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Questions tagged [models]

A tag for questions about conceptual, analytical or numerical models used in Earth science disciplines.

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4
votes
0answers
247 views

What is the difference between the Hydraulic diffusion equation and the Richards equation in groundwater dynamics?

What is the difference between the Hydraulic diffusion equation and the Richards equation in groundwater dynamics? I want also to understand the difference between the different storage coefficients (...
2
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0answers
372 views

Linear Boussinesq Equation for groundwater flow in inconfined aquifer?

I was reading a paper (equation 1 in linked paper) where they used 'linearized Boussinesq' equation to model groundwater in unconfined aquifer. The linearized Boussinesq equation described in the ...
3
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1answer
1k views

What does the degree and order of Spherical Harmonics mean?

I've been reading up about Gravitational Models and Spherical Harmonics. Where I first read about them is in this scholarly article on Autonomous navigation with Gravity Gradients. It talks about ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the difference between GFS analysis and GFS forecast data?

gfsanl_3_20151201_0000_006 means that the analysis was made at 0000 UTC and is valid at 0600 UTC, doesn't it? But for how long, 3 hours? And what is the difference ...
6
votes
1answer
671 views

Why is WRF-Chem not reading my emissions data?

I've been trying to run WRF-Chem with my emissions but they are not being read by WRF-Chem. RADM2. I have emissions for the whole week, so io_style_emissions = 2 ...
9
votes
0answers
77 views

What field studies have developed or supported the Penman-Monteith equations for estimating evapotranspiration?

I'm trying to understand transpiration estimation methods. The FAO recommends a standard Penman-Monteith methodology for modeling evapotranspiration based on meteorological and vegetation parameters (...
8
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3answers
1k views

Effect of urbanization on weather events

At what stage is the studies on effect of urbanization on weather events (eg: Rainfall, Temperature, UHI) are now? There has been a number of observational and modelling studies around the world and ...
3
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0answers
398 views

Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
1
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0answers
38 views

Oil production profile of oil fields with water coning [closed]

What is the typical production profile of oil fields with water coning?
7
votes
1answer
555 views

Units of wave spectrum

In ocean spectra such as the Pierson Moskowitz or the JONSWAP models, the units of $S(\omega)$ are $m^2/(rad/s)$ (or whatever unit of measurement you are working in). Where does the $m^2$ come from ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Running WRF with ECMWF GRIB2 model levels

ECMWF model data comes in a hybrid GRIB format, that is, model level output is stored in GRIB2 messages, whereas surface data still uses GRIB1 format. Ungrib is unable to understand this hybrid GRIB ...
7
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1answer
936 views

How to calculate w-wind?

My model (AGCM) does not compute w-wind (the vertical component of the wind velocity). However, I do have the following available variables from AGCM output: ...
4
votes
1answer
192 views

Global Gridded Daily Temperature (at 2m): difference between GEFS Reforcast and NCEP Reanalysis

I am looking for gridded/raster estimates of daily mean temperature (ideally ambient/at 2 meter) for a public health analysis. Specifically, I want to correlate daily mortality counts with daily mean ...
-1
votes
1answer
224 views

Where can i find a shallow-water solver in MATLAB?

I do not know how to solve the shallow water equations in the matrix form in MATLAB. I didn't find anything useful on the internet. I have the specific mathematical equations to solve (please see the ...
6
votes
2answers
265 views

Methods and Software for Interpolating/Modelling of Stratigraphic Well Data in 2D/3D

I have some geologic well data. The lithologies have been interpreted, and stratigraphic columns have been drawn. The columns have been adjusted for elevation, and correlation has been done between ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the difference between Precipitable Water (PW or PWAT) and Quantitive Precipitation Forecast (QPF) in terms of computer weather model data?

When I take a look at weather models, there is an option to take a look at PWAT or QPF. What's the difference?
3
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0answers
103 views

What is the plausability/legitimacy of the San Andreas Fault 'Big One' Megaquake mechanism?

In the ScienceAlert article "New estimates suggest the 'big one' in San Andreas could be much worse than we thought" they make the claim that: Researchers have forecast a mega-quake running the ...
3
votes
2answers
57 views

Is it possible to have an AR(0) for streamflow?

Autoregressive models (AR) are extensively used to understand the behavior of streamflow. The literature abounds with examples of AR models from different families applied "everywhere" to fully ...
2
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0answers
58 views

Formula for numerical model for sustained warming in marine sediment?

I have been reading this paper and found simple numerical formulations to model the time duration, affected depth and amount of warming of marine sediments. The author uses a rudimentary estimate of ...
11
votes
3answers
298 views

Does finer input data lead to a better model accuracy?

Climate and chemical transport models all need input files including meteorology data, emission inventory, surface data (e.g. land use type) to initialize the simulation field. Take the case of WRF ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

How to set up a domain from namelist in WRF?

I'm fairly inexperienced with WRF and was wondering if anyone could point me in the direction of any helpful resources for it. The task I have is to make a simple 9 km domain, but I'm having trouble ...
8
votes
3answers
197 views

Climate change review for a scientist [duplicate]

I am a Ph.D student in Computer Science and Statistical Genetics. I recently became very interested in climate change, for obvious reasons. I would like to use my solid scientific and statistical ...
5
votes
1answer
72 views

snow modelling using raster data with different resolution

I am trying model to some snow processes for the whole US. I do have daily climate forcing time series for a 1 x 1 km raster in a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection (netCdf format). The MODIS snow ...
6
votes
1answer
115 views

How to derive the (dry) deposition velocity for particles in the atmosphere

In atmospheric dispersion modelling the deposition velocity of particulate matter is often described by: $$ v_d = \frac{1}{r_A+r_B+r_A r_B v_g}+v_g \hspace{10mm}(1) $$ where $r_A$ is the aerodynamic ...
6
votes
1answer
100 views

Kalman - Data assimilation with external model

I'm working with a distributed snow model which simulates Snow Depth and Snow Cover area. It takes in input some atmospherics variables : Temperature / Precipitation / Wind speed ... I want to ...
4
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0answers
40 views

Dealing with uncertainty in source apportionment

I have a dataset of dissolved load (major and trace elements), the associated error is specified as <10% for all the cases, in the same way I have rock analysis (major and trace) with the same ...
5
votes
1answer
145 views

Is there a simple temperature prediction model?

I'm working on piecing together a game that involve sea trading, loosely based on historical conditions. As a part of making the game, I'm creating a map. From that map, I'm trying to determine what ...
3
votes
0answers
169 views

How to output slope parameter and shape parameter in WRF?

I'd like to ask if it's possible to output slope parameter and shape parameter of cloud hydrometeors in WRF? I'm calculating cloud effective radius and I'm using the formula found in Morrison scheme ...
5
votes
0answers
573 views

Why did the GFS switch to hourly forecasts through hour 120?

About a month ago, the GFS was upgraded. Among other things (like making parallel GFS data available), the upgrade notice said: Include hourly forecasts out to 120 hr Now, this seemed ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Why is WRF most often configured at 3:1 nesting ratio?

In WRF application, nested domain has always been used for weather/air quality modeling for the place of interest in a better resolution. The figure below illustrates this: I have noticed that the ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

When GCMs are calibrated do they use 'corrected rainfall' input?

Part of calibrating Global Climatic Models involves 'hindcasts' or 'history matching' against historic climate records, including rainfall. Such rainfall records are all in error because almost all ...
2
votes
2answers
122 views

Modelling sea levels with gravitational parameters

Are there any publicly available programs or source code for modelling global (or local) changes in sea level which include parameters for gravitational tidal effects? I have a physics background, ...
2
votes
0answers
71 views

Inverse model problem

I have a dataset for river water, rain water and geology (main elements and trace elements). I want to apportion the contribution of geology to water chemistry using for that purpose a model. I was ...
5
votes
1answer
241 views

What is the difference between the freezing level and 0C isotherm in NOAA's GFS?

I'm playing around with NOAA's GFS forecast data and I see that it contains both a "0C isotherm level" and a "Highest tropospheric freezing level". Could someone tell me the difference between these ...
16
votes
2answers
1k views

Great Pacific Garbage Patch Equilibrium Points

I was watching the science channel yesterday and the program mentioned the Great Pacific Garbage rim. I was struck by the illustration (and pretty much every subsequent animation/picture I've seen now ...
7
votes
2answers
755 views

Long-term Wind Speed Forecasting: reality or wishful thinking?

I have been studying/working with Wind Energy for a while and, one of my main responsabilities right now is to search for adequate long-term wind speed forecasting models. However, 2 things strike me ...
5
votes
1answer
207 views

Timeline of atmospheric model resolution

I'm looking for a graph of improvements in spatial resolution for any atmospheric model (such as the UK Met Office Unified Model or ECMWF IFS). Ideally it would include a range of historical model ...
10
votes
2answers
695 views

Technique to delete spin-up frames from WRF

I'm a user of WRF V3.5 aiming at meteorological simulation. Sometimes, I'll run the model for a long period. My attempt I split the long period(e.g 1 year) into serval short ones. For ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Compute direction of gravity vector

As I understand to compute vector of gravity not saficient to compute normal to elipsoid, but we need to computer normal to geoid (by definition geoid is a surface to which the force of gravity is ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Help interpreting a wind rose diagram

Can someone comment on technical explanation of the wind rose attached? I can understand the wind is blowing between WNW & SSW with speed of 7-11 km/h. For frequency of 11-16 km/h its blowing ...
8
votes
1answer
7k views

Converting grid resolution from degrees to kilometers

I am curious how can one have an idea of grid resolution. How much is the distance resolution in km of a grid with resolution of 0.5 deg x 0.666 deg?
8
votes
3answers
548 views

What exactly is a model grid?

I have just begun reading some notes about modelling and can't seem to understand what a 1°x1° grid or a 2.5° grid or 1/4° grid is. I know it is something related to the resolution of the area over ...
5
votes
1answer
285 views

In hydrology, what's the difference between specific and total catchment area?

I am getting stuck on the concepts of Total Catchment Area (TCA) and Specific Catchment Area (SCA) as I try to learn more about TOPMODEL and hydrology modeling. What do these metrics mean in hydrology?...
3
votes
0answers
192 views

Point source pollution model for South America

I want to model point source pollution in S. America watersheds. Specifically, given a set of pollution points and corresponding pollution output levels, I want to know the course these pollutants ...
5
votes
1answer
78 views

How to create a model to predict the salmon run

Are there any publicly available models that show you how to accurately predict the salmon run in both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans? This has been such a long interest of mine, I often see the ...
8
votes
1answer
159 views

What modelling approaches are used to predict the aurora?

Are there any resources (books/links) that discuss the mathematical tools and methods used to forecast the aurora borealis activity in a particular location? I see many websites that claim to predict ...
7
votes
0answers
425 views

Monitoring air pollution with Landsat satellite data

I'm trying to build an air pollution model. So far I have built one for point sources. Now I'm looking at monitoring air pollution with satellite images, based on the idea that every basic pollutant ...
8
votes
1answer
136 views

How to model bed load transport in channels of non-rectangular cross sections

All the formulas presented in the relevant technical literature refer to channels of rectangular cross section — the formulas assume a constant depth of flow right across the channel section. I need ...
9
votes
1answer
196 views

Why can't wave models model storm surge?

I found this nice module here on MetEd that gives an overview of the WAVEWATCH wave model. In it, in the Introduction section, it is mentioned that WAVEWATCH cannot model storm surge or tsunamis. Is ...
5
votes
1answer
4k views

Meaning of Hindcast

Let $t_0$ be the time instant of interest, $t_{-1}$ be some time before $t_0$, and $t_1$ be some instant in time after $t_0$. Now there is no confusion with forecast - if the present time is $t_0$, a ...