Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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10
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1answer
1k views

What are Tetens coefficients?

Tetens coefficients appear in a few meteorological/climatological models that I've been looking at,for example APSIM: svp_A = 6.106 svp_B = 17.27 svp_C = 237.3 ...
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2answers
6k views

July/August hottest months (northern hemisphere): because of continued warming or other effects?

In the northern hemisphere, July and August are the hottest months statistically1, but the days start shortening after June 21st. Is this just because the Northern Hemisphere keeps heating up after ...
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1answer
594 views

Why do rainbows appear to have a fixed structure?

Why do rainbows appear to have a fixed structure when a bunch of raindrops are 1. moving, and 2. granular?
8
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1answer
133 views

Why does the Northern polar vortex usually have two centers?

From http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Polar_vortex polar vortex A planetary-scale mid- to high-latitude circumpolar cyclonic circulation, extending from the middle troposphere to the stratosphere. ...
8
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2answers
196 views

What determines the differences in results between various weather models?

It's often said that the ECMWF model is more accurate than the GFS. But what are the reasons why? Also, how does the NAM compare with these two and other forecasting models?
12
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1answer
322 views

How can you explain this storm phenomenon?

It's been a while since this happened, so I don't have many details. About 3 years ago, we had a popup storm here in Louisville. It was completely unexpected and unpredicted. That's not the strange ...
12
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2answers
179 views

What is a source of worldwide temperature data that also includes extreme weather?

I often need to calculate heat balances for large biogas plants, an important factor is outside temperature. I normally use the weather data from Klimadiagramme.de where I can find the mean monthly ...
3
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1answer
2k views

Why do some places have rain frequently? [closed]

There are some places on Earth which holds the record of being "The wettest place on Earth". On what factors these places differ from other normal places? An example of wettest place on Earth is ...
6
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1answer
202 views

Am I observing orographic rainfall?

I don't know an awful lot about meteorology, so please bear with me. My wife (who has a Geography degree) told me that rain can be generated when moist air is pushed up the side of a mountain. This ...
4
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1answer
485 views

How are jet streaks formed?

"Jet Streak Dynamics I: The four-quadrant model" - explains their effects on frontogenesis. But how are they formed to begin with?
12
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1answer
493 views

How is the Rossby Radius used to determine that synoptic weather systems are 1000-2000km across?

In one of his presentations, Sandy MacDonald (of NOAA and ESRL) talks about the Rossby Radius of Deformation in connection with the size of synoptic weather systems: he describes how it sets the ...
21
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1answer
813 views

What data does a skilled meteorologist look at to predict thunderstorms?

An uneducated layman like me would just look at CAPE numbers and make rough guesses on possible thunderstorms. In a related but non-duplicate question, vertical wind shear is discussed. If we are ...
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1answer
66 views

Is there a reliable way to identify regions with negatively-correlated winds?

When examining the potential for large-scale electricity grids, and when identifying the lowest-cost ways to generate clean electricity, a recurring theme is of spreading wind generation across a wide-...
8
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1answer
456 views

How does the amount of mass in an atmosphere affect the seasonal changes and dynamics of the planet's climate?

I was thinking about this question, which may turn out to be simple, about climate dynamics: How does the amount of mass in an atmosphere affect the seasonal changes and dynamics of the planet's ...
10
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1answer
150 views

Is there a convenient place to get vertical wind shear info for my location?

Now that it's thunderstorm season here in New Hampshire, it would be nice to be able to find out what the vertical wind shear is like at the altitudes that affect thunderstorm formation, to guess ...
10
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2answers
4k views

Is the urban heat island effect stronger during a particular season or part of the year?

It is known that cities tend to be warmer than the surrounding landscapes, and this is known as the "urban heat island effect". In the summer there is greater heat output from air conditioning ...
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1answer
2k views

If there's acid rain, is there such thing as acid snow?

If so, would the acid snow just be as damaging?
9
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1answer
510 views

How can I downscale daily values of relative humidity?

I have a dataset (The ISIMIP interpolation of CMIP5 output) that contains daily values of the following variables: ...
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1answer
142 views

Does over-cropping large areas really change the amount of rainfall?

I heard that at one time the Sahara desert was cropped in wheat for the Roman Empire, and that cropping without adding back to the soil was what caused the desert to form. I also heard that this is ...
21
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2answers
4k views

How do tropopause folds form and do they have any impact on synoptic scale weather?

What is the process that creates a tropopause fold? Do these features have any significant impact(s) on weather patterns or the atmosphere?
11
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3answers
257 views

Is it right practice to validate temperature data with reanalysis data?

For a project I am working on I received raw data from many meteorology stationes. Is it right practice to test this data against air temperature from noaa's ncep/ncar data?
5
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1answer
119 views

How common is it for warm fronts to be responsible for record high temperatures?

Warm fronts are associated with an increase in temperature and precipitation. But are they often associated with record high daily maximum temperatures, given that they often result in an increase in ...
11
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2answers
358 views

How do meteorologists grade their past forecasts?

In every professional field, practitioners may come home at the end of the day and say "Yeah! I knocked it out of the park!", or alternatively "Oh, man. Gotta do better tomorrow." What about ...
12
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1answer
369 views

Are sandstorms like regular storms?

What's the difference between sandstorms and regular storms? Are they more than just strong wind within deserts?
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1answer
1k views

How long does it take for the atmosphere to mix?

If I release a say, one litre of gas, at a particular point on the planet, how soon, on average, would it take to be distributed evenly (mixed) across the entire earth's atmosphere?
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1answer
599 views

How to perform precipitation data analysis? [closed]

I want to make precipitation data analysis for the Latvian territory. I only have meteorological stations and reanalysis data. My data from meteorological stations are in the format: ...
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3answers
3k views

Why does the so called "tornado alley" exist?

75% of the world's tornadoes occur in the USA, and within the USA these tornadoes are most likely to occur in particular regions of the country, such as the well known "tornado alley". The diagram ...
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1answer
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Why does the wind periodically change direction?

Image Subtitle: Wind going across the page - and changing direction To clarify, imagine you were sat in a boat in the middle of a lake recording the wind direction every minute. You notice that the ...
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1answer
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Why do tropical cyclones not tear themselves apart?

A tropical cyclone is the generic term for a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical storm. Tropical cyclones derive their energy from evaporation of water at the ocean surface which ultimately recondenses ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between a high-resolution model and a regular model run?

So we have high-resolution models like the HRRR (High Resolution Rapid Refresh). But what exactly is the difference between a high-resolution model and a regular model? I realize that the higher ...
12
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1answer
2k views

Is there any correlation between La Niña/El Niño and seismic activity?

I've read in the past that extreme precipitation levels may have an effect on seismic activity, and wondered if anyone has ever analysed the La Niña / El Niño cycles to see if there are any ...
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2answers
292 views

Will tropical cyclones form and be sustained in areas they previously were not due to global climate change?

With global climate change, is it possible that tropical cyclones (as seen in the Atlantic basin for example) are going to form and be sustained in regions where they previously did not, for example ...
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0answers
41 views

What determines the eastward speed that mid-latitude high pressure/low pressure systems move at?

Do they move at the group velocity of Rossby Waves? Or do they move at the phase velocity of Rossby Waves? Or some other speed?
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2answers
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Why is the Atlantic Hurricane Season defined as being between June 1 and November 30?

Historically, the Atlantic Hurricane Season has shifted, as close as June 15 to October 31, but since 1965, it has been between June 1 and November 30(1). Why is the Atlantic Hurricane Season defined ...
15
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1answer
562 views

What constitutes a blizzard in meterological terms?

Blizzards are most commonly associated with a large amount of snowfall and low visibility. However, snow squalls can induce low visibility whereas a 12" snowfall doesn't have to induce low visibility. ...
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1answer
692 views

What is the motivation of using the Enhanced Fujita Scale in place of the Fujita Scale?

In 2007, the US started using an Enhanced Fujita Scale in place of the Fujita Scale. From a "civilian's" perspective, the Fujita Scale seemed to measure wind whereas the Enhanced Fujita Scale measures ...
8
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1answer
11k views

What is the difference between a "flood" and a "flash flood"?

Whenever weather warnings come up, I have heard of both a flood watch/warning and a flash flood watch/warning. What is the difference between a "flood" and a "flash flood"? Are there any specific ...
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2answers
6k views

Does Earth's air leak into space over time?

From my current understanding, Earth's atmosphere and air are held by the balance of two forces: 1. Earth's gravity and 2. Air pressure from air out to space. Is my understanding correct? So, do ...
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1answer
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Cloud-to-ground lightning in Florida?

I was looking into the odds of getting hit by lightning and ran across this map: My first thought for this was due to a higher number of thunderstorms in Florida. However, the map for that doesn't ...