# Questions tagged [ocean-models]

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### conserving mass while converting sigma levels to geopotential (z-levels)

I am using a sigma-level ocean model, so that I have dh (layer thicknesses), salinity and bathymetry (bottom depth) for some area (lon-lat box). Now, I would like to calculate the amount of salt at ...
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### Why does the wake of boats leave a long lasting print on the sea surface?

A picture is better than a long explanation. The boat is long gone but its wake is visible for a very long time and forms a pattern looking like a trail on the sea surface. The two lines are not even ...
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### Examining thermohaline circulation first with just temperature differences

This is a set of differential equations originally produced by Stommel (1961) has been simplified in this source (https://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/earth_modeling/...
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1 vote
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### Why does weaker local gravity cause lower sea level?

The weaker local gravity in the Indian Ocean geoid low (IOGL) causes the sea level to be 106 m below the global mean sea level. Why is that ? "Because of this lower density, the gravitational ...
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### Which currents are counted as AMOC in the North Atlantic and which are not?

This question is related to this question. I am currently trying to understand which currents in the North Atlantic are counted as part of the AMOC: I am sure about the currents: N. Atlantic current ...
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1 vote
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### How to change the whitecapping coefficient Cds in Delft-Wave

I have worked about the wave calibration in these days, and I met a problem that the significant wave height from Delft-WAVE is much lower than the observation data. I have searched for ways from the ...
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### Can phytoplankton growth be stimulated in oceans to sequester CO2?

Casual learner only. Decades ago, I read, one ocean scientist stated, jokingly, probably, "Give me half a shipload of iron filings and I will give you another ice age." This was in response ...
66 views

### Understanding the parameters in Stommel's Two-Box Model (a model of ocean circulation based on temperature and salinity)

I was redirected here from the mathematics StackExchange I am trying to wrap my head around Stommel's Two-Box Model of ocean circulation (specifically of the North Atlantic). The general idea of this ...
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### Since the upwelling of calcium carbonate reduces surface pCO2, why is its dissolution in the CCD below the lysocline of concern?

Why is so much of the literature I run across regarding global warming concerned with precipitating $\ce{CaCO3}$ to the ocean floor? In areas of relatively lower pH, such as the eastern equatorial ...
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1 vote
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### Swell spectrum and wind spectrum

While modelling both wind waves and swell waves, whether we have to add both spectra or append wind spectra in swell spectra? Because swell spectra has high amplitude values but wind spectra has very ...
87 views

### Ocean oscillations with long time periods

I heard that some ocean oscillations act on a time scale of a millennium. Is this true, or at least argued by some oceanographers? If so, what are they and what causes them? If not, what are the ...
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### Gulf stream depth and Ekman's theory

The Gulf Stream is said to be Largely driven by wind stress, and Up to 1000 m deep. At the same time, I am reading that the effect of the wind usually does not reach deeper than 100 m in Ekman ...
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### Velocity boundary conditions from water depth time series

Currently, I am setting up a hydrodynamic model for a coastal zone. For this purpose I need to impose the velocity and water level at the open boundary. Tidal models (e.g. TPXO) can give both velocity ...
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### What is the relationship between Ekman transport and volume transport?

Ekman transport components are in the zonal and meridional direction. Along the coast of California, which is an eastern boundary coast, say there is wind flowing down the coast in the meridional ...
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### A problem of the 2-Layer hydrostatic model

The 2-layer hydrostatic model is like this And the pressure of the two layers and the top are and it is easy to find the horizontal gradient of $p_1$ and $p_2$ \begin{aligned} \nabla ...
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### How large were Mars' ocean tides and to what extent could they keep the oceans mixing and tend to keep salinity uniform? Has this been modeled?

This answer to Salinity of Martian water 3.5 Billion years ago in Astronomy says that most estimates of Mars' ocean's salinity are pretty high; The article "Water Activity and the Challenge for ...
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### Is Challenger Deep really the deepest place in the ocean?

We have all been told at some point that the Mariana Trench is the deepest place in the ocean, but is that really true? More than 80% of the world's oceans are unexplored, so couldn't there be a much ...
71 views

### ESMF installation error "error: no match for ‘operator==’ "

I need to install ESMF-5.2.0rp3 version. I have downloaded it from https://github.com/esmf-org/esmf/releases/tag/ESMF_5_2_0rp3. Also I installed the following prerequisites: Fortran95, GCC & C++ 7....
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320 views

### SWAN wave model: HSIG is strangely low

I have a question about SWAN wave model, I tried to ask it at the SWAN mailing list, but with no luck, so I'm asking here. First of all I have to admit I'm not a professional SWAN user. All the ...
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### How to install ESMF and ESMFPy in Ubuntu using gfortran, gcc, python?

I am trying to regrid some of my latitude-longitude grid files to tripolar ocean grid and found that ESMF can be useful. However, I am finding it hard to install the same.
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### How do I start with Modular Ocean Model version 6 i.e. MOM6 on my ubuntu linux machine?

I am learning ocean modelling and have started with MOM6. I needed guidance on where to start from and how to run the model on my local machine (Ubuntu) to perform various tasks such as regridding or ...
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1 vote
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### Regional and Relative Sea level

I am a little confused by the terms "regional" and "relative" in the sea level change context. Do the two words have the same meaning? Does the "regional MSL trend" in https://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/...
1 vote
53 views

### Finding vessel and wave's angle of attack [closed]

I am finding angle between ship's heading and component in wave (wave's angle of attack), not sure if ES is a right place to ask this type of question. Should it be the difference between mean wave ...
143 views

### Global tide calculation

I am familiar with the concept of harmonic tide coefficients and was wondering about the simplest software solution to calculate tides anywhere, worldwide. Are there any available, open source ...
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### What does this reference velocity refer to? (Atmosphere-Ocean Momentum Exchange)

The above image is taken from "Atmosphere–Ocean Momentum Exchange in General Circulation Models", John A.T.Bye 1999. It represents the inertial coupling concept between the atmosphere and ocean. It ...
746 views

### Calculating fetch

I am currently using a Pierson Moskowitz spectrum to model the wave energy in the Mediterranean Sea. However I don't think this this is appropriate due to the limited fetch in the coastal area that I'...
75 views

### What is the mean amount (in grams) of dissolved carbon in a ton of sea water?

What is the mean amount (in grams) of dissolved carbon in a ton of sea water ? The value I want is the concentration value in say the first two metres of surface water (A distribution of this ...
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1 vote
63 views

### Should I get my master's in Environmental Science or Environmental Engineering given a Computer Science background? [closed]

I'm currently a Computer Science undergraduate at Georgia Tech. I have ~3.5 GPA, and I want to become a data scientist for the NOAA or a similar organization concerning the acidification of the oceans....
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### Half of Earth with most landmass

About 71% of the Earth's surface is covered with water and the remaining 29% is landmass*. If you could theoretically cut the planet in half, with the objective of producing a half with the most ...
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### Modelling sea levels with gravitational parameters

Are there any publicly available programs or source code for modelling global (or local) changes in sea level which include parameters for gravitational tidal effects? I have a physics background, ...
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1k views

### What exactly is a model grid?

I have just begun reading some notes about modelling and can't seem to understand what a 1°x1° grid or a 2.5° grid or 1/4° grid is. I know it is something related to the resolution of the area over ...
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### Does the Labrador current affect North Atlantic climate?

This summer has seen very low sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic. Using animations of these over the last year I feel the runoff of freshwater from Hudson Bay, into the Labrador ...
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### Best book/s of oceanic data treatment and analysis?

I would like to purchase a/some books which are really good and practical references to get into the oceanic data (wave heights,currents and sea level) treatment and statistical analysis, coming from ...
449 views

### How will global warming affect climate systems like the ENSO or the MJO?

How will global warming influence climate systems such as the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) or the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)?
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### Ship turning causing calm water

Can anyone tell me the official or technical term for the effect of when extremely calm water appears when a ship turns sharply in a full circle? I realise it could be related to wakes, but is not a ...
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### Oceanic-atmospheric coupling between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean basins

The two great basins - Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean have their respective oscillations: Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino Southern oscillation that affect the climate of the regions as well as the ...
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### Are there any general-purpose climate-model coupling projects?

In climate modelling, there are three major model types that form the basis of a fully coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM): Atmosphere circulation models Ocean circulation ...
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