Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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11
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2answers
389 views

Do wind predictions have confidence scores?

I’m a sailing captain in training and my community members asked about confidence in wind predictions. They were unhappy with the large variation between different wind predictions. The speed and ...
2
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0answers
29 views

What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
0
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1answer
30 views

Why are all the variables ( DRY_DEP_FLUX and WET_DEP_FLUX) zero in a wrf model output in all the time steps

I am working on WRF_GHG, I would like to calculate dry and wet deposition in the dry and wet seasons for CO2 and CH4 gases. However, when I check the wrf output, I see that all the variables (...
0
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0answers
45 views

How does the jet stream affect weather in Europe?

I researched how mid lattitude cyclones form and found it has to do with the jet stream, which is above the polar front. The pressure difference between the warm and cold air causes a pressure ...
3
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1answer
44 views

Can Cirrocumulus and Cirrostratus appear at the same time?

I see cirrocumulus fading away in the front and bunch of cirrostratus in the back. However, I was taught that cirrocumulus appear when the upper atmosphere is unstable while cirrostratus appear when ...
5
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1answer
95 views

Why do 30% of all typhoons in the western north pacific (WNP) affect Taiwan?

A 300-Year Typhoon Record in Taiwan and the Relationship with Solar Activity (also here) shows that about 30% of all typhoons in the western north pacific (WNP) affect Taiwan. (Author's home page) I'm ...
1
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1answer
28 views

Is there any open source, stochastic rain forecast data available for the UK?

I'm sometimes frustrated by publicly available precipitation forecasts, such as those offered by the Met Office or Google. If I understand these forecasts correctly, they tell me: The expected volume ...
4
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1answer
67 views

Some website or institute with integrated statistics on forecasting the occurrence of rainbows

I am a lay person in meteorology, maybe this is not the right place for my question, but I would like to ask then. My question is simple: is there a website or institute that has integrated statistics ...
3
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1answer
41 views

Is it possible to detect Coriolis effect using a Wind Rose?

I once learned in high school that the area where I used to live experiences the Coriolis effects of the air movement above the city. I never paid attention to this before, but I recently heard about ...
5
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1answer
115 views

Cone of uncertainty in cyclones

Whenever I look up the track of a cyclone on the map, I always notice that the cone of uncertainty bulges as it moves towards land/ target. I have inserted two images to show you what I mean, you ...
4
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1answer
96 views

Why are clouds outlining the southeastern United States?

While watching the Starlink 25 launch earlier this month, I noticed that the Florida peninsula seemed to be nicely outlined by clouds. Pulling up satellite imagery from that time showed that my ...
2
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1answer
40 views

How to find the top level of the planetary boundary layer in WRF?

I am working on WRF_Chem, I would like to calculate the concentration of CO2 just in the Planetary boundary layer(I mean, I want to calculate CO2 from surface to top of PBL).in WRF How can I calculate ...
11
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2answers
4k views

Why are mornings cooler than nights?

In the morning, Google shows the temperature from four or five hours ago (around 2:00 a.m.). But then I update the report, and I get the temperature slightly lower than before. Why is the temperature ...
0
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0answers
42 views

How are weather intensity scales created?

I am interested in the development of scales to measure extreme weather. For example, the Enhanced Fujita Scale for measuring the intensity of tornadoes, etc. How were they created? OK sure, I know ...
-1
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1answer
97 views

How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
2
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1answer
58 views

How does a whirling hygrometer work, how does it differ from static dry/wet bulb thermometer, and how to obtain humidity from its readings?

Answers to my previous question How is relative humidity determined from a wet and dry bulb readings? provide equations for converting the two temperature measurements to a relative humidity. In ...
1
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0answers
40 views

How to find inertial advective component of ageostrophic wind in natural coordinates

How do you derive the components of the inertial advective wind in natural coordinates? The vector form of the inertial advective wind is: I have been able to find the components in cartesian ...
0
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1answer
81 views

Is surface temperature relevant for the creation of high- and low pressures areas?

Trying to truly understand high- and low-pressure systems, I find explanations contradicting. The question is: Where is the mistake in my line of thoughts? Looking from a surface point of view: More ...
5
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1answer
107 views

How much would weather data from ocean-going vessels improve climate research?

I would like to know how good the weather data coverage is on the surface of the world’s oceans, and how much it would improve climate research/models if weather observations from ocean-going vessels ...
13
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5answers
3k views

With all the rain Seattle gets, why is widespread flooding relatively rare?

The Puget Sound region is wedged between the Pacific and the Cascades...you'd think with all that rain (and snowmelt in the warmer months), there would be catastrophic flash flooding in lowland areas, ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

How big was the eye of the El Reno tornado?

As far as I know, the EF-3 El Reno tornado is by far the largest tornado since meteorologists have started observing them. Tornadoes also have eyes, like hurricanes, but are way too small compared to ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Which factors determine the predominant precipitation type of supercells during tornado outbreaks?

A tale of two outbreaks. April 27, 2011 featured classic supercells that were extremely-fast moving (forward speeds of 60+ mph) in a northeast direction. James Spann noted this while covering the EF4 ...
0
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0answers
56 views

Why is it so warm in the Pacific Northwest of North America right now - mid April 2021?

Temperatures are 5-7 degrees Celsius above average in southwestern British Columbia, and it's surreal for it to be so warm and sunny when the deciduous trees are still mostly barren.
2
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0answers
74 views

What does a change in the mean pressure across 750 km indicate/signify?

Coming from the aviation site: What is the westerly index? The westerly index is: ... the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure difference between ...
3
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2answers
145 views

Snow on a relatively warm day

Outside my window it's snowing. This isn't so strange, even for the South of England in mid-April. What is surprising is that the ambient air temperatures (according to the Met-Office) are about 7 or ...
4
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1answer
40 views

What is “small layer thickness” defined as in terms of bulk Richardson number approaching gradient Richardson number?

In many sources (https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bulk_richardson_number), bulk Richardson number is defined as an approximation to gradient Richardson number. The prior only approaches the ladder ...
1
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0answers
55 views

Determining probability of precipitation from GFS data

Looking at the index files in https://ftp.ncep.noaa.gov/data/nccf/com/gfs/prod/, there's no probability of precipitation (POP) data provided. (There is a ...
1
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1answer
75 views

Why does Japan get so much snow?

Japan seems to get a surprising amount of snow in winter, compared to other places that are as cold or colder. The snow seems to be concentrated on the west side of the country, which suggests the ...
1
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0answers
31 views

How to specify a certain place in a (CDS) weather data query?

I am trying to get time series data for a specific place (latitude and longitude) for different weather elements from the CDS datapool. Therefore, I am using the cdsapi package and can run queries ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Why is the mean meridional mass stream function multiplied by g/2π?

I was reading this material on the mean atmospheric meridional circulation and the definition of the meridional mass streamfunction: http://www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/faculty/Cook/Hadley_book.pdf (...
2
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1answer
89 views

Relation between Magnitude of Greenhouse Effect and the Concentration of GHGs like $CO_2$

The Average Surface Temperature of the Earth is calculated by the following equation: $$\sigma T_s^4=\frac{(1-A)\Omega}{4}+\Delta E$$ where, $\sigma$= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant $T_s$= Average Surface ...
4
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3answers
508 views

Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
2
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2answers
52 views

How to calculate the specific humidity based on the saturated specific humidity?

I am using ERA5 data to drive the land surface model. One of the forcing required by LSM is specific humidity. We want to use the 2-m specific humidity. So how can I calculate the specific humidity ...
1
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2answers
70 views

Relationship between rainwater and solar radiation

I am an enthusiast in this area and reading some scientific articles on precipitation forecasting and solar irradiation, I was wondering if these two variables have any direct correlation or ...
0
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0answers
34 views

Question regarding an ice age caused by impact event(s)

If a hypothetical series of debris were to collide into a planet like Earth, I'm aware that dust could very well be sent into orbit, causing global cooling. If this were to happen, exactly how would ...
2
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2answers
34 views

High vertical resolution atmospheric sounding data

I'm currently doing some analysis using atmospheric sounding data available at University of Wyoming (I assume these are from the GTS network). But, the vertical resolution of the sounding data ...
1
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0answers
37 views

A database with measurments of meteorological parameters at various altitudes

I am a P.h.D student working on effects of Evaporation duct on radio propagation. Pandemic is successfully stopping me from obtaining my own measurements for my thesis, but I would like to compare the ...
2
votes
3answers
94 views

Is a hotter climate making trees grow faster and have lighter wood?

I started thinking about this after seeing several articles about falling trees, in particular a few articles about very large trees falling in Los Angeles and New York City. Plus, just thinking about ...
1
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0answers
53 views

Korea a lot colder than New England this year

Normally, here in New England we consider our weather to somewhat parallel Korea's weather. However, this year it seems to be much colder in Korea. They are having record lows while we are having a ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

difference between different meteorological models

I need to work with historical weather data (temperature and precipitation), we use meteoblue.com. There (https://docs.meteoblue.com/en/meteo/data-sources/data-sources#data-sources) they write about ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Is the weather of Miami, Florida and the weather of Lagos, Nigeria the same

I've been to Lagos and it rains a lot sometimes overflooding but it's pretty sunny. I'm aware that it rains a lot too in Miami. Is the climate the same apart from Lagos being near Equator and ITCZ ...
6
votes
1answer
65 views

What factor(s) could cause this sort of temperature increase, mid-night/early morning?

I am new to having a PWS (Personal Weather Station). I have not found any answers explaining why this sometimes occurs aside from explanations given factors that were not variables in my case (winds, ...
2
votes
2answers
104 views

Why is the weather in San Francisco so different from that in San Jose?

San Francisco has around 5 months a year of intermittent rain. San Jose, just 50 miles south and nestled between mountains instead of between waters, has perhaps only 1 month of rain. San Francisco ...
4
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0answers
39 views

Free historical weather data API

Where can I find a free Python API that provides historical weather data (temperature, rainfall)? I'd need data of an Italian city, at least with hourly granularity.
3
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1answer
67 views

How to measure global temperature?

people always talk about global temperature (such as the global temperature goal of 1,5 K) - but how is this value achieved? It seems to me that it clearly depends on where the measuring stations are, ...
2
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0answers
32 views

Is there an average year of weather across the United States?

I am interested in which year has the best representation of average weather across a large area, the contiguous USA. This is challenging since what was average in the Midwest might have been unusual ...
6
votes
1answer
161 views

Relative Humidity approximation from Dew Point and Temperature

I would like to find a formula to approximate RH based on known air temperature and dew point. I need the approximation to be valid at least between -20...+40 degrees Celsius. I read the accepted ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

Why does wind direction change in a front? [duplicate]

Plenty of answers answer the question that it happens but I can't find a good answer as to why the wind shifts during the passing of a front. For an extreme example see: (in Dutch, x is hours and y ...
1
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3answers
134 views

Over what distance can weather be assumed to be constant?

Good afternoon, I'm working on an application makes calls to a weather API for different coordinates across the United States. Instead of getting the weather at each and every point, I'm planning on ...
1
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0answers
33 views

What are the leading methods for temporally interpolating wind data?

Weather providers, such as GFS and ECMWF usually provide their data in 3-6 hour intervals. What would be the best method to interpolate between the intervals to get a good intermediate wind model? I ...

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