# Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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### What is the consensus among geologists about climate change being caused by humans?

I'm terribly frustrated with the way that climate change has been debated in Europe. I live in the Netherlands and members of one of the biggest parties here, the Party for Freedom (PVV), frequently ...
57 views

### What is grib2 telling me?

I am having trouble interpreting the output of wgrib2. I was expecting this command to produce a set of four measurements: one for each corner of a box at the specified pressure level. Instead I got ...
134 views

### How to calculate sea level pressure from geopotential height?

For this, I am using python to plot and manipulate the data. I am using reanalysis data in a netcdf format for this problem. The data includes geopotential, for which I estimated the geopotential ...
455 views

### Relative Humidity approximation from Dew Point and Temperature

I would like to find a formula to approximate RH based on known air temperature and dew point. I need the approximation to be valid at least between -20...+40 degrees Celsius. I read the accepted ...
2k views

### How do I convert kg·kg⁻¹ to ppbV (parts per billion volume)?

I am using the CAMS model output data to figure out the ground level ozone at a particular place. It is given in mass mixing ratio, and I want to convert to parts per billion volume mixing ratio (...
52 views

### What causes the polar vortex to exist?

What causes the polar vortex to exist? I've tried to look this up online but I can't seem to find an answer.
47 views

### How to statistically downscale wind speeds?

Background I am trying to estimate wind speeds at a proposed wind farm site using the method described in this paper hyperlink here. The approach is summarized in figure 2 of the paper. Short Summary, ...
61 views

### Calculating layer thickness in python

I have calculated the $∂θ_\varepsilon/∂z$ with 'Height', 'Latitude', 'Longitude' dimensions. ...
35 views

### Does increased water vapour in atmosphere increase the risk of hypoxia?

I recently found that each degree of warming increases water vapour by 7% and I've also learned that the atmosphere contains (on average) between 1-5% water vapour when saturated, this confused me a ...
52 views

### Meteorological Data API with Python

I have a number of points in Europe I would like meteorological data for. More specifically, I am looking for data that is relevant in Air Quality models, like wind, temperature and humidity. The time ...
23 views

### Using variables from different CMIP6 models

I would like to know if using variables (ex: sea surface temperature, precipitation, etc.) from two CMIP6 climate models to produce a species/niche distribution model is an accepted practice and won’t ...
959 views

### Question about the sign of the shearing deformation terms

I have the following equation for the shearing term of the deformation zone in meteorology. The reference is here. Shearing = $\frac{dV}{dx} + \frac{dU}{dy}$ ${U}$ and ${V}$ are the zonal and ...
13 views

### Does an increase in SR lead to an increase in strength and intensity of ionospheric lightning?

As explained in the following document: ELF Electromagnetic Waves from Lightning: The Schumann Resonances Upper-Atmosphere phenomena like Sprites and Elves can be recorded with extremely low frequency ...
101 views

### Why isn't wind speed considered when calculating a heat index?

I work outside in Florida, and the heat is sometimes unbearable. But if a breeze hits me, it makes it much more tolerable. There are some days where there is high heat and humidity, and a steady wind. ...
57 views

### Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
96 views

### Is it possible for a local flood to reach the heights of a mountain, say 7000 ft, and wash away a ship over 350 miles? [closed]

Is it even possible? How much water would it take? Does the whole earth need to be flooded to reach that height?
44 views

### Why does the magnitude of the uncertainty on temperature forecast fluctuate periodically

I remember several years ago, the weather report on the VRT (Flemish national media) would show the temperature forecast of the coming days and it would also show the uncertainty on that temperature. ...
100 views

### Dynamic meteorology - calculating air temperature based off falling air

I'm not sure if this is the correct place to ask this. Basically I have an exercise in dynamic meteorology that is set up like this: 1 kg of dry air is falling with a constant speed of 0.5 cm / s ...
27 views

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### Did Dark Lightning turn out to be a real thing? Is this what produces gamma ray flashes from lightning storms?

The Science at NASA video ScienceCasts: Dark Lightning describes observation of gamma rays from Earth by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These gamma rays are associated with weather that produces ...
52 views

### Are terms like "Extremely Torrential Rain" (>500 mm/24 hours) universal in meteorology?

Meteorological phenomenon can span large ranges in size and strength and categorizations exist based on thresholds, One example is the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) (see also NOAA) ...
5k views

### Ways to make a "How hard is it raining?" detector for personal use?

Is there a consensus on the "heaviness" of rain? and Relationship between Probability of Precipitation and Predicted Amount of Rain remind me of a gedankenexperiment of mine. I like to ...
8k views

### Is spectrum of sunlight the same in the summer as in the winter?

Of course we receive less sunlight in winter, because the sun is lower in the sky, so the light has to travel through more atmosphere, and loses strength. Does this mean that the blue light is more ...
161 views

### Determining if a fine resolution lat/lon point lies in a coarse resolution lat/lon grid box?

I have two datasets, each with two differing resolutions. The first dataset is a coarser resolution data set that has 0.5 x 0.625 degree resolution and contains values of MERRA-2 boundary layer ...
51 views

### Wind monitoring system for a specified region: How should this be done, and with what?

I am unsure if this is the correct place to ask such a question I will give it a go. So, the lab I work in is building a "drone park" to conduct robotics and controls experiments in. This ...
1k views

### How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

According to the GRC NASA website, Earth's atmosphere is a thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. Some videos on youtube also point out that if the Earth is ...
64 views

### What makes a typhoon suddenly turn by 90 degrees? (e.g. 2021 In-fa/Fabian)

The motion of Typhoon In-fa or Fabian made a hard 90 degree left turn and started heading towards Taiwan, slowed to 5 km/hr before reaching it, then took a hard 90 degree right turn and proceeded ...
36k views

### Why does it rain more at night than during the day?

I'm living near a sea, and it rains mostly and heavily at night from 11 PM to 3 AM. The weather is mostly clear during daytime. Air is generally cooler at night, and cool air holds less moisture ...
86 views

### What are typical ranges of rainfall drop sizes, speeds, and areal or volume densities?

I'd like to look into the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi and the PiCam module to detect rain, and to try to make some measurements of droplet size and rate. This could be done using an LED flash ...
206 views

### How are climate regions caused by both axial tilt and also by climate circulation cells?

So Earth has an axial tilt and that creates weather regions. For example, approximately 23 degrees north and south, approximately the same as the planet's axial tilt, will give you the tropics. This ...
59 views

### Does storm seasonality vary with latitude?

Anecdotally, where I live in northern Europe, the weather seems to be stormier in winter, and this seems to be backed up by hard data. For example, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/...
481 views

### Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
246 views

### Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?

Since there is a total solar eclipse somewhere almost every year, I would have thought it would be included as a standard option in weather forecast models. However, I've learned that is not really ...
76 views

### If its ice sheet were removed under modern atmospheric conditions, what climatic and ice-sheet equilibrium would be re-established over Antarctica?

Note the use of the term removed instead of melted—as in, any excess water is moved to where it can't cause trouble, either through the use of advanced technology (space elevators, et cetera) or for ...
132 views

### How is a weather forecast really done?

I am trying to understand the concrete process of how a meteorologist at a weather forecast office produces the different types of weather forecasts. I understand how numerical weather models work, ...
3k views

### Are there some places near the equator that are hottest in their winter and some that are hottest in their summer? Is there a map of this?

Under this answer there's a comment: I am not aware of any location having its hottest temperature in winter... and for mid-to-polar latitude folks specifically we first learn that our summer is the ...