Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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26 views

Why did Hurricane Harvey have so much lightning associated with it?

Hurricane Harvey was a prodigious lightning producer when it hit Houston/SE Texas. But I thought hurricanes don't have much lightning (with the eyewall being the only exception), due to tropical ...
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1answer
46 views

What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
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1answer
71 views

Interpolating world data to a local grid in Python

I have an NC file that has global data with a high resolution (about 25 minutes) so a lot of coordinates. I have some measured values of some region with irregularly spaced coordinates. In order to ...
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1answer
35 views

Discrete distribution of daily rainfall [closed]

How can I estimate the rainfall rate every ten minutes during a day having the total amount of rainfall during that day ?
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1answer
27 views

Does the feel of temperature change, when you're in two different places [duplicate]

I'm from Baltimore Maryland. And our summers can be very intense sometimes a heatwave could put us at 100 degrees and with humidity it could feel like 110 degrees. Now, I have friends from the U.S. ...
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1answer
38 views

Atmospheric conditions needed that blocks all bright light during sunsets and allows you to stare directly at the sun

Today (July 5th, 2019 just before 8 pm KST), along the Han River in Seoul, the surface of the sun could be viewed with my naked eye (no protection needed), and this was safe on the eyes. It appeared ...
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4answers
94 views

What is the difference between dew and rain?

What is the main difference between dew and rain? Would it be correct if we say that rain is done in the upper troposphere while dew done in the lower troposphere? Or there are better definitions for ...
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1answer
84 views

Why during subsidence inversion, upper layer warms more than lower layer?

Source : weather.gov This is mentioned in the book I have been reading regarding stability in atmosphere. But I am not able to pin point exact reason behind this. "As the layer subsides, it ...
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1answer
60 views

What is the physical meaning of second moment of wind velocity?

I have been reading some documents about meteorological data and many of them mention the second moment of wind velocity. I guess it has to do with the way the wind is changing but in such case I ...
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1answer
35 views

Historical isobaric charts?

I am looking for a small-scale isobaric chart, which encompasses central Africa. I am interested in the time span of the past few months. Do you know where to find it? Thanks
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1answer
144 views

Presence of Diabatic heating term in the continuity equation

The tropical circulation paper by Gill (1980) approximates vertical velocity as the sum of pressure and diabatic heating terms (equation 2.5 at page 449). Since the pressure is already a function of ...
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35 views

Application of vorticity tendency equation

I have a question about the dynamics of westward propagating vortices. In meteorology, the vorticity tendency is often used to explain the westward propagation of vortices (cyclonic circulation). A ...
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1answer
78 views

When and where is the atmospheric greenhouse effect strongest?

Is the greenhouse effect stronger in the ice covered area or in the equator? Also is it stronger during winter or summer? I am thinking it is stronger in the Ice covered area and during winter because ...
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1answer
38 views

Do cloud formations change depending on the season?

I'm currently working on some software for cloud masking, and thus far I have only been using satellite data as recent as spring (northern hemisphere). However, I'm wondering if cloud coverage or ...
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36 views

Oscillating dew point throughout the year?

I was searching for the climate of Saudi Arabia and I noticed that the city of Abha (altitude of 7000 feet) has a "strange" behavior in its dew point, as numbeo suggests: https://www.numbeo.com/...
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24 views

Do less trees equal less rain? [duplicate]

It is said the the Sahara desert was once a dense forest until it was cut. Do trees contribute to precipitation and less trees equal less rain locally?
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48 views

Thermal likelihood formula

Background: I use the X-Plane flightsimulator for flying and gliding. In the program we have real weather (clouds, winds, etc...) but thermals are not well implemented, they don't have any connection ...
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0answers
41 views

Are there more meteorological catastrophic events due to climate change?

I was told by a sedimentologist there is no evidence of more climatic catastrophic events at the geological register previous to Pleistocene, when climate was warmer. My question is if meteorologists ...
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23 views

How does a change in the tilt of the Earth effect climate? [duplicate]

Could the Earth survive if the axis was less or more of the tilt of that what it is now, and by how much? How would the Earth act if the axis was pushed to an extreme tilt or lack there of?
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1answer
154 views

What is the synoptic/atmospheric setup that is causing the U.S. severe weather outbreak in May 2019?

I asked this in the chat and it was suggested I ask on the main site. There's been a seemingly perpetual severe weather outbreak over the central and eastern U.S. over the past two weeks. Killer EF3s ...
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15 views

What is the minimum rain velocity that harms crops? [closed]

I,m trying to make a science project which will protect crops from heavy rainfall. I need to know the velocity that causes crops to lodge and other harms. The velocity varies for the size of the rain ...
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1answer
76 views

What is brown carbon?

There is a lot of interest in brown carbon in the atmospheric science community these days. There is a paper in the journal, "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics" titled, "Black carbon or brown carbon? ...
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65 views

Initiation of Rossby waves during MJO

I am trying to understand the basic dynamics of MJO, where I find several studies which relate it to the initiation of equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves. Though MJO is an eastward propagating wave, I ...
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2answers
64 views

Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
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70 views

Characteristics of saddle points in stream line charts

I am trying to locate saddle points or commonly known as "col" in synoptic meteorology. This is "z" in the following figure. References Here are some of the references regarding this. a). http://www....
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1answer
45 views

What exactly are “ambient aerosols”?

I see this term being used everywhere, but I have not been able to find a formal definition for "ambient aerosols".
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1answer
98 views

Locating shearlines or deformation zones in a map

I am looking for a way to detect shearlines or confluence regions such as that shown in the figure below (red dashed line). I was able to derive the stretching, shear, and total deformations. The ...
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43 views

Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
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1answer
64 views

How big of an event is needed to trigger a long winter?

Could a small meteor or natural nuclear explosion melt an ice cap on Earth to trigger a mini ice age without the event being observed by people? Can the Earth have an overlaying thermal cycle that ...
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1answer
123 views

Are these plane trails seen from satellite

Here are photos from West of Normandy, at 7-9am after sunrise on the 14th of may, from the visible satellite. It's a bit strange that they are visible from space, they are 2-3 miles wide? Are they jet ...
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90 views

Does this weather pattern have a name?

The past few weeks of spring in northern Ohio I believe I have noticed a weather pattern where the weather forecast will show a string of days with rain, but what happens is the day is mostly clear, ...
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1answer
76 views

Decomposition of variables in horizontal and vertical modes

I have a query regarding the practical applicability of variable separable method. Usually we decompose the variables w.r.t components corresponding to different dimensions, this method is used to ...
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1answer
102 views

How to improve this prediction about the climate in future?

The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth and clean the air from carbon dioxid when rain- and snowfall, ...
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1answer
44 views

Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...
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48 views

Can extratropical cyclones force global cooling?

We are living in a historical period of global warming since about 20,000 years ago. This global warming period is one of about ten in human history. Those periods may very well be forced to start by ...
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73 views

Atmospheric pressure in weather forecasts: actual pressure or sea-level pressure [duplicate]

What is the usual way to report surface pressure in weather forecasts online, in smartphone apps, on TV/radio? Is it the actual local pressure or the sea-level adjusted value? Does it differ by ...
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1answer
67 views

Computation of geostrophic wind

I am attempting to calculate the zonal and meridional components of geostrophic wind using the equations below: $u_g = -\frac{g_0}{f} \cdot \frac{1}{r} \cdot \frac{\partial \Phi }{\partial \phi}$ $...
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73 views

Using salinity to predict rainfall

Recently, a new method has been proposed by Ray Schmitt (WHOI) and collaborators to use salinity patterns in the ocean to predict weather events (more specifically, rainfall) at scales from weeks to ...
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140 views

Modification of an air mass

If an air mass that exists in North America starts moving south west or south east what kind of modification will affect it and how would you characterize it in it's final state? My answer is that it ...
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1answer
62 views

Ordered arrangement of clouds

I happened to take a photograph of a region of clouds ,and it seems to have a rather ordered arrangement ,if one looks towards the left of the image. Would there be a physical explanation for this or ...
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2answers
436 views

What are these Gizmos at Izaña Atmospheric Research Center in Spain?

This tweet from the account of the Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña (AEMET) http://izana.aemet.es Izaña Atmospheric Research Center (AEMET) shows images of meteorological instruments ...
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1answer
240 views

Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) - How to interpret the index?

How the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) index can be interpret? Let's suppose I have got an MJO index value of 0.6 in a given day, what this does mean? Does 0.6 represents a weak MJO? Data from ...
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2answers
661 views

Extracting Regional Data from ERA5

This is coming from a newcomer, so please be kind. As I delve into the world of meteo data and reanalysis for the first time, I found that acquiring weather data is a lengthy process, so I'm shouting ...
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36 views

Just how dry could Ben Nevis get? Is this surprising?

The BBC article Soggy Ben Nevis can be remarkably dry describes results of a crowdscience effort to transcribe historical meteorological records recorded manually by researchers living on top of "Ben ...
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1answer
218 views

How to calculate relative humidity from temperature, dew point, and pressure?

Is there a formula given the temperature, dew point, and pressure to find relative humidity? I have seen several calculators like this one, but I would like to know how to calculate this myself. I ...
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65 views

Roughly what proportion of a cloud does 'rain out'?

What proportion of the water in a cloud will 'rain out'? Or, comparing the cloud before and after it has rained, what proportion of the water is left afterwards? I really have no idea so am just ...
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2answers
122 views

What are the farthest Time Zone locations? [closed]

What place in the world has the farthest time zone? I heard it was Kiribati but then I found that Apia (Samoa) is further. So, is there anyplace that is the farthest in time than these two? What about ...
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2answers
101 views

Temperature Advection using finite differences with gridded data

Advection of a scalar quantity, such as temperature (T), by the horizontal wind, is defined as follows: $-\textbf{U}\cdot\nabla T$ where $\textbf{U}$ is the horizontal wind vector, $\textbf{U}=(u,v)$...
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2answers
52 views

Data for plotting tephigrams

I want to plot some tephigrams. Where can I find pressure, temperature and dewpoint data in text format?
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0answers
41 views

Any appreciable differences in microclimate on the shores of small mountain streams?

I have land in India (the tropics), in the hills, on a slope from 6800 feet - 5200 ft altitude (roughly). At that lowest point there's a stream of about 10-15m across. On one side is our land, on the ...