I would like to know how to calculate this myself. I ...
2
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2answers
29 views

High vertical resolution atmospheric sounding data

I'm currently doing some analysis using atmospheric sounding data available at University of Wyoming (I assume these are from the GTS network). But, the vertical resolution of the sounding data ...
19
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3answers
5k views

Does rain (temporarily) deplete the surrounding atmosphere of carbon dioxide?

CO2 in the air dissolves into rain water, making them slightly acidic. Is that enough to deplete the surrounding air out of CO2? If yes, how fast does this occur? Is it only with the first drops of ...
3
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1answer
86 views

How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...
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0answers
36 views

A database with measurments of meteorological parameters at various altitudes

I am a P.h.D student working on effects of Evaporation duct on radio propagation. Pandemic is successfully stopping me from obtaining my own measurements for my thesis, but I would like to compare the ...
1
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1answer
104 views

How to interpret the negative (actual) evapotranspiration values?

I am exploring FLUXNET sites for actual evapotranspiration (ETP) data (I convert the energy balance closure-corrected latent heat to ETP). I am interested in the half-hourly data. During the night we ...
0
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1answer
63 views

Is the weather of Miami, Florida and the weather of Lagos, Nigeria the same

I've been to Lagos and it rains a lot sometimes overflooding but it's pretty sunny. I'm aware that it rains a lot too in Miami. Is the climate the same apart from Lagos being near Equator and ITCZ ...
7
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4answers
1k views

Do winds behave like waves?

Like a sound wave, there are compressed and dilated regions in the air. But do compressed regions also occur in winds. If one considers squalls, they feel like a compressed region of air. Perhaps they ...
19
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7answers
16k views

Why doesn't the 71% water of the earth dry or evaporate?

Perhaps a simple question, we know 71% of the earth's surface contains water as oceans. If Earth's age is 4.543 billion years, then I guess it should be decreased with drying or should have been dried ...
11
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3answers
197 views

Water on Mars and Earth

If water on Earth came from meteorites, why doesn't Mars have substantial water? What made it more highly probable on Earth than on Mars?
2
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3answers
87 views

Is a hotter climate making trees grow faster and have lighter wood?

I started thinking about this after seeing several articles about falling trees, in particular a few articles about very large trees falling in Los Angeles and New York City. Plus, just thinking about ...
0
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1answer
76 views

How to measure voltage differential across different altitudes

Imagine two points, one directly above the other ( Point A - 10,000 feet (PA) Point B - 20,000 feet (PB) Imagine there's voltage potential between those two points Q1: How could you measure the ...
3
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1answer
78 views

difference between different meteorological models

I need to work with historical weather data (temperature and precipitation), we use meteoblue.com. There (https://docs.meteoblue.com/en/meteo/data-sources/data-sources#data-sources) they write about ...
2
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2answers
78 views

Why is the weather in San Francisco so different from that in San Jose?

San Francisco has around 5 months a year of intermittent rain. San Jose, just 50 miles south and nestled between mountains instead of between waters, has perhaps only 1 month of rain. San Francisco ...
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0answers
53 views

Korea a lot colder than New England this year

Normally, here in New England we consider our weather to somewhat parallel Korea's weather. However, this year it seems to be much colder in Korea. They are having record lows while we are having a ...
3
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1answer
88 views

Why did Hurricane Harvey have so much lightning associated with it?

Hurricane Harvey (Category 4 hurricane, in August 2017) was a prodigious lightning producer when it hit Houston/SE Texas. But I thought hurricanes don't have much lightning (with the eyewall being the ...
3
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1answer
212 views

What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
6
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1answer
62 views

What factor(s) could cause this sort of temperature increase, mid-night/early morning?

I am new to having a PWS (Personal Weather Station). I have not found any answers explaining why this sometimes occurs aside from explanations given factors that were not variables in my case (winds, ...
4
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0answers
37 views

Free historical weather data API

Where can I find a free Python API that provides historical weather data (temperature, rainfall)? I'd need data of an Italian city, at least with hourly granularity.
4
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1answer
81 views

What is a reasonable range of values for resistance to heat flux?

I am developing a simple parameterisation scheme script to predict surface temperature. The script calculates six heat fluxes including sensible heat flux using a resistance to heat flux parameter. ...
3
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1answer
61 views

How to measure global temperature?

people always talk about global temperature (such as the global temperature goal of 1,5 K) - but how is this value achieved? It seems to me that it clearly depends on where the measuring stations are, ...
8
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1answer
11k views

Continuous lightning for over an hour; is this phenomenon common and does it have a name?

A few months ago, I witnessed something off the coast of Florida that I have never seen in my life. From my apartment, from about 10PM - 12AM, I saw pretty much continuous cloud to cloud lightning. I ...
6
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4answers
2k views

Does the Coriolis Effect affect a wind from East to West?

I'm studying meteorology for a pilot license and there I was taught as a rule of thumb that wind at higher altitudes is approximately turned 30° clockwise to the wind on the surface due to the ...
2
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0answers
32 views

Is there an average year of weather across the United States?

I am interested in which year has the best representation of average weather across a large area, the contiguous USA. This is challenging since what was average in the Midwest might have been unusual ...
4
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1answer
61 views

Why does wind direction change in a front? [duplicate]

Plenty of answers answer the question that it happens but I can't find a good answer as to why the wind shifts during the passing of a front. For an extreme example see: (in Dutch, x is hours and y ...
5
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1answer
90 views

Relative Humidity approximation from Dew Point and Temperature

I would like to find a formula to approximate RH based on known air temperature and dew point. I need the approximation to be valid at least between -20...+40 degrees Celsius. I read the accepted ...
6
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1answer
291 views

What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
1
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3answers
131 views

Over what distance can weather be assumed to be constant?

Good afternoon, I'm working on an application makes calls to a weather API for different coordinates across the United States. Instead of getting the weather at each and every point, I'm planning on ...
9
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4answers
893 views

First to Sail the Jet Stream Around the World

My questions are related to a scenario discussed on Earth Science: A huge (heavier-than-air) kite sailing in and out of the jet streams. The kite: The scenario: The assumptions: Such an airship ...
1
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0answers
33 views

What are the leading methods for temporally interpolating wind data?

Weather providers, such as GFS and ECMWF usually provide their data in 3-6 hour intervals. What would be the best method to interpolate between the intervals to get a good intermediate wind model? I ...
2
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1answer
38 views

Question on the derivation of a prognostic equation for the mean concentration (Assume horizontal homogeneity in X)

In deriving the prognostic equation for the mean quantity of pollutant C, as shown in my solution below: Am I right in that I do not need to separate T (temperature) into its mean and turbulent parts ...
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0answers
17 views

Historical detailed rainfall recordings New Zealand

I'm wanting to know where/if I can find 2019 records of hourly rainfall in New Zealand particularly for November in Greymouth South Island
0
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1answer
108 views

Why are there both climate regions from axial tilt and weather cells?

So Earth has an axial tilt and that creates weather regions. For example, approximately 23 degrees north and south, approximately the same as the planets axial tilt, will give you the tropics. This ...
3
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2answers
83 views

Lightning activity day curve - why it has high and narrow peak?

Atmospheric potential gradient changes during the day, as different areas of lightning activity come under Sun. This illustration from "The Carnegie Curve" by R. Giles Harrison shows ...
2
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1answer
68 views

Why exactly did the use of Greek letters as names for Hurricanes happen the first place, despite the fairly obvious and predictable impracticalities?

The Washington Post article Hurricanes Eta and Iota brought disaster to Central America. Officials can’t retire their names. describes a complicated situation, aspects of which are: Eta roared ashore ...
3
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0answers
31 views

what elevation is top of southeastern US summer humidity/haze layer?

We're interested in purchasing a vacation lake house in the piedmont/foothills of North Carolina. In earlier summers there, when driving from the mountains home to lower (sub-1000ft) elevations, I've ...
0
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0answers
21 views

I would like to know where can I get historic global/national (preferably USA) level time-series data for the following (preferably gridded data)? [duplicate]

I would like to know where can I get historic global/national (preferably USA) level time-series data for the following (preferably gridded data)? Flood, Drought, Max temperature, Min temperature, ...
2
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0answers
42 views

Subsidence Inversion

With minimal knowledge of meteorology I understand how a high pressure system might lead to an inversion that builds as a high becomes more established, but why doesn’t the subsidence layer ever reach ...
1
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1answer
51 views

Can a Humidity Differential move PM2.5 Pollution?

Observations There is a higher level of PM2.5 pollution outside of the house. Readings are in the 80-150 range due to wildfires. (PM2.5 levels determined by sensors in PurpleAir.com's sensor network) ...
1
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1answer
56 views

Why does the annual temperature range get bigger where latitude is higher?

Why does the annual temperature range get bigger where latitude is higher? Is it because of the ocean currents? Or is there any other factor that causes this situation?

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