Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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8
votes
2answers
192 views

What determines the differences in results between various weather models?

It's often said that the ECMWF model is more accurate than the GFS. But what are the reasons why? Also, how does the NAM compare with these two and other forecasting models?
12
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1answer
306 views

How can you explain this storm phenomenon?

It's been a while since this happened, so I don't have many details. About 3 years ago, we had a popup storm here in Louisville. It was completely unexpected and unpredicted. That's not the strange ...
12
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2answers
164 views

What is a source of worldwide temperature data that also includes extreme weather?

I often need to calculate heat balances for large biogas plants, an important factor is outside temperature. I normally use the weather data from Klimadiagramme.de where I can find the mean monthly ...
3
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1answer
2k views

Why do some places have rain frequently? [closed]

There are some places on Earth which holds the record of being "The wettest place on Earth". On what factors these places differ from other normal places? An example of wettest place on Earth is ...
6
votes
1answer
200 views

Am I observing orographic rainfall?

I don't know an awful lot about meteorology, so please bear with me. My wife (who has a Geography degree) told me that rain can be generated when moist air is pushed up the side of a mountain. This ...
4
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1answer
481 views

How are jet streaks formed?

"Jet Streak Dynamics I: The four-quadrant model" - explains their effects on frontogenesis. But how are they formed to begin with?
12
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1answer
458 views

How is the Rossby Radius used to determine that synoptic weather systems are 1000-2000km across?

In one of his presentations, Sandy MacDonald (of NOAA and ESRL) talks about the Rossby Radius of Deformation in connection with the size of synoptic weather systems: he describes how it sets the ...
20
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1answer
796 views

What data does a skilled meteorologist look at to predict thunderstorms?

An uneducated layman like me would just look at CAPE numbers and make rough guesses on possible thunderstorms. In a related but non-duplicate question, vertical wind shear is discussed. If we are ...
9
votes
1answer
66 views

Is there a reliable way to identify regions with negatively-correlated winds?

When examining the potential for large-scale electricity grids, and when identifying the lowest-cost ways to generate clean electricity, a recurring theme is of spreading wind generation across a wide-...
8
votes
1answer
437 views

How does the amount of mass in an atmosphere affect the seasonal changes and dynamics of the planet's climate?

I was thinking about this question, which may turn out to be simple, about climate dynamics: How does the amount of mass in an atmosphere affect the seasonal changes and dynamics of the planet's ...
10
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1answer
144 views

Is there a convenient place to get vertical wind shear info for my location?

Now that it's thunderstorm season here in New Hampshire, it would be nice to be able to find out what the vertical wind shear is like at the altitudes that affect thunderstorm formation, to guess ...
10
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2answers
4k views

Is the urban heat island effect stronger during a particular season or part of the year?

It is known that cities tend to be warmer than the surrounding landscapes, and this is known as the "urban heat island effect". In the summer there is greater heat output from air conditioning ...
5
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1answer
2k views

If there's acid rain, is there such thing as acid snow?

If so, would the acid snow just be as damaging?
9
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1answer
494 views

How can I downscale daily values of relative humidity?

I have a dataset (The ISIMIP interpolation of CMIP5 output) that contains daily values of the following variables: ...
7
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1answer
138 views

Does over-cropping large areas really change the amount of rainfall?

I heard that at one time the Sahara desert was cropped in wheat for the Roman Empire, and that cropping without adding back to the soil was what caused the desert to form. I also heard that this is ...
21
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2answers
3k views

How do tropopause folds form and do they have any impact on synoptic scale weather?

What is the process that creates a tropopause fold? Do these features have any significant impact(s) on weather patterns or the atmosphere?
11
votes
3answers
245 views

Is it right practice to validate temperature data with reanalysis data?

For a project I am working on I received raw data from many meteorology stationes. Is it right practice to test this data against air temperature from noaa's ncep/ncar data?
5
votes
1answer
118 views

How common is it for warm fronts to be responsible for record high temperatures?

Warm fronts are associated with an increase in temperature and precipitation. But are they often associated with record high daily maximum temperatures, given that they often result in an increase in ...
11
votes
2answers
330 views

How do meteorologists grade their past forecasts?

In every professional field, practitioners may come home at the end of the day and say "Yeah! I knocked it out of the park!", or alternatively "Oh, man. Gotta do better tomorrow." What about ...
11
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1answer
312 views

Are sandstorms like regular storms?

What's the difference between sandstorms and regular storms? Are they more than just strong wind within deserts?
14
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1answer
938 views

How long does it take for the atmosphere to mix?

If I release a say, one litre of gas, at a particular point on the planet, how soon, on average, would it take to be distributed evenly (mixed) across the entire earth's atmosphere?
1
vote
1answer
593 views

How to perform precipitation data analysis? [closed]

I want to make precipitation data analysis for the Latvian territory. I only have meteorological stations and reanalysis data. My data from meteorological stations are in the format: ...
16
votes
3answers
3k views

Why does the so called “tornado alley” exist?

75% of the world's tornadoes occur in the USA, and within the USA these tornadoes are most likely to occur in particular regions of the country, such as the well known "tornado alley". The diagram ...
8
votes
1answer
10k views

Why does the wind periodically change direction?

Image Subtitle: Wind going across the page - and changing direction To clarify, imagine you were sat in a boat in the middle of a lake recording the wind direction every minute. You notice that the ...
17
votes
1answer
982 views

Why do tropical cyclones not tear themselves apart?

A tropical cyclone is the generic term for a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical storm. Tropical cyclones derive their energy from evaporation of water at the ocean surface which ultimately recondenses ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the difference between a high-resolution model and a regular model run?

So we have high-resolution models like the HRRR (High Resolution Rapid Refresh). But what exactly is the difference between a high-resolution model and a regular model? I realize that the higher ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there any correlation between La Niña/El Niño and seismic activity?

I've read in the past that extreme precipitation levels may have an effect on seismic activity, and wondered if anyone has ever analysed the La Niña / El Niño cycles to see if there are any ...
19
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2answers
279 views

Will tropical cyclones form and be sustained in areas they previously were not due to global climate change?

With global climate change, is it possible that tropical cyclones (as seen in the Atlantic basin for example) are going to form and be sustained in regions where they previously did not, for example ...
4
votes
0answers
41 views

What determines the eastward speed that mid-latitude high pressure/low pressure systems move at?

Do they move at the group velocity of Rossby Waves? Or do they move at the phase velocity of Rossby Waves? Or some other speed?
15
votes
1answer
3k views

How accurate are climate proxies in giving us a clear picture of global average temperatures throughout Earth history?

Since reliable modern records of climate only began in the 1880s, proxies provide a means for scientists to determine climatic patterns before record-keeping began, though it appears that the the ...
14
votes
2answers
4k views

Why is the Atlantic Hurricane Season defined as being between June 1 and November 30?

Historically, the Atlantic Hurricane Season has shifted, as close as June 15 to October 31, but since 1965, it has been between June 1 and November 30(1). Why is the Atlantic Hurricane Season defined ...
15
votes
1answer
549 views

What constitutes a blizzard in meterological terms?

Blizzards are most commonly associated with a large amount of snowfall and low visibility. However, snow squalls can induce low visibility whereas a 12" snowfall doesn't have to induce low visibility. ...
11
votes
1answer
674 views

What is the motivation of using the Enhanced Fujita Scale in place of the Fujita Scale?

In 2007, the US started using an Enhanced Fujita Scale in place of the Fujita Scale. From a "civilian's" perspective, the Fujita Scale seemed to measure wind whereas the Enhanced Fujita Scale measures ...
8
votes
1answer
10k views

What is the difference between a “flood” and a “flash flood”?

Whenever weather warnings come up, I have heard of both a flood watch/warning and a flash flood watch/warning. What is the difference between a "flood" and a "flash flood"? Are there any specific ...
21
votes
2answers
6k views

Does Earth's air leak into space over time?

From my current understanding, Earth's atmosphere and air are held by the balance of two forces: 1. Earth's gravity and 2. Air pressure from air out to space. Is my understanding correct? So, do ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Cloud-to-ground lightning in Florida?

I was looking into the odds of getting hit by lightning and ran across this map: My first thought for this was due to a higher number of thunderstorms in Florida. However, the map for that doesn't ...
8
votes
1answer
520 views

Can overshooting tops enter the stratosphere, or will they rather push the tropopause upward?

Convective overshooting tops reach above the normally horizontal flat layer of the convective system, a layer that should coincide with the tropopause. If we have such an overshooting top, does this ...
13
votes
2answers
193 views

Are clouds significantly easier to simulate in weather models than climate models?

Cloud forcing is still one of the major uncertainties of radiative forcing in climate modeling because there are so many uncertainties in it (and parametrizations). But also because the timescale of ...
4
votes
1answer
397 views

How does the lapse rate in clouds compare with the lapse rate of air?

So moisture decreases the temperature lapse rate (relative to the dry adiabat). My question is this: does a cloud decrease the lapse rate at the same rate as 100% humidity would decrease it? Or would ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Why are most cirrus clouds present over the equator and over tropical continents?

As quoted from the AR5 IPCC report (chapter 7) here. Most high cloud (mainly cirrus and deep cumulus outflows) occurs near the equator and over tropical continents, but can also be seen in ...