Questions tagged [models]

A tag for questions about conceptual, analytical or numerical models used in Earth science disciplines.

40 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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15
votes
0answers
223 views

How to compute the earthquake occurrence probability under ETAS model

I have fitted an ETAS model (unmarked) with an independent exponential magnitude distribution to a set of earthquake data. However, I do not know how to calculate the probability of the earthquake ...
9
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0answers
79 views

What field studies have developed or supported the Penman-Monteith equations for estimating evapotranspiration?

I'm trying to understand transpiration estimation methods. The FAO recommends a standard Penman-Monteith methodology for modeling evapotranspiration based on meteorological and vegetation parameters (...
8
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1answer
145 views

How quickly is the Earth shrinking?

Except for ice, acetic acid, bismuth and gallium and a few other things materials generally shrink when they cool and solidify, so I'm pretty sure Earth has as well. It probably wouldn't be ...
7
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0answers
432 views

Monitoring air pollution with Landsat satellite data

I'm trying to build an air pollution model. So far I have built one for point sources. Now I'm looking at monitoring air pollution with satellite images, based on the idea that every basic pollutant ...
5
votes
0answers
71 views

How do you choose appropriate parameters for a lowpass filter when filtering a Bouguer anomaly?

I am trying to filter my Bouguer anomaly data to remove the short wavelength features. I have created a lowpass filter to achieve this, but I am wondering how I can more objectively choose my cutoff ...
5
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0answers
601 views

Why did the GFS switch to hourly forecasts through hour 120?

About a month ago, the GFS was upgraded. Among other things (like making parallel GFS data available), the upgrade notice said: Include hourly forecasts out to 120 hr Now, this seemed ...
4
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0answers
257 views

What is the difference between the Hydraulic diffusion equation and the Richards equation in groundwater dynamics?

What is the difference between the Hydraulic diffusion equation and the Richards equation in groundwater dynamics? I want also to understand the difference between the different storage coefficients (...
4
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0answers
40 views

Dealing with uncertainty in source apportionment

I have a dataset of dissolved load (major and trace elements), the associated error is specified as <10% for all the cases, in the same way I have rock analysis (major and trace) with the same ...
3
votes
0answers
125 views

Cratonization - how did the Archean cratons form?

Before the onset of modern style plate tectonics and the Wilson cycles in the late Archean, it is thought that smaller units of continental crust, called cratons, roamed the oceanic crust over a more ...
3
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0answers
20 views

what is a sensitivity analysis in heavy rain 2D surface / 1D drainage network models

For my thesis, the lecturer proposed to make a "sensitivity analysis" with a 2D surface model connected with a 1D drainage Network model for a storm rain event. However, I'm having problems to figure ...
3
votes
0answers
143 views

Difference between GDAS and GFS data

What is the exact difference between GFS 0.25 and GDAS 0.25 data which is available in http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/. And are the GFS 0.5 and 1 degree data available in the above url and here the same?...
3
votes
0answers
48 views

Simple numerical model of tide with an elliptic scheme

I have recently been given the task of developping a coastal model for tides. I have a few requirements, it must not be time stepping in order to be as fast as possible and in finite differences ...
3
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0answers
18 views

Statistical dependence of mean annual soil evaporation and mean annual precipitation globally

I am studying a simple dynamical system that represents a plant and water system, similar to Klausmeier. In Klausmeier model the mean annual precipitation and the soil evaporation are introduced as ...
3
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0answers
125 views

Do 360 day calendars affect climate models?

I was recently reading Zach Holman's blogpost on time and remembering that I've had to work with CMIP5 output that used a 360 day calendar, rather than a 365 day or a Greogrian (or Proleptic Gregorian)...
3
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0answers
1k views

Moisture flux convergence in GrADS

I want to calculate vertically integrated moisture flux convergence (VIMFC) in GrADS. But when I give the following instruction it marks me errors: ...
3
votes
0answers
423 views

Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
3
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0answers
105 views

What is the plausability/legitimacy of the San Andreas Fault 'Big One' Megaquake mechanism?

In the ScienceAlert article "New estimates suggest the 'big one' in San Andreas could be much worse than we thought" they make the claim that: Researchers have forecast a mega-quake running the ...
3
votes
0answers
187 views

How to output slope parameter and shape parameter in WRF?

I'd like to ask if it's possible to output slope parameter and shape parameter of cloud hydrometeors in WRF? I'm calculating cloud effective radius and I'm using the formula found in Morrison scheme ...
3
votes
0answers
192 views

Point source pollution model for South America

I want to model point source pollution in S. America watersheds. Specifically, given a set of pollution points and corresponding pollution output levels, I want to know the course these pollutants ...
2
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0answers
23 views

How to transfer surface roughness from the unit mm into Strickler coefficient m1/3 per second

I have a hydrodynamic model to simulate flash floods. This model expects roughness data in the Strickler coefficient format (kst) in the unit m1/3 per second. I got a table with roughness values I'm ...
2
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0answers
45 views

ERA-5 data downloader… other than CDS-API?

The CDS API does not behave well on our machines. Has anyone had any luck scripting their own ERA-5 reanalysis large-data download script? Perhaps something that is not nearly as large, clunky, and ...
2
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0answers
63 views

Do any of the ECMWF ensemble forecasts have the associated true values?

I am looking for a dataset of ensemble forecasts and the associated true observed values. For example, a dataset containing $n$ ensemble forecasts of the temperature in 24 hours and the observed ...
2
votes
0answers
67 views

Internal energy, enthalpy, and work in the atmosphere

I'm writing a toy radiative-convective atmospheric model and need to relate the heat flux convergences (either surface sensible heat flux or the radiative flux) to changes in atmospheric layer ...
2
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0answers
54 views

The difficulties for the simulation of atmospheric metals

Atmospheric metals usually reside in aerosols with complex source origins. The concentrations distribution of metals especially for those with high toxicity (Pb, Cd, Ni, V) should be informative for ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views

What regions of the US will have *improved* climate given current predictions of climate change?

This is really a two part question: 1) Is there a good model for mapping climate conditions in a particular location to pleasantness or livability or something like that? 2) If there is such a model,...
2
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0answers
413 views

Linear Boussinesq Equation for groundwater flow in inconfined aquifer?

I was reading a paper (equation 1 in linked paper) where they used 'linearized Boussinesq' equation to model groundwater in unconfined aquifer. The linearized Boussinesq equation described in the ...
2
votes
0answers
58 views

Formula for numerical model for sustained warming in marine sediment?

I have been reading this paper and found simple numerical formulations to model the time duration, affected depth and amount of warming of marine sediments. The author uses a rudimentary estimate of ...
2
votes
0answers
71 views

Inverse model problem

I have a dataset for river water, rain water and geology (main elements and trace elements). I want to apportion the contribution of geology to water chemistry using for that purpose a model. I was ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

How to choose “relevant” precipitation durations for flash flood modelling?

For my thesis, I model flash floods in urban areas. A book with recommended practices says to use events with a recurrence interval of 30 and 50 years. Regarding the duration of the precipitation ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

how does model validation work? What is needed for an appropriate validation

I have an 2D hydrodynamic model in a approx. 10km² catchment and one rain event that goes one hour with measurements in a 5min interval. The reccurance interval for an event like that is close to ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
1
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0answers
20 views

Model impact of atmopsheric circulation changes on precipitation dD of a region

I'm looking to model the impact of broad scale atmospheric circulation changes on the hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitation for a given region. As an example, what impact does a high pressure system ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Glen's power-law alternatives

For glacier models, there exist alternatives to the Glen's power-law? I searched on internet, but I have not found other alternatives.
1
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0answers
24 views

The DRASTIC groundwater vulnerability model and it's relevance today

I am reading a groundwater pollution vulnerability study by Mark Angle of the Ohio Dpet. of Natural Resources (ODNR) for my county. The model used to assess the groundwater vulnerability for the ...
1
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0answers
38 views

Seeking CMIP5 or CMIP6 globally in .nc format

Is there in some ftp storage, a pre-processing CMIP5 data for direct download in netcdf extention?
1
vote
0answers
26 views

What's the difference between “loading” and “receiving” in water quality modeling?

I see some models described as simulating 'receiving water quality' and others as 'pollutant loading' models. What is the difference between loading and receiving models in this context? I am more ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Watershed scale water quality indices

I understand water quality indices play a fundamental role in modelling water quality as they integrate multiple water quality parameters to bring about a single dimensionless digit that represents ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

What models are available to estimate effect of surface water on groundwater quality?

I want to determine the effect of surface water quality or the effect of chemicals used on surface like fertilizers on groundwater. What choices do I have for predicting groundwater quality? What are ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How can I specifiy a substance in AERMOD?

Since I use OTHER as a pollutant ID, are there some parameters I could specify in order to get better results for dispersion of substance I am trying to model? eg. molecular weight or density?
0
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0answers
46 views

Caspian Sea oil deposits

Azerbaijan appears to have vast development in its oil sector. Images on google earth show oil platforms connected by road ways far out into the Caspian Sea of the coast of Baku. Why is the majority ...