Questions tagged [models]

A tag for questions about conceptual, analytical or numerical models used in Earth science disciplines.

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33 views

How to choose "relevant" precipitation durations for flash flood modelling?

For my thesis, I model flash floods in urban areas. A book with recommended practices says to use events with a recurrence interval of 30 and 50 years. Regarding the duration of the precipitation ...
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10 votes
1 answer
252 views

How quickly is the Earth shrinking?

Except for ice, acetic acid, bismuth and gallium and a few other things materials generally shrink when they cool and solidify, so I'm pretty sure Earth has as well. It probably wouldn't be ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Energy Density of Porous Rocks

It's very long, I know. But please, don't be discouraged from going through this question if you can help me. The question is at the second to the last paragraph, but you need to read through to ...
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1 vote
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54 views

vertical integrated moisture flux [duplicate]

Does anyone know how to calculate the vertical integrated moisture flux using NCL or Grads if you share a NCL script I'm very thankful to you.
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

struggling to find a good research question in rainfall runoff modelling [duplicate]

I'm writing my thesis on modelling extreme rainfall and I'm still struggling to find a good research question. I have asked a similar question before in this post. Maybe you guys can give me some ...
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3 votes
1 answer
135 views

How does composition change if you extend an Earthlike atmosphere 50km below sea level? [closed]

I'm working to design the atmosphere of a fictional planet inspired by Venus (let's call it Cael). Cael's atmosphere at an altitude of 50 km is essentially identical to Earth's atmosphere at sea ...
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4 votes
1 answer
85 views

Waves in very thin layer

Elastic waves in the earth are described by the elastodynamic equations \begin{align} \rho \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial t^2} &= (2 \mu + \lambda) \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2} + \mu \left( ...
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1 vote
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54 views

how does model validation work? What is needed for an appropriate validation

I have an 2D hydrodynamic model in a approx. 10km² catchment and one rain event that goes one hour with measurements in a 5min interval. The reccurance interval for an event like that is close to ...
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3 votes
1 answer
210 views

SWAN wave model: HSIG is strangely low

I have a question about SWAN wave model, I tried to ask it at the SWAN mailing list, but with no luck, so I'm asking here. First of all I have to admit I'm not a professional SWAN user. All the ...
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4 votes
0 answers
265 views

Cratonization - how did the Archean cratons form?

Before the onset of modern style plate tectonics and the Wilson cycles in the late Archean, it is thought that smaller units of continental crust, called cratons, roamed the oceanic crust over a more ...
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0 votes
1 answer
355 views

hydrologic vs. hydrodynamic modelling of surface runoff

In the description of a Software it says that it computes the net rainfall, runoff formation and runoffconcentration on a surface hydrologically. With an extra module, the runoff formation can also be ...
0 votes
1 answer
53 views

research question for modelling extreme rainfall event with coupled 2D surface and 1D sewersystem model

I would like to write my thesis on modelling extreme rainfall events in urban areas coupling a 2D surface model with an 1D sewer channel model. I have access to a good software which models ...
1 vote
1 answer
716 views

How to de-stagger (or unstagger) WRF wind fields?

I am trying to calculate wind speed from the U and V wind components of a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation. However, I came to realize that some ...
4 votes
0 answers
21 views

what is a sensitivity analysis in heavy rain 2D surface / 1D drainage network models

For my thesis, the lecturer proposed to make a "sensitivity analysis" with a 2D surface model connected with a 1D drainage Network model for a storm rain event. However, I'm having problems to figure ...
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3 votes
0 answers
64 views

ERA-5 data downloader... other than CDS-API?

The CDS API does not behave well on our machines. Has anyone had any luck scripting their own ERA-5 reanalysis large-data download script? Perhaps something that is not nearly as large, clunky, and ...
3 votes
2 answers
371 views

Do tectonic plates "float" over the mantle and "collide" like icebergs?

I'm always hearing about tectonic plates as large chunks of crust floating on the mantle just like boats. In timescales of millions of years they move and even collide. But I'm starting to think this ...
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1 vote
1 answer
23 views

Modelling extreme rainfall events: 'blanket approches' when considering soil infiltration

For my thesis on modelling an extreme rainfall event with a 2D surface runoff model I'm supposed to consider the effect of soil infiltration on the runoff: In my work description it says I'm supposed ...
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1 vote
1 answer
193 views

Effects of Centrifugal Force on Gravity Vectors?

I've been asked this question twice now from our favourite science denying community, and I don't know how to parse it. I can do centrifugal force and gravity given mass, but have never tried to even ...
2 votes
2 answers
208 views

Why rely on climate models as opposed to paleoclimate data?

Something I hear often from climate scientists, and indeed even politicians, is that we "don't understand climate change very well". And, I'm sure this is true since the climate is a complex adaptive ...
3 votes
1 answer
87 views

How reanalysis data influence our research/results?

I am a student and I have a very simple and yet important question about reanalysis data. Recently, I attended a workshop where various other students discussing the use of ERA5 reanalysis data on ...
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2 votes
2 answers
182 views

What does slat and elat (slon, elon) in latitude and longitude values mean?

I have data from the national storm prediction center that is marked with values of : elat slat elon slon ...
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4 votes
1 answer
360 views

Run Hydrus-1D from the command line

Hydrus-1D, is a modeling environment for analysis of water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This program has a graphical environment which works very well, however a lot ...
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1 vote
2 answers
68 views

Is there a general equation to know how big of an area is affected by an earthquake?

If you visit USGS earthquakes listing, you get 3 points of information for each earthquake: Location, depth, magnitude. My question is, is there a way to approximate how big of an area is affected? ...
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0 votes
1 answer
72 views

Can living where magnets are abundant provide a mini-magnetoshere?

Are there a mini-magnetosphere within the magnetosphere similar to mini-magnetosphere found on the Moon? Is there a map of these areas that would resemble the white swirls in the picture below? The ...
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3 votes
1 answer
252 views

What types of high-level mathematics are useful in doing climate modelling/meteorology?

I'm aware that PDEs, linear algebra, numerical analysis and such are staples of most applied mathematical endeavors. I want to know if there are other areas of "higher" mathematics that have useful ...
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1 vote
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113 views

Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
2 votes
2 answers
356 views

Why doesn't Wolfram Alpha show low gravitational acceleration for the Hudson Bay?

I thought I would be clever and add a new answer to Hudson Bay Has Low Gravity? by using Wolfram Alpha to report gravitational acceleration for different locations, but it looks like my cleverness ...
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2 votes
1 answer
214 views

Which ocean is going to be swallowed by the Supercontinent Cycle, Atlantic or Pacific?

The register shows several supercontinents have been formed on Earth's History: "The most recent supercontinent, Pangaea, formed about 300 million years ago (0.3 Ga). There are two different ...
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2 votes
1 answer
239 views

How can I create multi model ensemble from output of 3 CMIP5 models?

I have a output of 3 models of CMIP5, they are CCSM4, IPSL and MPI. I have two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for each model. I want to know that how can I create a multi model ensemble from these 3 ...
3 votes
0 answers
69 views

Do any of the ECMWF ensemble forecasts have the associated true values?

I am looking for a dataset of ensemble forecasts and the associated true observed values. For example, a dataset containing $n$ ensemble forecasts of the temperature in 24 hours and the observed ...
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1 vote
0 answers
20 views

Model impact of atmopsheric circulation changes on precipitation dD of a region

I'm looking to model the impact of broad scale atmospheric circulation changes on the hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitation for a given region. As an example, what impact does a high pressure system ...
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

Glen's power-law alternatives

For glacier models, there exist alternatives to the Glen's power-law? I searched on internet, but I have not found other alternatives.
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The DRASTIC groundwater vulnerability model and it's relevance today

I am reading a groundwater pollution vulnerability study by Mark Angle of the Ohio Dpet. of Natural Resources (ODNR) for my county. The model used to assess the groundwater vulnerability for the ...
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Seeking CMIP5 or CMIP6 globally in .nc format

Is there in some ftp storage, a pre-processing CMIP5 data for direct download in netcdf extention?
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4 votes
0 answers
326 views

Difference between GDAS and GFS data

What is the exact difference between GFS 0.25 and GDAS 0.25 data which is available in http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/. And are the GFS 0.5 and 1 degree data available in the above url and here the same?...
1 vote
0 answers
31 views

What's the difference between "loading" and "receiving" in water quality modeling?

I see some models described as simulating 'receiving water quality' and others as 'pollutant loading' models. What is the difference between loading and receiving models in this context? I am more ...
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4 votes
0 answers
54 views

Simple numerical model of tide with an elliptic scheme

I have recently been given the task of developping a coastal model for tides. I have a few requirements, it must not be time stepping in order to be as fast as possible and in finite differences ...
4 votes
0 answers
24 views

Statistical dependence of mean annual soil evaporation and mean annual precipitation globally

I am studying a simple dynamical system that represents a plant and water system, similar to Klausmeier. In Klausmeier model the mean annual precipitation and the soil evaporation are introduced as ...
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5 votes
2 answers
376 views

Comparing Pros and Cons of SWAT and HSPF

To model hydrology in a watershed, two of the most famous and widely used distributed models are SWAT and HSPF. I have some good understanding of HPSF, but I don't know when and why should one prefer ...
0 votes
0 answers
52 views

Caspian Sea oil deposits

Azerbaijan appears to have vast development in its oil sector. Images on google earth show oil platforms connected by road ways far out into the Caspian Sea of the coast of Baku. Why is the majority ...
6 votes
2 answers
234 views

Debunking weather conspiracy with statistics - why does temperature rise then fall for last weekend in June in recent years

I have a conspiracy-prone friend who believes that people are controlling the weather to ensure good weather for a large, annual festival (last weekend in June in San Francisco). As a scientist, (not ...
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3 votes
0 answers
131 views

Internal energy, enthalpy, and work in the atmosphere

I'm writing a toy radiative-convective atmospheric model and need to relate the heat flux convergences (either surface sensible heat flux or the radiative flux) to changes in atmospheric layer ...
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8 votes
1 answer
282 views

Do 360 day calendars affect climate models?

I was recently reading Zach Holman's blogpost on time and remembering that I've had to work with CMIP5 output that used a 360 day calendar, rather than a 365 day or a Greogrian (or Proleptic Gregorian)...
5 votes
1 answer
180 views

What's the difference between these most basic, first-order models for estimating runoff?

There are a lot of variations of basic, first-order hydrology models to estimate runoff from rainfall with a few other parameters. From what I can tell, most very basic rainfall-runoff models use one ...
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3 votes
0 answers
58 views

The difficulties for the simulation of atmospheric metals

Atmospheric metals usually reside in aerosols with complex source origins. The concentrations distribution of metals especially for those with high toxicity (Pb, Cd, Ni, V) should be informative for ...
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6 votes
1 answer
382 views

Seismic migration concepts

In Dr Hua-Wei Zhou's book Practical Seismic Data Analysis (2014), he includes and explains figures from previous classic works (i.e. Schneider, 1971) in order to describe migration from a fundamental ...
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5 votes
1 answer
99 views

Nonlinear Stokes equations for glacier modeling

What is the difference between $$\operatorname{div}(-\mu(u)\nabla u+pI)=f\tag{1}$$ and $$\operatorname{div}(-\mu(u)(\nabla u\color{red}{+(\nabla u)^\mathsf{T}})+pI)=f\tag{2}$$ from the physical ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Watershed scale water quality indices

I understand water quality indices play a fundamental role in modelling water quality as they integrate multiple water quality parameters to bring about a single dimensionless digit that represents ...
10 votes
3 answers
813 views

How to run earth system, land surface and climate models?

I am interested in earth system models, land surface models and climate prediction models. I found a lot of online information on different models, including CIMP5, and the Earth System Modeling ...
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8 votes
1 answer
830 views

Are we now and/or have we been in the RCP8.5 scenario?

Is it generally understood that we (globally) have been living in an RCP8.5 scenario over the past 7-8 years? Such that a predictive climate model using RCP8.5 assumptions that was run circa 2011 can ...