Questions tagged [models]

A tag for questions about conceptual, analytical or numerical models used in Earth science disciplines.

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0answers
124 views

Do 360 day calendars affect climate models?

I was recently reading Zach Holman's blogpost on time and remembering that I've had to work with CMIP5 output that used a 360 day calendar, rather than a 365 day or a Greogrian (or Proleptic Gregorian)...
5
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1answer
121 views

What's the difference between these most basic, first-order models for estimating runoff?

There are a lot of variations of basic, first-order hydrology models to estimate runoff from rainfall with a few other parameters. From what I can tell, most very basic rainfall-runoff models use one ...
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0answers
54 views

The difficulties for the simulation of atmospheric metals

Atmospheric metals usually reside in aerosols with complex source origins. The concentrations distribution of metals especially for those with high toxicity (Pb, Cd, Ni, V) should be informative for ...
6
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1answer
250 views

Seismic migration concepts

In Dr Hua-Wei Zhou's book Practical Seismic Data Analysis (2014), he includes and explains figures from previous classic works (i.e. Schneider, 1971) in order to describe migration from a fundamental ...
5
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1answer
83 views

Nonlinear Stokes equations for glacier modeling

What is the difference between $$\operatorname{div}(-\mu(u)\nabla u+pI)=f\tag{1}$$ and $$\operatorname{div}(-\mu(u)(\nabla u\color{red}{+(\nabla u)^\mathsf{T}})+pI)=f\tag{2}$$ from the physical ...
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37 views

Watershed scale water quality indices

I understand water quality indices play a fundamental role in modelling water quality as they integrate multiple water quality parameters to bring about a single dimensionless digit that represents ...
10
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3answers
675 views

How to run earth system, land surface and climate models?

I am interested in earth system models, land surface models and climate prediction models. I found a lot of online information on different models, including CIMP5, and the Earth System Modeling ...
8
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1answer
775 views

Are we now and/or have we been in the RCP8.5 scenario?

Is it generally understood that we (globally) have been living in an RCP8.5 scenario over the past 7-8 years? Such that a predictive climate model using RCP8.5 assumptions that was run circa 2011 can ...
9
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5answers
896 views

Correct phrase for a 'forgetful' natural system?

This is a rather general question: assume I have a system that has a certain 'forgetful' property, which means that while I can offset its current state for a moment, it will eventually return to its ...
5
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1answer
71 views

Calculate the number of model grid cells covering a specific country

What is the best method of calculating the number of model grid cells (e.g. of climate models) covering a specific country? For example, if I wanted to know how many 2 degree grid cells are in the ...
2
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0answers
56 views

What regions of the US will have *improved* climate given current predictions of climate change?

This is really a two part question: 1) Is there a good model for mapping climate conditions in a particular location to pleasantness or livability or something like that? 2) If there is such a model,...
7
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1answer
137 views

What determines the spatial resolution of a study?

This might sound like a silly question to many of you, but I am addressing the comments of a referee regarding a study I'm trying to publish and I remained a little puzzled about this issue. Let's ...
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0answers
19 views

What models are available to estimate effect of surface water on groundwater quality?

I want to determine the effect of surface water quality or the effect of chemicals used on surface like fertilizers on groundwater. What choices do I have for predicting groundwater quality? What are ...
3
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1answer
1k views

How to install WRF on a Mac?

I would like to install the WRF model on my Mac computer. Where can I find up to date and step-by-step instructions on how to install it?
3
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1answer
158 views

Wavewatch III data

I need to simulate some ocean data on the south coast of France, near to Marseilles. Ideally I am looking for parameters such as wind direction, wind speed, significant wave height, peak wave period ...
6
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2answers
95 views

Does a table summarizing basic details of significant operational weather models exist?

With all the questions we've had through the years that have tied into weather models, plus all the sites around the web providing weather model data, it got me wondering: is there any table that ...
3
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3answers
987 views

Predicting rainfall with governing equations

Which model is a good starting point for predicting precipitation (rain) for 24 hours in advance? I looked at Kalnay's Atmospheric modeling, data assimilation and predictability, and Holton's An ...
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0answers
1k views

Moisture flux convergence in GrADS

I want to calculate vertically integrated moisture flux convergence (VIMFC) in GrADS. But when I give the following instruction it marks me errors: ...
4
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1answer
191 views

Coupling recharge with 1D groundwater flow model

Suppose we are modeling 1D groundwater flow in an aquifer of extent $x$ from $A(x=0)$ to $C$. Lets say for unsteady state conditions, the input is at $A(x=0)$, we can model piezometeric response at $B ...
4
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0answers
257 views

What is the difference between the Hydraulic diffusion equation and the Richards equation in groundwater dynamics?

What is the difference between the Hydraulic diffusion equation and the Richards equation in groundwater dynamics? I want also to understand the difference between the different storage coefficients (...
2
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0answers
413 views

Linear Boussinesq Equation for groundwater flow in inconfined aquifer?

I was reading a paper (equation 1 in linked paper) where they used 'linearized Boussinesq' equation to model groundwater in unconfined aquifer. The linearized Boussinesq equation described in the ...
3
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1answer
1k views

What does the degree and order of Spherical Harmonics mean?

I've been reading up about Gravitational Models and Spherical Harmonics. Where I first read about them is in this scholarly article on Autonomous navigation with Gravity Gradients. It talks about ...
6
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1answer
2k views

What is the difference between GFS analysis and GFS forecast data?

gfsanl_3_20151201_0000_006 means that the analysis was made at 0000 UTC and is valid at 0600 UTC, doesn't it? But for how long, 3 hours? And what is the difference ...
6
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1answer
863 views

Why is WRF-Chem not reading my emissions data?

I've been trying to run WRF-Chem with my emissions but they are not being read by WRF-Chem. RADM2. I have emissions for the whole week, so io_style_emissions = 2 ...
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0answers
79 views

What field studies have developed or supported the Penman-Monteith equations for estimating evapotranspiration?

I'm trying to understand transpiration estimation methods. The FAO recommends a standard Penman-Monteith methodology for modeling evapotranspiration based on meteorological and vegetation parameters (...
8
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3answers
1k views

Effect of urbanization on weather events

At what stage is the studies on effect of urbanization on weather events (eg: Rainfall, Temperature, UHI) are now? There has been a number of observational and modelling studies around the world and ...
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0answers
423 views

Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
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0answers
38 views

Oil production profile of oil fields with water coning [closed]

What is the typical production profile of oil fields with water coning?
7
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1answer
735 views

Units of wave spectrum

In ocean spectra such as the Pierson Moskowitz or the JONSWAP models, the units of $S(\omega)$ are $m^2/(rad/s)$ (or whatever unit of measurement you are working in). Where does the $m^2$ come from ...
5
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1answer
3k views

Running WRF with ECMWF GRIB2 model levels

ECMWF model data comes in a hybrid GRIB format, that is, model level output is stored in GRIB2 messages, whereas surface data still uses GRIB1 format. Ungrib is unable to understand this hybrid GRIB ...
7
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1answer
1k views

How to calculate w-wind?

My model (AGCM) does not compute w-wind (the vertical component of the wind velocity). However, I do have the following available variables from AGCM output: ...
4
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1answer
213 views

Global Gridded Daily Temperature (at 2m): difference between GEFS Reforcast and NCEP Reanalysis

I am looking for gridded/raster estimates of daily mean temperature (ideally ambient/at 2 meter) for a public health analysis. Specifically, I want to correlate daily mortality counts with daily mean ...
-1
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1answer
242 views

Where can i find a shallow-water solver in MATLAB?

I do not know how to solve the shallow water equations in the matrix form in MATLAB. I didn't find anything useful on the internet. I have the specific mathematical equations to solve (please see the ...
6
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2answers
295 views

Methods and Software for Interpolating/Modelling of Stratigraphic Well Data in 2D/3D

I have some geologic well data. The lithologies have been interpreted, and stratigraphic columns have been drawn. The columns have been adjusted for elevation, and correlation has been done between ...
3
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1answer
1k views

What is the difference between Precipitable Water (PW or PWAT) and Quantitive Precipitation Forecast (QPF) in terms of computer weather model data?

When I take a look at weather models, there is an option to take a look at PWAT or QPF. What's the difference?
3
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0answers
105 views

What is the plausability/legitimacy of the San Andreas Fault 'Big One' Megaquake mechanism?

In the ScienceAlert article "New estimates suggest the 'big one' in San Andreas could be much worse than we thought" they make the claim that: Researchers have forecast a mega-quake running the ...
3
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2answers
59 views

Is it possible to have an AR(0) for streamflow?

Autoregressive models (AR) are extensively used to understand the behavior of streamflow. The literature abounds with examples of AR models from different families applied "everywhere" to fully ...
2
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0answers
58 views

Formula for numerical model for sustained warming in marine sediment?

I have been reading this paper and found simple numerical formulations to model the time duration, affected depth and amount of warming of marine sediments. The author uses a rudimentary estimate of ...
11
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3answers
322 views

Does finer input data lead to a better model accuracy?

Climate and chemical transport models all need input files including meteorology data, emission inventory, surface data (e.g. land use type) to initialize the simulation field. Take the case of WRF ...
2
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1answer
1k views

How to set up a domain from namelist in WRF?

I'm fairly inexperienced with WRF and was wondering if anyone could point me in the direction of any helpful resources for it. The task I have is to make a simple 9 km domain, but I'm having trouble ...
8
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3answers
216 views

Climate change review for a scientist [duplicate]

I am a Ph.D student in Computer Science and Statistical Genetics. I recently became very interested in climate change, for obvious reasons. I would like to use my solid scientific and statistical ...
5
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1answer
74 views

snow modelling using raster data with different resolution

I am trying model to some snow processes for the whole US. I do have daily climate forcing time series for a 1 x 1 km raster in a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection (netCdf format). The MODIS snow ...
6
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1answer
120 views

How to derive the (dry) deposition velocity for particles in the atmosphere

In atmospheric dispersion modelling the deposition velocity of particulate matter is often described by: $$ v_d = \frac{1}{r_A+r_B+r_A r_B v_g}+v_g \hspace{10mm}(1) $$ where $r_A$ is the aerodynamic ...
6
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1answer
107 views

Kalman - Data assimilation with external model

I'm working with a distributed snow model which simulates Snow Depth and Snow Cover area. It takes in input some atmospherics variables : Temperature / Precipitation / Wind speed ... I want to ...
4
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0answers
40 views

Dealing with uncertainty in source apportionment

I have a dataset of dissolved load (major and trace elements), the associated error is specified as <10% for all the cases, in the same way I have rock analysis (major and trace) with the same ...
5
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1answer
175 views

Is there a simple temperature prediction model?

I'm working on piecing together a game that involve sea trading, loosely based on historical conditions. As a part of making the game, I'm creating a map. From that map, I'm trying to determine what ...
3
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0answers
187 views

How to output slope parameter and shape parameter in WRF?

I'd like to ask if it's possible to output slope parameter and shape parameter of cloud hydrometeors in WRF? I'm calculating cloud effective radius and I'm using the formula found in Morrison scheme ...
5
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0answers
600 views

Why did the GFS switch to hourly forecasts through hour 120?

About a month ago, the GFS was upgraded. Among other things (like making parallel GFS data available), the upgrade notice said: Include hourly forecasts out to 120 hr Now, this seemed ...
12
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1answer
2k views

Why is WRF most often configured at 3:1 nesting ratio?

In WRF application, nested domain has always been used for weather/air quality modeling for the place of interest in a better resolution. The figure below illustrates this: I have noticed that the ...
1
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1answer
112 views

When GCMs are calibrated do they use 'corrected rainfall' input?

Part of calibrating Global Climatic Models involves 'hindcasts' or 'history matching' against historic climate records, including rainfall. Such rainfall records are all in error because almost all ...