Questions tagged [models]

A tag for questions about conceptual, analytical or numerical models used in Earth science disciplines.

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2
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1answer
102 views

How does composition change if you extend an Earthlike atmosphere 50km below sea level? [closed]

I'm working to design the atmosphere of a fictional planet inspired by Venus (let's call it Cael). Cael's atmosphere at an altitude of 50 km is essentially identical to Earth's atmosphere at sea ...
2
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0answers
25 views

Waves in very thin layer

Elastic waves in the earth are described by the elastodynamic equations \begin{align} \rho \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial t^2} &= (2 \mu + \lambda) \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2} + \mu \left( ...
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0answers
59 views
+50

SWAN wave model: HSIG is strangely low

I have a question about SWAN wave model, I tried to ask it at the SWAN mailing list, but with no luck, so I'm asking here. First of all I have to admit I'm not a professional SWAN user. All the ...
1
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0answers
32 views

how does model validation work? What is needed for an appropriate validation

I have an 2D hydrodynamic model in a approx. 10km² catchment and one rain event that goes one hour with measurements in a 5min interval. The reccurance interval for an event like that is close to ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Community change along urban rural gradient

I was wondering whether someone has an idea about how to investigate community changes of plants/animals along an urban-rural gradient? I have a large data set consisting of plant/animal abundance and ...
3
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0answers
87 views

Cratonization - how did the Archean cratons form?

Before the onset of modern style plate tectonics and the Wilson cycles in the late Archean, it is thought that smaller units of continental crust, called cratons, roamed the oceanic crust over a more ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Running WRF with ECMWF GRIB2 model levels

ECMWF model data comes in a hybrid GRIB format, that is, model level output is stored in GRIB2 messages, whereas surface data still uses GRIB1 format. Ungrib is unable to understand this hybrid GRIB ...
0
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1answer
28 views

research question for modelling extreme rainfall event with coupled 2D surface and 1D sewersystem model

I would like to write my thesis on modelling extreme rainfall events in urban areas coupling a 2D surface model with an 1D sewer channel model. I have access to a good software which models ...
0
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1answer
24 views

hydrologic vs. hydrodynamic modelling of surface runoff

In the description of a Software it says that it computes the net rainfall, runoff formation and runoffconcentration on a surface hydrologically. With an extra module, the runoff formation can also be ...
1
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1answer
34 views

How to de-stagger (or unstagger) WRF wind fields?

I am trying to calculate wind speed from the U and V wind components of a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation. However, I came to realize that some ...
8
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3answers
329 views

Understanding the Mercator Projection

To illustrate my problem, let's say I have lattitude and longitude coordinates, such as 38.871105, -77.056042. I want to be able to calculate the new lattitude and longitude if, say, I moved 300m ...
3
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1answer
39 views

Run Hydrus-1D from the command line

Hydrus-1D, is a modeling environment for analysis of water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This program has a graphical environment which works very well, however a lot ...
3
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0answers
19 views

what is a sensitivity analysis in heavy rain 2D surface / 1D drainage network models

For my thesis, the lecturer proposed to make a "sensitivity analysis" with a 2D surface model connected with a 1D drainage Network model for a storm rain event. However, I'm having problems to figure ...
3
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2answers
95 views

Do tectonic plates “float” over the mantle and “collide” like icebergs?

I'm always hearing about tectonic plates as large chunks of crust floating on the mantle just like boats. In timescales of millions of years they move and even collide. But I'm starting to think this ...
2
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0answers
41 views

ERA-5 data downloader… other than CDS-API?

The CDS API does not behave well on our machines. Has anyone had any luck scripting their own ERA-5 reanalysis large-data download script? Perhaps something that is not nearly as large, clunky, and ...
1
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1answer
22 views

Modelling extreme rainfall events: 'blanket approches' when considering soil infiltration

For my thesis on modelling an extreme rainfall event with a 2D surface runoff model I'm supposed to consider the effect of soil infiltration on the runoff: In my work description it says I'm supposed ...
2
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2answers
136 views

Why rely on climate models as opposed to paleoclimate data?

Something I hear often from climate scientists, and indeed even politicians, is that we "don't understand climate change very well". And, I'm sure this is true since the climate is a complex adaptive ...
1
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1answer
87 views

Effects of Centrifugal Force on Gravity Vectors?

I've been asked this question twice now from our favourite science denying community, and I don't know how to parse it. I can do centrifugal force and gravity given mass, but have never tried to even ...
2
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1answer
60 views

How reanalysis data influence our research/results?

I am a student and I have a very simple and yet important question about reanalysis data. Recently, I attended a workshop where various other students discussing the use of ERA5 reanalysis data on ...
1
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2answers
59 views

Is there a general equation to know how big of an area is affected by an earthquake?

If you visit USGS earthquakes listing, you get 3 points of information for each earthquake: Location, depth, magnitude. My question is, is there a way to approximate how big of an area is affected? ...
2
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2answers
53 views

What does slat and elat (slon, elon) in latitude and longitude values mean?

I have data from the national storm prediction center that is marked with values of : elat slat elon slon ...
0
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0answers
44 views

Caspian Sea oil deposits

Azerbaijan appears to have vast development in its oil sector. Images on google earth show oil platforms connected by road ways far out into the Caspian Sea of the coast of Baku. Why is the majority ...
0
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1answer
68 views

Can living where magnets are abundant provide a mini-magnetoshere?

Are there a mini-magnetosphere within the magnetosphere similar to mini-magnetosphere found on the Moon? Is there a map of these areas that would resemble the white swirls in the picture below? The ...
0
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0answers
112 views

Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
2
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1answer
84 views

What types of high-level mathematics are useful in doing climate modelling/meteorology?

I'm aware that PDEs, linear algebra, numerical analysis and such are staples of most applied mathematical endeavors. I want to know if there are other areas of "higher" mathematics that have useful ...
2
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2answers
115 views

Why doesn't Wolfram Alpha show low gravitational acceleration for the Hudson Bay?

I thought I would be clever and add a new answer to Hudson Bay Has Low Gravity? by using Wolfram Alpha to report gravitational acceleration for different locations, but it looks like my cleverness ...
1
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0answers
60 views

Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
7
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2answers
201 views

Debunking weather conspiracy with statistics - why does temperature rise then fall for last weekend in June in recent years

I have a conspiracy-prone friend who believes that people are controlling the weather to ensure good weather for a large, annual festival (last weekend in June in San Francisco). As a scientist, (not ...
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0answers
16 views

Do snow and ice have different temperatures at their interface?

tl;dr: For snow on top of ice, is the temperature at the base of the snowpack always (practically) the same as the temperature at the top of the ice? I was trying to understand how the thermodynamics ...
2
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1answer
103 views

Which ocean is going to be swallowed by the Supercontinent Cycle, Atlantic or Pacific?

The register shows several supercontinents have been formed on Earth's History: "The most recent supercontinent, Pangaea, formed about 300 million years ago (0.3 Ga). There are two different ...
2
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1answer
101 views

How can I create multi model ensemble from output of 3 CMIP5 models?

I have a output of 3 models of CMIP5, they are CCSM4, IPSL and MPI. I have two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for each model. I want to know that how can I create a multi model ensemble from these 3 ...
2
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0answers
60 views

Do any of the ECMWF ensemble forecasts have the associated true values?

I am looking for a dataset of ensemble forecasts and the associated true observed values. For example, a dataset containing $n$ ensemble forecasts of the temperature in 24 hours and the observed ...
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0answers
20 views

Model impact of atmopsheric circulation changes on precipitation dD of a region

I'm looking to model the impact of broad scale atmospheric circulation changes on the hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitation for a given region. As an example, what impact does a high pressure system ...
1
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0answers
20 views

Glen's power-law alternatives

For glacier models, there exist alternatives to the Glen's power-law? I searched on internet, but I have not found other alternatives.
2
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2answers
122 views

Modelling sea levels with gravitational parameters

Are there any publicly available programs or source code for modelling global (or local) changes in sea level which include parameters for gravitational tidal effects? I have a physics background, ...
5
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3answers
2k views

What are the domains of Earth Science?

Increasingly confused by all the "spheres" and agreed relationships between them. As a result, I am looking for a singular answer that clearly states at the very least what the top-level and secondary ...
1
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0answers
23 views

The DRASTIC groundwater vulnerability model and it's relevance today

I am reading a groundwater pollution vulnerability study by Mark Angle of the Ohio Dpet. of Natural Resources (ODNR) for my county. The model used to assess the groundwater vulnerability for the ...
13
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2answers
1k views

Model types: Robust diagnostic versus prognostic

I wonder whether someone knows a clear definition/description of 1) Robust diagnostic models Forcing with data from initial state aimed at future predictions? 2) Prognostic models Tie model ...
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0answers
37 views

Seeking CMIP5 or CMIP6 globally in .nc format

Is there in some ftp storage, a pre-processing CMIP5 data for direct download in netcdf extention?
3
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0answers
107 views

Difference between GDAS and GFS data

What is the exact difference between GFS 0.25 and GDAS 0.25 data which is available in http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/. And are the GFS 0.5 and 1 degree data available in the above url and here the same?...
4
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1answer
185 views

Coupling recharge with 1D groundwater flow model

Suppose we are modeling 1D groundwater flow in an aquifer of extent $x$ from $A(x=0)$ to $C$. Lets say for unsteady state conditions, the input is at $A(x=0)$, we can model piezometeric response at $B ...
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0answers
22 views

What's the difference between “loading” and “receiving” in water quality modeling?

I see some models described as simulating 'receiving water quality' and others as 'pollutant loading' models. What is the difference between loading and receiving models in this context? I am more ...
5
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2answers
154 views

Comparing Pros and Cons of SWAT and HSPF

To model hydrology in a watershed, two of the most famous and widely used distributed models are SWAT and HSPF. I have some good understanding of HPSF, but I don't know when and why should one prefer ...
3
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0answers
47 views

Simple numerical model of tide with an elliptic scheme

I have recently been given the task of developping a coastal model for tides. I have a few requirements, it must not be time stepping in order to be as fast as possible and in finite differences ...
3
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0answers
18 views

Statistical dependence of mean annual soil evaporation and mean annual precipitation globally

I am studying a simple dynamical system that represents a plant and water system, similar to Klausmeier. In Klausmeier model the mean annual precipitation and the soil evaporation are introduced as ...
5
votes
1answer
119 views

What's the difference between these most basic, first-order models for estimating runoff?

There are a lot of variations of basic, first-order hydrology models to estimate runoff from rainfall with a few other parameters. From what I can tell, most very basic rainfall-runoff models use one ...
2
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0answers
50 views

Internal energy, enthalpy, and work in the atmosphere

I'm writing a toy radiative-convective atmospheric model and need to relate the heat flux convergences (either surface sensible heat flux or the radiative flux) to changes in atmospheric layer ...
3
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0answers
109 views

Do 360 day calendars affect climate models?

I was recently reading Zach Holman's blogpost on time and remembering that I've had to work with CMIP5 output that used a 360 day calendar, rather than a 365 day or a Greogrian (or Proleptic Gregorian)...
3
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0answers
1k views

Moisture flux convergence in GrADS

I want to calculate vertically integrated moisture flux convergence (VIMFC) in GrADS. But when I give the following instruction it marks me errors: ...
2
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0answers
53 views

The difficulties for the simulation of atmospheric metals

Atmospheric metals usually reside in aerosols with complex source origins. The concentrations distribution of metals especially for those with high toxicity (Pb, Cd, Ni, V) should be informative for ...