Questions tagged [meteorology]

The study of how the earth's atmosphere works, including weather forecasting. Use this tag for questions about the earth's weather. When asking questions specifically about the atmosphere, also include the [atmosphere] tag.

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28 views

Finding free humidity data

I am trying to find historical humidity levels (ideally in percentage format) across the globe divided by sub-country regions or more granular. The time granularity would be daily, but hourly would ...
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150 views

Why do heat waves affect Australia unevenly?

Firstly, I would like to express my deepest condolences to those affected by the extreme heat and catastrophic wildfires on NSW's south coast and in Gippsland (east of Melbourne). When I was looking ...
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1answer
159 views

How likely is Earth to naturally reverse climate change in the next 2 decades?

A new decade question: given that the “mini ice ages” were triggered by volcanic activity, how likely is it that we will experience similar levels of volcanic activity over the next 20 years? In ...
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139 views

Equatorial Bulge and its implications on the climate

How much of the variance in the climate is due to the equatorial bulge and how much sun radiation do we lose due to the equatorial bulge? I am interested in the variance both through time and ...
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1answer
252 views

Large Scale lightning Strikes from Cloudless or Near Coudless Skies. How Does it Work?

It is reported in the media that currently in Australia there are dozens of wildfires caused by lightning strikes. I am familiar with the mechanism of ordinary British lightning involving cumulonimbus ...
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2answers
634 views

How to install ESMF and ESMFPy in Ubuntu using gfortran, gcc, python?

I am trying to regrid some of my latitude-longitude grid files to tripolar ocean grid and found that ESMF can be useful. However, I am finding it hard to install the same.
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1answer
86 views

Does PV=nRT mean that isobars are also isotherms?

Does the ideal gas law, PV=nRT, mean that isobars on a map of surface conditions are also isotherms? Is there a way to intuit isotherms from isobars, and vice versa?
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1answer
463 views

How to de-stagger (or unstagger) WRF wind fields?

I am trying to calculate wind speed from the U and V wind components of a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation. However, I came to realize that some ...
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2answers
119 views

Literature on atmospheric modelling

I need to understand some basics about atmospheric modelling, since I am working with data from the COSMO model for my thesis. My questions mainly concern model validation, like learning about the ...
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1answer
114 views

Cloud Formations Near Capetown

Why do clouds form a 'tablecloth' which exactly fits the top of Table Mountain near Capetown, South Africa? Something about the table top tailors the clouds to fit it exactly. The thickness is smooth ...
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Stability Parameter $\zeta$ definition

Let $L_{obu}$ denote the Obukhov length, $z$ denote the height of measurement and $h_c$ denote the canopy(obstacle) height. I have seen two definitions of the stability parameter: $\zeta = z/L_{obu}...
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Advection Fog or____________

If there is snow on the ground in the fall season, at a location 50 km away north of a warmer body of water to the south and that location is receiving fog, what is causing the fog that is occurring ...
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1answer
1k views

Does Climate Data Store provide daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data?

I have been meaning to download the daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data from the Copernicus Climate Data Store, but couldn't find it. I need the data on pressure levels and currently I am ...
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346 views

Extracting point data from ERA5 CDS API

I have been extracting ERA5 data through the Web API. Now I am shifting to CDS API. In the web API I used the below code to download time series data at a particular lat/lon. In the CDS API, I can't ...
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121 views

Why is the ice on a frozen lake sometimes cracked?

The YouTube video Skating Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake - BBC News shows a very heavily cracked lake. It doesn't just appear to be a fault line. It appears to be an actual crack that started ...
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1answer
81 views

Weather Forecast [closed]

I am working on an experimental weather station that has a minimal set of sensors: GPS (which gives me the location, date and time); Thermometer (which gives me the air temperature); Barometer (which ...
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1answer
161 views

How to convert the units of specific cloud liquid water from ERA5 (kg/kg) to kg/m2?

I am trying to initialize my model with the cloud liquid water data from ERA5. My model IITM-ESM which evolved from CFSv2 takes in the cloud liquid water information in $\small\mathsf{kg/m^2}$. ...
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165 views

Where to get temperature sounding model forecast data?

I want to know the current lapse rate for a given point in the US. In other words, I want "live" temperature data at various altitudes. Live is flexible -- I'm generally OK with a forecast which is ...
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72 views

Is there any link between the weekly human cycle and weather?

I am interested in the linkage between the cyclical timing of human activity, and whether that has a direct effect on weather. Most obvious to me is the weekly cycle, which is observed by most of the ...
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3answers
6k views

How to calculate maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures?

A quite simple question that I hope someone can help me with. I have a massive database of hourly minimum and maximum temperatures, from many automatic weather stations. I need to estimate the average ...
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1answer
107 views

What is a reasonable range of values for resistance to heat flux?

I am developing a simple parameterisation scheme script to predict surface temperature. The script calculates six heat fluxes including sensible heat flux using a resistance to heat flux parameter. ...
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1answer
48 views

List some common metrics to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion?

Could you give me some basic understanding of how to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion? For example, could you list some basic metrics to diagnose the vertical motion? Like divergence, vertical ...
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1answer
1k views

Does WRF simulation use sigma or eta vertical coordinate system?

Could you tell me what the WRF's vertical coordinate system is? Sigma or eta? According to the User WRF Guide document, uses a terrain-following hydrostatic pressure coordinate while the WRF ...
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166 views

Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
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Why aren't tornadoes embedded in squall lines or tornadoes in high-precipitation supercells destroyed by downdrafts?

I often hear that tornadoes die when the RFD (Rear Flank Downdraft) strengthens and destroys their source of inflow... How do tornadoes get any inflowing updrafts when they are embedded in rain? How ...
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ERA-5 data downloader... other than CDS-API?

The CDS API does not behave well on our machines. Has anyone had any luck scripting their own ERA-5 reanalysis large-data download script? Perhaps something that is not nearly as large, clunky, and ...
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152 views

Predicting the weather in two months [closed]

EDIT 6/13/2020: Actual Jan average from same website was 50.3 °F, which is even above my one-sigma bound, so I failed badly. What did I miss now that we have hindsight? On Nov 1, I looked at the ...
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1answer
2k views

Heat at High Altitudes

Why does the temperature of let’s say 85 degrees Fahrenheit in southern California feel hotter at 7,500 ft elevation than it does at sea level?
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1answer
375 views

How to better understand the RIP-nomenclature used in the CMIP5 project?

I am a statistician working on a climatological downscaling project in the Caribbean Sea. I am just starting to learn about the CMIP5 GCM data project. I plan to download CMIP5 data from 6 climate ...
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1answer
92 views

Why the Indian Monsoon doesn't start in the north?

The usual explanation for the Indian Monsoon that I read everywhere is that it is generated by winds from the Arabic Sea, moving to India mainland because of the low pressure there. These winds are ...
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64 views

Short-term forecast of Europe by using synoptic charts

I should make a short-term forecast of Europe by using synoptic charts. I'm finding it really hard so I'd be glad if you help me. 'В' means high atmospheric pressure I'm trying to figure out the ...
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3answers
2k views

formula to convert precipitation in mm/h to runoff in m³/s

I have precipitation data in mm/h but to use them for my model I need them in m³/s. Is there a formula to convert them?
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1answer
43 views

Average Snowfall for Snowy Places?

I just moved to Wisconsin, so my family is throwing snow statistics at me. But it seems to me that the most meaningful average US snowfall statistic isn't available (or easy to find). The average ...
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2answers
64 views

What data of agricultural yield to use for India?

I am trying to understand the role of various meteorological factors on agricultural yield over India. Is there a dataset available directly or an indirect proxy of agricultural data, maybe satellite, ...
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1answer
72 views

What's really happening with "stormquakes"?

The PBS Newshour article Scientists discover big storms can create ‘stormquakes’ says: A stormquake is more an oddity than something that can hurt you, because no one is standing on the sea floor ...
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2answers
114 views

Could this cloud be artificially formed?

This photo was taken at 3000 m above sea level in an open field, during the day.
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1answer
64 views

Clouds altitude

I'm amateur photographer and professional programmer and I'm trying to create an application to predict exceptionally beautiful sunsets (something like https://www.flickr.com/photos/photogtom43/...
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43 views

Night sky visibility prediction [closed]

Given a location (e.g. Osoyoos, British Columbia) and human eyes only, what's the ranges for the nights of the year most likely to give clear astronomical viewing? What historical data sources might ...
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2answers
107 views

Local Weather Forecast (Self-Learning Algorithm)

First of all, the question! : Is it possible to predict local weather tendencies for the upcoming hours (let's say 2-3 hours) using only local data? If yes, which data is needed to make such ...
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1answer
141 views

Can we see the circulation cells in wind maps?

Earth famously possesses three distinct circulation cells per hemisphere. Now out of curiosity one could use a weather app, like windy, to display the wind structures at ground level globally, and ...
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1answer
78 views

Converting Wind Movement to Wind Speed

I'm looking through historical weather station information from NOAA, and I notice some stations do not have wind speed information but do track Wind Movement(WDMV) over a 24 hour period in kilometers....
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1answer
85 views

Why is the outer color of a rainbow red? [closed]

Why is the outer color of a rainbow red? (Source: Wikipedia)
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48 views

Why it doesn’t always rain with lightning and thunder when it’s hot [duplicate]

Thunderstorms happen after a period of warm weather. There are times though in the summer after it’s been warm for a while and even after it was 95 degrees Fahrenheit, the thunderstorms they predicted ...
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1answer
183 views

What is the largest hurricane possible?

With Earth getting hotter and hurricanes also getting larger I wonder; Is there a limit on how big a hurricane can physically get?
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2answers
372 views

What determines the direction of wind [duplicate]

What determines the direction that a wind blows? I understand that the nature of my question is immensely broad but I see no other way to phrase the question. The question surfaced in my mind when I ...
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29 views

Is there any program that gives you air temperature (and precipitation) information if you feed them the date and location (latitude,longitude)?

I know I can google each data point (latitude, longitude, date) one by one and find if the government of that country has archived past weather information. But this will take infinite amount of time ...
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1answer
946 views

Question about the sign of the shearing deformation terms

I have the following equation for the shearing term of the deformation zone in meteorology. The reference is here. Shearing = $\frac{dV}{dx} + \frac{dU}{dy}$ ${U}$ and ${V}$ are the zonal and ...
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42 views

Question about the physics of hurricanes

I've a basic misunderstanding about the formation of tropic cyclones. From the absolute point of view, cyclones form in order to conserve total angular momentum - air masses at different latitudes ...
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2answers
85 views

Estimation on how cold will my pond get - intent is to know if certain fish can survive in it

I want to get an estimate on how cold my pond will get. It is a 1 acre pond in Central Florida USA. It has an average depth of 4 feet. There is not much circulation in the pond. It gets direct ...
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1answer
92 views

Southern Hemisphere climate

Does oceanic and land mass positioning affect tropical storm evolution in the southern hemisphere? And, do cold fronts migrate latitudinally " upwards " the way they drift "downwards" in the northern?

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