Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
9
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the consensus among geologists about climate change being caused by humans?

I'm terribly frustrated with the way that climate change has been debated in Europe. I live in the Netherlands and members of one of the biggest parties here, the Party for Freedom (PVV), frequently ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

What is grib2 telling me?

I am having trouble interpreting the output of wgrib2. I was expecting this command to produce a set of four measurements: one for each corner of a box at the specified pressure level. Instead I got ...
5
votes
1answer
134 views

How to calculate sea level pressure from geopotential height?

For this, I am using python to plot and manipulate the data. I am using reanalysis data in a netcdf format for this problem. The data includes geopotential, for which I estimated the geopotential ...
7
votes
1answer
455 views

Relative Humidity approximation from Dew Point and Temperature

I would like to find a formula to approximate RH based on known air temperature and dew point. I need the approximation to be valid at least between -20...+40 degrees Celsius. I read the accepted ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

How do I convert kg·kg⁻¹ to ppbV (parts per billion volume)?

I am using the CAMS model output data to figure out the ground level ozone at a particular place. It is given in mass mixing ratio, and I want to convert to parts per billion volume mixing ratio (...
0
votes
0answers
52 views

What causes the polar vortex to exist?

What causes the polar vortex to exist? I've tried to look this up online but I can't seem to find an answer.
6
votes
0answers
47 views

How to statistically downscale wind speeds?

Background I am trying to estimate wind speeds at a proposed wind farm site using the method described in this paper hyperlink here. The approach is summarized in figure 2 of the paper. Short Summary, ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Calculating layer thickness in python

I have calculated the $∂θ_\varepsilon/∂z$ with 'Height', 'Latitude', 'Longitude' dimensions. ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Does increased water vapour in atmosphere increase the risk of hypoxia?

I recently found that each degree of warming increases water vapour by 7% and I've also learned that the atmosphere contains (on average) between 1-5% water vapour when saturated, this confused me a ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Meteorological Data API with Python

I have a number of points in Europe I would like meteorological data for. More specifically, I am looking for data that is relevant in Air Quality models, like wind, temperature and humidity. The time ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Using variables from different CMIP6 models

I would like to know if using variables (ex: sea surface temperature, precipitation, etc.) from two CMIP6 climate models to produce a species/niche distribution model is an accepted practice and won’t ...
1
vote
1answer
959 views

Question about the sign of the shearing deformation terms

I have the following equation for the shearing term of the deformation zone in meteorology. The reference is here. Shearing = $\frac{dV}{dx} + \frac{dU}{dy}$ ${U}$ and ${V}$ are the zonal and ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Does an increase in SR lead to an increase in strength and intensity of ionospheric lightning?

As explained in the following document: ELF Electromagnetic Waves from Lightning: The Schumann Resonances Upper-Atmosphere phenomena like Sprites and Elves can be recorded with extremely low frequency ...
2
votes
3answers
101 views

Why isn't wind speed considered when calculating a heat index?

I work outside in Florida, and the heat is sometimes unbearable. But if a breeze hits me, it makes it much more tolerable. There are some days where there is high heat and humidity, and a steady wind. ...
5
votes
0answers
57 views

Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
0
votes
1answer
96 views

Is it possible for a local flood to reach the heights of a mountain, say 7000 ft, and wash away a ship over 350 miles? [closed]

Is it even possible? How much water would it take? Does the whole earth need to be flooded to reach that height?
4
votes
1answer
44 views

Why does the magnitude of the uncertainty on temperature forecast fluctuate periodically

I remember several years ago, the weather report on the VRT (Flemish national media) would show the temperature forecast of the coming days and it would also show the uncertainty on that temperature. ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

Dynamic meteorology - calculating air temperature based off falling air

I'm not sure if this is the correct place to ask this. Basically I have an exercise in dynamic meteorology that is set up like this: 1 kg of dry air is falling with a constant speed of 0.5 cm / s ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

Dynamic frontogenesis derivation

On page 142 of Lackmann's Midlatitude Synoptic Meteorology, Equation 6.7 gives the derivative of the Boussinesq buoyancy $b = \frac{g \theta'}{\theta_0 (z)}$ (perturbation potential temperature $\...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

What causes thunderstorms to develop in the early dawn hours?

I know that a majority of thunderstorms form in the daytime due to convection from sunlight heating in a moist, unstable airmass. Once the sun begins to set, these storms dissipate. But on some ...
4
votes
0answers
63 views

Why is equatorial Africa wetter in the west than the east? [duplicate]

Looking at equatorial Africa in Google Maps, the western part – Guinea, the Congo – is the dark green of tropical rain forest that I would expect of a wet equatorial region, by analogy with the Amazon ...
5
votes
1answer
81 views

How is weather formation prevented in the stratosphere?

Water diffuses from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. By that principle, I would expect water from the troposphere to diffuse into the stratosphere, where water content ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Is there a publicly accessible resource of video/image footage of the sky over an entire year?

I am looking for videos/image series that show (at least a section of) the (daytime) sky at a given location for a prolonged time (ideally > 1 year). This youtube video is one example of what it ...
4
votes
1answer
73 views

Why are waterspouts less powerful than tornadoes?

It's often said that waterspouts are weaker than tornadoes, but after some quick searches on the internet, I haven't been able to figure out why that is. Two relevant sources that I've found: This ...
3
votes
1answer
304 views

Temperature Inversion

According to my environmental management textbook, the conditions necessary for a temperature inversion are: High air pressure, which causes the upper air to sink Calm conditions resulting from high ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

How do you find the relationship between the angle a weather front makes with the ground and the temperatures and along front winds either side of it?

I am working through David Andrews' "An introductuion to atmospheric physics". (2nd Ed) Question 4.8 concerns finding the relationship between the angle a weather front makes with the ground ...
32
votes
1answer
4k views

What factors determine the number of Hadley cells for a planet?

We know (think?) that Earth has three Hadley cells per hemisphere, but from observing gas giants such as Jupiter, we see that they have many more cells. According to a link from a comment in this ...
3
votes
1answer
77 views

What meteorological features accompany/cause a thermal inversion?

I am physics grad student working on a problem of making a statistical (neural network) prediction of the air pollution in a city. I am provided with hourly values for ca. a dozen meteo features of ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

How to linearize the shallow-water equations?

The shallow water equations are: \begin{aligned} &\frac{du}{dt} = -g\frac{\partial h}{\partial x} + fv\\ &\frac{dv}{dt} = -g\frac{\partial h}{\partial y} - fu\\ &\frac{dh}{dt} = -h(\frac{\...
17
votes
2answers
3k views

How accurate are climate proxies in giving us a clear picture of global average temperatures throughout Earth history?

Since reliable modern records of climate only began in the 1880s, proxies provide a means for scientists to determine climatic patterns before record-keeping began, though it appears that the the ...
1
vote
1answer
183 views

How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

Did Dark Lightning turn out to be a real thing? Is this what produces gamma ray flashes from lightning storms?

The Science at NASA video ScienceCasts: Dark Lightning describes observation of gamma rays from Earth by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These gamma rays are associated with weather that produces ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Are terms like "Extremely Torrential Rain" (>500 mm/24 hours) universal in meteorology?

Meteorological phenomenon can span large ranges in size and strength and categorizations exist based on thresholds, One example is the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) (see also NOAA) ...
16
votes
8answers
5k views

Ways to make a "How hard is it raining?" detector for personal use?

Is there a consensus on the "heaviness" of rain? and Relationship between Probability of Precipitation and Predicted Amount of Rain remind me of a gedankenexperiment of mine. I like to ...
14
votes
2answers
8k views

Is spectrum of sunlight the same in the summer as in the winter?

Of course we receive less sunlight in winter, because the sun is lower in the sky, so the light has to travel through more atmosphere, and loses strength. Does this mean that the blue light is more ...
3
votes
1answer
161 views

Determining if a fine resolution lat/lon point lies in a coarse resolution lat/lon grid box?

I have two datasets, each with two differing resolutions. The first dataset is a coarser resolution data set that has 0.5 x 0.625 degree resolution and contains values of MERRA-2 boundary layer ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Wind monitoring system for a specified region: How should this be done, and with what?

I am unsure if this is the correct place to ask such a question I will give it a go. So, the lab I work in is building a "drone park" to conduct robotics and controls experiments in. This ...
3
votes
4answers
1k views

How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

According to the GRC NASA website, Earth's atmosphere is a thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. Some videos on youtube also point out that if the Earth is ...
4
votes
1answer
64 views

What makes a typhoon suddenly turn by 90 degrees? (e.g. 2021 In-fa/Fabian)

The motion of Typhoon In-fa or Fabian made a hard 90 degree left turn and started heading towards Taiwan, slowed to 5 km/hr before reaching it, then took a hard 90 degree right turn and proceeded ...
11
votes
1answer
36k views

Why does it rain more at night than during the day?

I'm living near a sea, and it rains mostly and heavily at night from 11 PM to 3 AM. The weather is mostly clear during daytime. Air is generally cooler at night, and cool air holds less moisture ...
5
votes
1answer
86 views

What are typical ranges of rainfall drop sizes, speeds, and areal or volume densities?

I'd like to look into the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi and the PiCam module to detect rain, and to try to make some measurements of droplet size and rate. This could be done using an LED flash ...
1
vote
2answers
206 views

How are climate regions caused by both axial tilt and also by climate circulation cells?

So Earth has an axial tilt and that creates weather regions. For example, approximately 23 degrees north and south, approximately the same as the planet's axial tilt, will give you the tropics. This ...
4
votes
2answers
59 views

Does storm seasonality vary with latitude?

Anecdotally, where I live in northern Europe, the weather seems to be stormier in winter, and this seems to be backed up by hard data. For example, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/...
25
votes
0answers
481 views

Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
9
votes
3answers
246 views

Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?

Since there is a total solar eclipse somewhere almost every year, I would have thought it would be included as a standard option in weather forecast models. However, I've learned that is not really ...
1
vote
0answers
76 views

If its ice sheet were removed under modern atmospheric conditions, what climatic and ice-sheet equilibrium would be re-established over Antarctica?

Note the use of the term removed instead of melted—as in, any excess water is moved to where it can't cause trouble, either through the use of advanced technology (space elevators, et cetera) or for ...
6
votes
2answers
132 views

How is a weather forecast really done?

I am trying to understand the concrete process of how a meteorologist at a weather forecast office produces the different types of weather forecasts. I understand how numerical weather models work, ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

Are there some places near the equator that are hottest in their winter and some that are hottest in their summer? Is there a map of this?

Under this answer there's a comment: I am not aware of any location having its hottest temperature in winter... and for mid-to-polar latitude folks specifically we first learn that our summer is the ...
8
votes
4answers
694 views

Why do clouds dissipate when mixing with dry air?

So if dry air is just low humidity, meaning it has the capacity to hold more water vapour, it should make sense that the water droplets from the clouds will just evaporate and fill that dry air with ...
3
votes
1answer
98 views

The Pacific Northwest is about to endure the hottest temperatures in recorded history. What is the atmospheric setup causing it?

This is going to blow the July 2009 heat out of the water and into geostationary orbit. Dew points will also be high, between 17-20 Celsius. This goes beyond Arizona-during-the-monsoon-heat and into ...

1
2
3 4 5
21