Questions tagged [models]

A tag for questions about conceptual, analytical or numerical models used in Earth science disciplines.

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10 votes
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What field studies have developed or supported the Penman-Monteith equations for estimating evapotranspiration?

I'm trying to understand transpiration estimation methods. The FAO recommends a standard Penman-Monteith methodology for modeling evapotranspiration based on meteorological and vegetation parameters (...
  • 1,178
10 votes
0 answers
283 views

What is the smallest grid spacing that Eulerian air quality models should use?

The University of Washington runs the Advanced Research Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in predictive mode, and then tests the skill of the model anywhere from 12 - 84 hours out from ...
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9 votes
1 answer
394 views

What is the difference between the freezing level and 0 C isotherm in NOAA's GFS?

I'm playing around with NOAA's GFS forecast data and I see that it contains both a "0 °C isotherm level" and a "Highest tropospheric freezing level". Could someone tell me the ...
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8 votes
0 answers
451 views

Monitoring air pollution with Landsat satellite data

I'm trying to build an air pollution model. So far I have built one for point sources. Now I'm looking at monitoring air pollution with satellite images, based on the idea that every basic pollutant ...
  • 213
7 votes
0 answers
639 views

Why did the GFS switch to hourly forecasts through hour 120?

About a month ago, the GFS was upgraded. Among other things (like making parallel GFS data available), the upgrade notice said: Include hourly forecasts out to 120 hr Now, this seemed ...
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5 votes
0 answers
80 views

How do you choose appropriate parameters for a lowpass filter when filtering a Bouguer anomaly?

I am trying to filter my Bouguer anomaly data to remove the short wavelength features. I have created a lowpass filter to achieve this, but I am wondering how I can more objectively choose my cutoff ...
5 votes
0 answers
275 views

What is the difference between the Hydraulic diffusion equation and the Richards equation in groundwater dynamics?

What is the difference between the Hydraulic diffusion equation and the Richards equation in groundwater dynamics? I want also to understand the difference between the different storage coefficients (...
5 votes
0 answers
42 views

Dealing with uncertainty in source apportionment

I have a dataset of dissolved load (major and trace elements), the associated error is specified as <10% for all the cases, in the same way I have rock analysis (major and trace) with the same ...
4 votes
0 answers
63 views

Understanding 1x5x9 pattern for block precedence algorithm in open pit mining

I came across several visual representation of the 1x5x9 pattern defined for block precedence computation in the ultimate pit limit problem. But I can't seem to understand fully how it is computed. I ...
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4 votes
0 answers
52 views

How would you predict the future climate with only 7 years of interest?

In my specific case, I have worked with a data set from 2001 to 2018 which had to be split up in 2012 due to major updates in the data. Therefore, I am now dealing with a data set of 12 years (2001 to ...
  • 141
4 votes
0 answers
265 views

Cratonization - how did the Archean cratons form?

Before the onset of modern style plate tectonics and the Wilson cycles in the late Archean, it is thought that smaller units of continental crust, called cratons, roamed the oceanic crust over a more ...
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4 votes
0 answers
21 views

what is a sensitivity analysis in heavy rain 2D surface / 1D drainage network models

For my thesis, the lecturer proposed to make a "sensitivity analysis" with a 2D surface model connected with a 1D drainage Network model for a storm rain event. However, I'm having problems to figure ...
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4 votes
0 answers
326 views

Difference between GDAS and GFS data

What is the exact difference between GFS 0.25 and GDAS 0.25 data which is available in http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/. And are the GFS 0.5 and 1 degree data available in the above url and here the same?...
4 votes
0 answers
54 views

Simple numerical model of tide with an elliptic scheme

I have recently been given the task of developping a coastal model for tides. I have a few requirements, it must not be time stepping in order to be as fast as possible and in finite differences ...
4 votes
0 answers
24 views

Statistical dependence of mean annual soil evaporation and mean annual precipitation globally

I am studying a simple dynamical system that represents a plant and water system, similar to Klausmeier. In Klausmeier model the mean annual precipitation and the soil evaporation are introduced as ...
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4 votes
0 answers
438 views

Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
4 votes
0 answers
106 views

What is the plausability/legitimacy of the San Andreas Fault 'Big One' Megaquake mechanism?

In the ScienceAlert article "New estimates suggest the 'big one' in San Andreas could be much worse than we thought" they make the claim that: Researchers have forecast a mega-quake running the ...
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4 votes
0 answers
233 views

How to output slope parameter and shape parameter in WRF?

I'd like to ask if it's possible to output slope parameter and shape parameter of cloud hydrometeors in WRF? I'm calculating cloud effective radius and I'm using the formula found in Morrison scheme ...
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4 votes
0 answers
194 views

Point source pollution model for South America

I want to model point source pollution in S. America watersheds. Specifically, given a set of pollution points and corresponding pollution output levels, I want to know the course these pollutants ...
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3 votes
0 answers
62 views

Looking for the climate classification for a particular climate

I'm looking for the climate classification among the many different climate classification systems covering my absolute favorite form of climate. If a classification for this doesn't exist, and you ...
3 votes
0 answers
38 views

How to transfer surface roughness from the unit mm into Strickler coefficient m1/3 per second

I have a hydrodynamic model to simulate flash floods. This model expects roughness data in the Strickler coefficient format (kst) in the unit m1/3 per second. I got a table with roughness values I'm ...
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3 votes
0 answers
64 views

ERA-5 data downloader... other than CDS-API?

The CDS API does not behave well on our machines. Has anyone had any luck scripting their own ERA-5 reanalysis large-data download script? Perhaps something that is not nearly as large, clunky, and ...
3 votes
0 answers
69 views

Do any of the ECMWF ensemble forecasts have the associated true values?

I am looking for a dataset of ensemble forecasts and the associated true observed values. For example, a dataset containing $n$ ensemble forecasts of the temperature in 24 hours and the observed ...
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3 votes
0 answers
131 views

Internal energy, enthalpy, and work in the atmosphere

I'm writing a toy radiative-convective atmospheric model and need to relate the heat flux convergences (either surface sensible heat flux or the radiative flux) to changes in atmospheric layer ...
  • 1,361
3 votes
0 answers
58 views

The difficulties for the simulation of atmospheric metals

Atmospheric metals usually reside in aerosols with complex source origins. The concentrations distribution of metals especially for those with high toxicity (Pb, Cd, Ni, V) should be informative for ...
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3 votes
0 answers
472 views

Linear Boussinesq Equation for groundwater flow in inconfined aquifer?

I was reading a paper (equation 1 in linked paper) where they used 'linearized Boussinesq' equation to model groundwater in unconfined aquifer. The linearized Boussinesq equation described in the ...
3 votes
0 answers
60 views

Formula for numerical model for sustained warming in marine sediment?

I have been reading this paper and found simple numerical formulations to model the time duration, affected depth and amount of warming of marine sediments. The author uses a rudimentary estimate of ...
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2 votes
1 answer
18 views

MIKE-SHE hydrological model: How to export SZ flow from a larger model to import into a smaller, nested model to inform SZ boundary conditions

We are working on a MIKE-SHE coupled MIKE-Hydro model for a small wetland in South Africa. One of the major issues is that it has zero-flux boundaries around the model domain in the saturated zone (SZ)...
2 votes
1 answer
23 views

Distribution of wetland inflows to the wetland storage in WRSM-Pitman

I’m working with the comprehensive wetland module in WRSM-Pitman (Bailey and Pitman, 2015) and reconstructing the water balance. Apart from parameter differences, which proportion of upstream inflows ...
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2 votes
1 answer
24 views

WRSM-Pitman: Calculating alpha in the wetland surface area equation for estimating wetland evaporation

I am estimating the wetland water balance variables for the comprehensive wetland module. For evaporation, it is calculated based on the net rainfall and average wetland storage area for the month. In ...
  • 51
2 votes
0 answers
20 views

What is the effect of increasing the size interval in the generalized dynamic equation (GDE) to simulate an evolving aerosol?

The following differential equation allows me to calculate the the number concentration of aerosol particles from 2 nm to 3 nm. $$\frac{dN_2{_-{_3}}}{dt}=J_2-J_3-N_2{_-{_3}}.CoagS_2{_-{_3}}$$ In the ...
2 votes
0 answers
26 views

Velocity boundary conditions from water depth time series

Currently, I am setting up a hydrodynamic model for a coastal zone. For this purpose I need to impose the velocity and water level at the open boundary. Tidal models (e.g. TPXO) can give both velocity ...
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2 votes
0 answers
76 views

Inverse model problem

I have a dataset for river water, rain water and geology (main elements and trace elements). I want to apportion the contribution of geology to water chemistry using for that purpose a model. I was ...
1 vote
0 answers
32 views

Map showing the change in precipitation intensity

Hi I need a map for the North American region that shows the change in rainfall intensity. Unfortunately, I can only find maps like this map Unfortunately, these are not detailed to use.
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1 vote
0 answers
5 views

Irrigating from multiple reservoirs in SWAT+

I am applying SWAT+ in an area with multiple reservoirs used for irrigation. I also have a lot of HRUs representing the various crop types in the catchment. The problem is that SWAT+ assigns one ...
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1 vote
0 answers
18 views

Updating plant/crop database

I have been trying to update the QSWAT+ crop database to include new crops. However it seems the model refuses to read a look-up table with new crops leaving me unable to represent all the various ...
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1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Complex interpolation for Isotopic data

I have another question, is there a package that interpolates precipitation data taking into account mountains and oceans? I have so far used Numpy and Basemap but as you can see in the code, the data ...
  • 1,354
1 vote
0 answers
27 views

Are there any online earth science formula/equation libraries?

I'm looking for a formula library like fxSolver but specifically for Earth science formulas. I could rummage through scientific papers like a nerd racoon, but first I want to make sure there isn't a ...
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1 vote
0 answers
38 views

Is there a more accurate method for estimating ground or soil temperatures

Context We have geothermal, engineering and construction clients who often need accurate estimates of ground temperatures for project sites before they have physical access to the sites (for ...
1 vote
0 answers
36 views

Using variables from different CMIP6 models

I would like to know if using variables (ex: sea surface temperature, precipitation, etc.) from two CMIP6 climate models to produce a species/niche distribution model is an accepted practice and won’t ...
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1 vote
0 answers
33 views

How to choose "relevant" precipitation durations for flash flood modelling?

For my thesis, I model flash floods in urban areas. A book with recommended practices says to use events with a recurrence interval of 30 and 50 years. Regarding the duration of the precipitation ...
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1 vote
0 answers
54 views

how does model validation work? What is needed for an appropriate validation

I have an 2D hydrodynamic model in a approx. 10km² catchment and one rain event that goes one hour with measurements in a 5min interval. The reccurance interval for an event like that is close to ...
  • 331
1 vote
0 answers
113 views

Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

Model impact of atmopsheric circulation changes on precipitation dD of a region

I'm looking to model the impact of broad scale atmospheric circulation changes on the hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitation for a given region. As an example, what impact does a high pressure system ...
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

Glen's power-law alternatives

For glacier models, there exist alternatives to the Glen's power-law? I searched on internet, but I have not found other alternatives.
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1 vote
0 answers
24 views

The DRASTIC groundwater vulnerability model and it's relevance today

I am reading a groundwater pollution vulnerability study by Mark Angle of the Ohio Dpet. of Natural Resources (ODNR) for my county. The model used to assess the groundwater vulnerability for the ...
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Seeking CMIP5 or CMIP6 globally in .nc format

Is there in some ftp storage, a pre-processing CMIP5 data for direct download in netcdf extention?
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1 vote
0 answers
31 views

What's the difference between "loading" and "receiving" in water quality modeling?

I see some models described as simulating 'receiving water quality' and others as 'pollutant loading' models. What is the difference between loading and receiving models in this context? I am more ...
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1 vote
0 answers
44 views

Watershed scale water quality indices

I understand water quality indices play a fundamental role in modelling water quality as they integrate multiple water quality parameters to bring about a single dimensionless digit that represents ...
1 vote
0 answers
24 views

What models are available to estimate effect of surface water on groundwater quality?

I want to determine the effect of surface water quality or the effect of chemicals used on surface like fertilizers on groundwater. What choices do I have for predicting groundwater quality? What are ...